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Field performance of wood-based decking materials in the Western United States
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30645
While wood has long been used for the construction of decks and other outdoor features, a variety of wood-plastic composite (WPC) decking products have emerged over the past decade with claims of exceptional durability and low maintenance. There are relatively few long term comparative tests on these products. The performance of selected WPC decking products was compared with naturally durable western redcedar or pressure treated lumber on the basis of appearance, loss of colour and water repellency. All materials experienced losses in colour, water repellency and appearance over the 10 year exposure.
S Lipeh, C S Love, J J Morrell


Colonization of treated and untreated decking materials by bacteria, fungi and algae quantified by qPCR
2015 - IRG/WP 15-20568
The use of durable wood species for wood decking in outdoor applications, e.g. garden terrace (use class 3) is gaining more and more interest on the part of consumers and architects. To get detailed information on the practical use of deckings, a project was started in 2010. In total 71 different decking materials (0.03 m²) were installed and evaluated over 30 months. Beside other parameters, the emphasis was to evaluate the applicability of qPCR (quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction) technique for measuring the dynamics of increase in biomass of the organism groups responsible for biofilm formation. For this purpose 8 decking materials (durable, not durable, modified and waterbased varnish treated wood species) were investigated concerning surface growth of biofilm forming microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and algae). The surface treatment of the decking material (larch and acetylated pine) with wood preservatives improved the performance concerning the biofilm building, and made them even more resistant to growth of microorganisms than the deckings from species with high natural durability. Periodical maintenance of the decking comprising cleaning, sanding and in some cases also rebrushing of the panels showed an influence on the estimation of biomass directly due to the removal of the biofilm.
E Stoyanova, B Schmöllerl, A Steitz, N Pfabigan, R Gründlinger


Wood preservatives: Field tests out of ground contact. Brief survey of principles and methodology
1976 - IRG/WP 269
This paper contains the following spots: 1.: The general need for field tests. 2.: Interests and limits of field tests in ground contact. 3.: Various methods in use for out-of-ground contact field tests. 4.: Fungal cellar tests are they an alternative to above-ground decay exposure tests? 5.: Conclusions.
M Fougerousse


Penichroa fasciata (Stephens) (Col. Cerambycidae) a pest in wood materials
1988 - IRG/WP 1365
Penichroa fasciata (Stephens) (Col. Cerambycidae) is found to be a frequent pest occurring in hardwood in storage in Italy. This paper reports the characteristic for identification, biological features, distribution and timber liable to attack.
A Gambetta, E Orlandi.


Summary of development of pile wrappings in Los Angeles Harbour
1987 - IRG/WP 4141
G Horeczko


The resistance of painting materials and consolidants against wood-destroying insects
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10239
Natural and synthetic adhesives, varnishes, painting materials and consolidants were used in investigations of bioresistance against newly hatched larvae and beetles of Hylotrupes bajulus (L.). Animal glues, casein, drying oils and natural resins such as dammar resin and shellac, were not resistant to attack by these larvae. Similarly, semi- and all-synthetic polymers tested including hydroxypropylcellulose, acrylate and methacrylate compounds, are also subject to attack by newly hatched larvae of the House Longhorn Beetle. In contrast, addition of inorganic pigments provides a significant improvement in bioresistance. This effect is influenced by the thickness and the hardness of the paintlayer. The test with beetles of Hylotrupes bajulus show that the restoration materials which are not resistant against an attack by newly hatched larvae are preferred for the egg depositions by the females.
W Unger, H Fritsche, A Unger


Information from the COIPM Wood Group. Summary received via Mme Dr Anna Gambetta (Italy)
1987 - IRG/WP 4139
Two co-operative programmes were discussed: 1) The IRG/COIPM co-operative programme on the CCA/CCB wood treatments and 2) The IRG/COIPM co-operative programme for testing the resistance of plastic wrapping for wooden pilings. The following was reported: In the wood treatment programme, beech, pine and alstonia wood samples have been pressure treated with 3 retentions (3%, 6% and 10%) of CCA and CCB and exposed in the sea, to find out if these timbers have selective resistance to attacks by marine borers and fungi. After nearly 8 years of exposure at many different locations it is becoming apparent that both treatments in pine and alstonia provide better protection than both treatments in beech. It is hoped to find out after chemical analysis why this is happening. In the polyolefin tests this plastic material was heat shrunk around small wooden blocks and exposed to borer attack in many different marine environments, and also in some terrestrial environments where termites were present, to determine if the material prevents attack by the borers. At two stations the test is now in its eighth year. So far the polyolefin material is still intact and has not been penetrated by borers. These two programmes are continuing.
J R DePalma


