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Micronized Copper Preservative Systems: Observations on the Release of Cupric ion (Cu2+) from Treated Wood and Performance against Wood Decay Fungi
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30519
In an attempt to address the mechanism of action of micronized copper preservatives, a 20-week continuous water leaching study was conducted. The leaching results indicated that, once impregnated in wood, micronized copper preservatives continuously release cupric ion, and the levels of cupric ion released from micronized copper treated wood are higher than those released from CCA treated wood, a...
J Zhang, R Ziobro

Detection of trace organics by ion mobility spectrometry
1990 - IRG/WP 3635
Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is a time of flight analytical technique that is suited to detect chemicals in the low parts per billion range. Some of the advantages of IMS are: operation at atmospheric pressure, fast response time (0.1-10 sec), and the ability to characterize individual chemical species in complex matrices without any prior sample preparation. In this paper, the utility of IMS i...
A H Lawrence

Detection of brown rot decay in wood by ion mobility spectrometry
1991 - IRG/WP 2377
A test method for the detection of brown rot decay in wood is described and involves a two-step procedure: thermal release of vapours from wood samples followed by analysis using Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), with results being obtained in 5-10 seconds. The advantages, limitations as well as the detection limit of the technique are presented....
A H Lawrence, T Nilsson

The course of fixation of Cu-Cr-As wood preservatives
1972 - IRG/WP 307
Copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) preservatives in contact with wood result in an instant extensive increase of pH, because of ion-exchange and adsorption reactions with the wood. During precipitation of the active elements the pH continuously increases but reaches a maximum, when all chrome is consumed. Some of the early reaction products are unstable and slowly convert via dissolution into stable comp...
S-E Dahlgren

Determination of total fluoride in preservative-treated wood by ion selective electrode, without steam distillation
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20086
An analytical method was developed to determine total fluoride in wood treated with aqueous fluoride or borate-fluoride formulations. Ground wood was mixed with 60% sodium hydroxide solution and oven-dried overnight before furnacing at 600°C. The cool fused product was dissolved in warm water before adding a powerful complexant/buffer solution containing sulphosalicylic acid and EDTA. Fluoride wa...
M J Kennedy

Oxalate production and calcium oxalate accumulation by Gloeophyllum trabeum in buffered cultures
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10075
Most basidiomycetous fungi produce oxalic acid as a result of their metabolic activities and nutrient procurement. There is currently a renewed interest in the role that oxalic acid may play in the decomposition of wood by basidiomycete fungi. It has been observed that although most wood degrading fungi have the capacity to produce oxalic acid, not all of these organisms express this capacity equa...
J H Connolly, J Jellison

An evaluation of the potential of ion mobility spectrometry for detection of organic wood preservative components in solutions and treated wood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20038
For the disposal of wood waste under ecological sound conditions information about its hazardous potential is required. Until now, no highly sensitive rapid analytical methods are available for the detection of wood preservatives under industrial process conditions. Preliminary experiments showed that Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) could be a promising method for rapid detection of organic preser...
A Voss, J N R Ruddick, W J Homan, H Militz, H Willeitner

Determination of total fluoride and boron in preservative-treated wood fluoride by ion selective electrode without steam distillation, and boron colorimetrically using azornethine-h
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20135
An analytical method was developed to determine total fluoride and boron in wood treated with aqueous or solid diffusing fluoride or borate-fluoride formulations. Ground wood was mixed with 30% sodium hydroxide solution and oven-dried for 2 hours before furnacing at 600° C for 1 hour. The cool fused product was dissolved in hot water, transferred to a plastic beaker and neutralised. Fluoride was ...
P A Collins, M J Kennedy

Selective chromate elimination from the storage-drainage-water of a wood impregnation plant
1980 - IRG/WP 3153
With the Enviro-Chrom-Ex process it is possible to eliminate ecologically and economically hexavalent chromium (chromate) from water selectively. The process which is based on the principle of selective ion exchange works with different chromate concentrations and under the presence of other ions, irrespective of the water hardness. The values of water-offtake reach 0.1 mg CrVI at maximum, causing...
O Wälchli, R Ott, R Hugener, E Graf, B Lieberherr

The probable mechanism of action of boric acid and borates as wood preservatives
1990 - IRG/WP 1450
The tetrahydroxyborate ion [B(OH)4-] acts by complexation with poly-ols and probably attacks decay fungi through extracellular substrate sequestration; intracellular substrate sequestration; enzyme inhibition; and change in membrane function. Work was carried out to investigate this further and to try to explain certain phenomena observed in the area of boron preservation. The effect of Na borate ...
J D Lloyd, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy

The mechanism of leaching of copper-chrome-arsenic preservatives from treated timber in saline waters
1976 - IRG/WP 374
A mechanism for the leaching of copper-chrome-arsenic preservatives is proposed on the basis of theoretical calculations and experimental studies using timber subjected to a range of water types of different ionic compositions. Complex formation by copper (II) and chromium (III) with chloride and hydroxide ions is shown to affect the leaching rate. Of even greater importance is the salt effect on ...
J Irvine, S-E Dahlgren

Site characteristics impacting historic waterlogged wood: A review
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10344
Survival of waterlogged wood from hundreds and in rare cases millions of years presents scientists with a unique opportunity to examine wood specimens which, due to select properties of the wood itself and/or the depostional environment, have not been completely degraded. Although degradation patterns of various types of microbial wood decay have been studied in detail, the site parameters of the ...
B A Jordan, E L Schmidt

Some practical implications from recent research on the fixation of CCA preservatives
1975 - IRG/WP 358
The mechanism of fixation of CCA preservatives is briefly described. If the temperature is increased during the primary fixation period, the formation of intermediate fixation compounds is less extensive. The length of the primary fixation period is of practical interest. It is determined by preservative composition and concentration, temperature and wood species. Diagrams are given for Pinus sylv...
S-E Dahlgren

Optimisation of an analytical method for the determination of total fluoride in preservative-contaminated soils using water steam distillation and an ion-selective electrode
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20153
This paper describes a simple modified procedure for the quantitative fluoride determination of different origin in a soil matrix using a water steam distillation and an ion-selective electrode. Distillation methods generally require a preliminary preparation step like fusing. The modified method presented here is based on the direct distillation of fluoride so that no further sample preparation i...
E Melcher

Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Polyethylene Glycol Penetration into Wood Cell Walls
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20328
Penetration of high molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) into wood cell walls was investigated in red pine. PEG of different molecular weights (1000, 8000 and 20000) was labelled by bromination and treated samples were analyzed on Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) in dynamic mode. Both negative and positive spectra of the samples were collected in high spatial (bunche...
D Jeremic, P Cooper, P Brodersen

Copper nanoparticles in southern pine wood treated with a micronised preservative: Can nanoparticles penetrate the cell walls of tracheids and ray parenchyma?
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30547
This study tests the hypothesis that copper nanoparticles can penetrate the cell walls of southern pine wood treated with a micronised preservative. We examined the nanodistribution of particles in tracheid and ray parenchyma cell walls using state-of-the-art HR (High Resolution)-TEM and HR-STEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope)-EDX. These devices are capable of atomic-scale resolution. ...
H Matsunaga, Y Kataoka, M Kiguchi, P Evans

Copper Nanoparticles in Southern Pine Wood Treated with a Micronised Preservative: Nanodistribution of Copper in the Pit Membrane and Border of an Earlywood Bordered Pit
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30566
Copper nanoparticles can penetrate the cell walls of unlignified parenchyma cells in southern pine wood treated with a micronised wood preservative, but they are excluded from lignified tracheid walls. This paper extends these observations to include the cell wall layers of the bordered pit. Focused ion beam and ion milling were used to make an ultra-thin section of the cell wall layers of an earl...
H Matsunaga, Y Kataoka, M Kiguchi, P Evans

Accessibility of Wood Cell Walls to Well-defined Platinum Nanoparticles
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20494
Copper nanoparticles are found in the walls of parenchyma cells in southern pine sapwood treated with a micronised wood preservative, but they are absent from tracheid walls. Hence, we hypothesized that small nanoparticles can penetrate the walls of unlignified parenchyma cells, but are excluded from lignified tracheid walls. This paper tests this hypothesis by treating pine sapwood with an aqueou...
H Matsunaga, Y Kataoka, M Kiguchi, P D Evans

Curing kinetics of nano cupric oxide (CuO) modified PF resin as wood adhesive: Effect of surfactant
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40620
The effect of nano cupric oxide (CuO) in combination with surfactants on the curing kinetics of phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin, as well as the bonding strength of plywood prepared using the modified resin were investigated in this study using dynamic and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The result showed that the incorporation of nano CuO along with alkane surfactant made in the...
Wei Gao, Guanben Du

Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of nano cupric oxide (CuO) modified aqueous phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40654
Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resins, modified by nano CuO incorporating alkane surfactant and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) 17-99, were analyzed by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The mechanical properties of its bonded plywood including tensile strength, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE) and shear strength under five test conditions were evaluated. Results indicated that the incorpor...
Wei Gao, Guanben Du