Preliminary results of investigations on screening test of chemical compounds suitable for the preservation of lignocellulosic materials against biodeterioration
1976 - IRG/WP 262
This paper investigates the possibilities of reducing the time needed for the determination of the effectiveness of chemical compounds from the point of view of their eventual application to lignocellulosic materials for preservation against decay and soft-rot.
K Lutomski, S S Neyman


Mycological testing of plywood and board materials. Part 1: Review of information supplied by IRG members
1978 - IRG/WP 284
In December 1975 IRG members were asked for published information, information of current work in progress and views on mycological test methods for board materials. The object was to stimulate discussion and possibly establish a joint research effort within IRG in order to establish a meaningful test with reproducible results.
C R Coggins


Contribution to the testing of wood based board material
1982 - IRG/WP 2176
R G Lea


A collaborative test to determine the efficacy of polyurethane coatings on wood samples exposed in the marine environment
1984 - IRG/WP 4113
Aims are: a) to determine the effectiveness of elastomeric polyurethane as a protective coating against marine wood boring animals in a range of tropical and tempreate sites; b) to compare the adhesion of polyurthane coatings on different wood species exposed in seawater; c) to record the severity of attack in failed samples and to identify the causal marine organisms.
R A Eaton


Evaluation of polystyrene as a protective of wood in sea-water
1986 - IRG/WP 4129
A test is described on the biological protection of wood by treatment with polystyrene. The results, obtained in marine trials, after 18 months, show that the treatment with polystyrene is not all that effective in preventing the attack of marine borers.
A Gambetta


Results on termite resistance of building materials against Coptotermes formosanus by choice test
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10275
Various building materials, included wood species, wooden board materials, thermal insulation materials and fire-protection materials, were tested for grading of termite resistance against Coptotermes formosanus. The dimension of most specimens were 2x2x2cm3. Ten repeats were prepared. The specimens were put between Akamatsu sapwood control specimens on a laboratory cultured mound colony of termite, Coptotermes formosanus. After 1 month of attack to termite, the specimens were removed from the mound colony and cleaned up. Then these final mass were weighed. The grading of termite resistance was initially estimated by mass loss of specimens. This grading was corrected by visual observation. Japanese 3 domestic species, cypress pine, Alaska- ceder, kapur and mahogany were indicated rather high termite resistance. In the case of Siberian red pine and Gmelina, the valued of termite resistance were shown variable. Tropical species plywood, inorganic board and radiata pine MDF, were shown rather high termite resistance. Other board materials were shown rather less termite resistance. Most of commercial soft wood plywood and OSB were very sensible against termite. Most common thermal insulation materials in Japan were estimated very sensitive against termite. In the case of fire protection materials, expanded concrete was rather good against termite but plaster board was very sensible against termite.
K Suzuki, K Hagio


A note on testing the efficacy of wood preservatives above ground
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20078
A number of test methods have been used to evaluate the performance of wood preservatives in above ground situations. These have included EN 113 tests following natural exposure weathering (NEWT), L-joint or T-joint tests, lap-joint tests, and decking tests. A new test referred to as the A-frame test has been developed and is under evaluation. This is based on a sandwich-type test in which a thin (3.5 mm) sample is exposed outdoors between two untreated samples on a rack or A-frame. The advantages and disadvantages of these types of tests are discussed in a short note.
G R Williams, J A Drysdale, R F Fox


Durability of different heat treated materials from industrial processes in ground contact
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40312
In this study the durability of heat treated wood originating from four different European industrial heat treatment processes in ground contact was examined. The manufacturers of heat treated material were: PLATO Hout B.V./Netherlands, Thermo Wood/Finland, New Option Wood/France and Menz Holz/Germany where Oil-Heat treated Wood (OHT) is produced. All heat treated materials showed significantly increased durability against decay in ground contact compared to untreated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), independent from the different heat treatment processes. After four years of field testing, heat treated material appears to be not suitable for in ground contact application, since long service life is required. In analogy to the classification of natural durability (EN 350-1, 1994), durability classes in the range from 2 (durable) to 4 (slightly durable) were achieved by the different heat treated materials. This stands in contrast to statements of suppliers, who promote their material as suitable for in ground applications.
C R Welzbacher, A O Rapp


Decay resistance of high performance biocomposites based on chemically modified fibres
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40120
Different partners within the framework of a European research project produced high performance biocomposites aiming at the utilisation of board materials as durable products both in dimensional and biological degrading circumstances. This paper summarises test data, which indicate the potential of board materials produced with modified fibre material. The chemical modifications applied cover a range of technologies, which were selected for scaling up experiments. Acetylation, as well as alternative methods like maleiation, phthalylation, succinylation, oxidation and silylation were investigated. Fibre source, density variation and the use of several types of glues were parameters of the total set-up. Basidiomycete testing was carried out using specific methodology for board materials elaborated in CEN standardisation committees.
V Rijckaert, J Van Acker, M Stevens


Information from COIPM Wood Group
1985 - IRG/WP 4120
During the last COIPM Meeting (which took place in Athens, Greece in September 1984) the Wood Group met and discussed the co-operative work 'Durability in sea-water of wood with plastic wraps and wood treated with polymere'.
A Gambetta


Plastic-coated marine piling in Los Angeles Harbour
1984 - IRG/WP 4105
G Horeczko


Work program of CEN/TC 38 (April 1993). Durability of wood and wood-based products
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20012
R Hüe


A review of environmental emissions from building and construction materials in comparison with preserved wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-11
A review of the public domain literature concerning emissions to the environment from materials which are used in the construction of buildings (e.g. Concrete, Asphalt, Galvanised Steel), in comparison with preserved wood, and a review of the approaches taken by the construction sector in assessing the risk from environmental emissions, in comparison with the approaches taken by the wood preservation sector.
E F Baines


Work program of CEN/TC 38 (January 1994). Durability of wood and derived materials
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20019
R Hüe


A collaborative test to determine the efficacy of poyurethane coatings on wood samples exposed in the marine environment. 1st Interim Report
1988 - IRG/WP 4145
Wood samples coated with elastomeric polyurethane (ca. 50 mils thick) were exposed for up to 2 years in 12 tropical and temperate marine test sites with known teredinid, pholad and/or crustacean infestations. All uncoated control samples were destroyed or partially destroyed. Polyurethane-coated samples were not attacked, the surfaces of the coating were sound and the polyurethane adhered well to the wood samples.
R A Eaton


Acetylation of lignocellulosic materials
1989 - IRG/WP 3516
A simplified procedure for the acetylation of lignocellulosic materials has been developed. The acetylation is done with a limited amount of liquid acetic anhydride without the addition of a catalyst or an organic co-solvent. Dimensional stability and biological resistance are both much improved by the acetylation. Equilibrium moisture content in acetylated material is considerably lower than in unmodified material. No reduction of bending strength was found for acetylated solid wood samples. The process can be employed for both fibers, wood particles and solid wood. The process is applicable to hardwoods and softwoods, including solid spruce wood, and to non-wood fibers such as jute.
P Larsson, A-M Tillman


Information from the COIPM Wood Group
1986 - IRG/WP 4130
The Chairman outlined the progress of the co-operative work "testing the resistance to marine borers of heat shrinkable polyolefin sheathings and of wood treated by vacuum/pressure with polymers (polystyrene)". The first part of the work has been started: the samples of wood wrapped with shrinkable polyolefin sheathings have been prepared and sent to the stations participating. The second part of the programme has for the moment been stopped because in some preliminary trials samples treated with polystyrene have shown a light to moderate attack by molluscan and crustacean borers after 18 months' immersion. The results of these trials have been related and supported by photos and X-ray pictures. Four other stations are involved in this programme: three have been made available by Hempel Technology in Copenhagen (Denmark) and one by CNEXO (France). A presentation was given of the project for a European Standard "Field test method for determining the protective effectiveness of a preservative in the marine environment" which had been prepared by Professor Björn Henningsson (Sweden) and considered in the CEN meeting in September 1985. The participants were informed of the research being carried out by the IRG Marine Wood Preservation Group and the minutes of the 12th Meeting held in Brazil during May 1985 were presented.
A Gambetta


Fungal colonization of CCA-treated decking
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10491
The identification of fungi isolated from CCA treated decking in Vancouver is reported. About two thousands locations were sampled from over sixty boards recovered from six decks. Wood chips from each location were placed onto four different types of media. Of the large number of isolates obtained, around 15% were obtained from the interior of the boards. The succession of colonization in CCA-treated decking; i.e. bacteria, mould, staining fungi, (soft-rot fungi), and basidiomycetes, was similar to that reported from untreated wood exposed above ground and from CCA treated wood in ground contact. The percent frequency of isolation around checks was higher than that from wood just below the treated surface. In the case of boards where decayed wood was observed during sampling, most decay was associated with checks. In this study, Gloeophyllum sepiarium and Gloeophyllum trabeum (tentatively identified) were the only decay basidiomycetes isolated from the inner wood of decayed decking. Other unidentified basidiomycetes were isolated from the treated surface of the boards, the check surfaces or the cut end of decking from both decayed and non-decayed boards.
S Choi, J N R Ruddick, P I Morris


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