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Assessing the risk of marine borer attack of the timber trestles and decay of timber above the intertidal zone of the Barmouth Viaduct
2021 - IRG/WP 21-10974
The Barmouth Viaduct is a Grade II* listed structure which carries the single track of the Dovey Junction to Pwllheli line and footway over the Mawddach estuary. It is in a marine environment where timber below the high tide mark is at most risk in Use Class 5 and all timber above in Use Class 3.2, permanently exposed to the risk of wetting. The structure consists of a timber trestle viaduct of ...
J R Williams


Wood preservation in the USA
1982 - IRG/WP 3215
This report is a comprehensive survey of the status of the wood preservation field in the U.S.A. at the start of the 1980s. The importance of wood preservation is discussed and its industry described. Various statistics and analyses regarding the use of treated wood have been compiled. Both pressure and non-pressure applications have been covered, as well as remedial treatments and pest control op...
D D Nicholas, R Cockcroft


Rates of emission from CCA-treated wood in the marine environment: measurement, modelling and requirements for further research
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-12
Accurate estimates of rates of emission of leachate from preservative treated wood are crucial for realistic predictions of the environmental impact of its use in maritime construction. Estimates are available for some commonly used preservatives, but these vary widely. Though variable, these measurements suggest that emission generally decreases exponentially with time. Part of the variation is d...
S M Cragg, C J Brown, R A Albuquerque, R A Eaton


Laboratory culturing and decay testing with Physisporinus vitreus and Donkioporia expansa orginating from identical cooling tower environments show major differences
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10184
Both Basidiomycete fungi Physisporinus vitreus (Pers.:Fr.) P. Karst. and Donkioporia expansa (Desm.) Kotl. & Pouz. were isolated from identical cooling tower environments. Azobé heartwood (Lophira alata), a very durable tropical wood species was totally deteriorated in cooling towers in a similar way by both fungi. First attempts to culture Physisporinus vitreus in laboratory circumstances sh...
J Van Acker, M Stevens


Utility, deterioration and preservation of marine timbers in India
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40314
Timber is extensively used in India in the marine environment for various purposes due to its several advantages over modern materials. Infact, its use is increasing in recent years, finding wider and wider applications and this scenario is not going to change in the near future. Though, the bio-deterioration problem is found very severe in tropical waters, still indigenous methods are widely empl...
B Tarakanadha, M V Rao, M Balaji, P K Aggarwal, K S Rao


Response of laboratory groups of Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe) to different quantities of food
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10489
As part of a project aimed at improving understanding of the foraging biology of Japan’s most widespread wood-destroying termite, different sized groups of Reticulitermes speratus (0.5; 1 and 2 g) from two colonies were kept on 16 or 64 cm3 of sapwood of Cryptomeria japonica for 12 weeks in the laboratory. Patterns of wood consumption, wood consumption rates and survival are discussed....
M Lenz, T Yoshimura, K Tsunoda


The effect of sapwood on the rate of deterioration of fence posts
1986 - IRG/WP 1277
In order to evaluate the effect of the presence of sapwood on the rate of deterioration of fence posts, 30 specimens with and without sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus paniculata, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus tereticornis were exposed in three test sites in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The results of the inspection carried out in 1985, after 5 years of exposure, are reported in...
M S Cavalcante, G A C Lopez, E S F Mucci, R G Montagna


Blue-stain fungi (Ceratocystis spp.) found in Spain on pine woods
1989 - IRG/WP 1410
So far, there is only a very limited reported description of the different Ceratocystis spp. present on fresh wood in Spain. So, the main goal of this work has been the identification of species of this genus causing blue-stain on Pinus pinaster A. Ait. and Pinus sylvestris L. woods. We have also investigated the relationship between the species found and their propagation vectors (insects and win...
M T De Troya, A M Navarrete


Examination of timbers from the Mary Rose in storage
1988 - IRG/WP 4149
Timbers from the Tudor ship, Mary Rose, have been examined for the presence of fungal fruiting structures. Wood specimens were also examined for the presence of microbial decay patterns using light and scanning electron microscopy. Structural timbers were surveyed using the Pilodyn for an overall picture of the extent of decay. Mary Rose timbers were predominantly inhabited by marine fungi. Fourte...
R Mouzouras


Creosote immersion treatments in fence-posts of Castanea sativa, Pinus nigra and Pinus halepensis
1988 - IRG/WP 3488
The method of soaking in creosote was applied to fenceposts of Castanea sativa, Pinus nigra and Pinus halepensis, taking into account its easy use in the field. Absorption, retention and penetration rates were recorded and analysed. Absorption rates were higher in Pinus nigra than in Pinus halepensis, and lowest in Castanea sativa. Thin fence-posts always absorbed more preservative than thick ones...
C De Arana Moncada


Performance of chromated copper arsenate-treated aspen fence posts installed in Forintek's Eastern test plot from 1951 to 1963
1984 - IRG/WP 3272
Aspen poplar fence posts were pressure treated by the full cell process using three formulations of copper chrome arsenate wood preservative. A total of one hundred and fifty nine of the posts were installed in service in Forintek's Chalk River post plot from 1951 to 1962. During the 1982 general inspection of the post plot all 159 posts were still in service. A groundline inspection was ...
C D Ralph


Water-repellent additive for CCA
1991 - IRG/WP 3655
Hickson have developed a water repellent additive for incorporation into copper-chromium-arsenate timber treatment solutions. The water repellent emulsion shows good stability in the treatment solution, is easily incorporated and applied in a single stage treatment. No modifications to the additive is safe to treatment schedule are usually needed and use. Weathering of the treated wood is substant...
P Warburton, R F Fox, J A Cornfield


Comparison of decay rates of preservative-treated stakes in field and fungus cellar tests
1980 - IRG/WP 2135
With the exception of acid-copper-chromate, zinc-chrome-arsenate, and sodium pentachlorophenoxide, the relative performance of preservatives in the fungus cellar was similar to that in the field....
M E Hedley


Use of the Pilodyn to assess deterioration of treated aspen waferboard after 30 months of outdoor exposure
1986 - IRG/WP 2254
Samples of preservative treated aspen waferboard exposed outdoors for 30 mo. were compared using pin penetrations of the 6 Joule Pilodyn. These results correlated well with rankings of treatment performance based on more laborious standard mechanical tests, and demonstrate the potential for use of the Pilodyn as a tool to evaluate wood composites in test exposures with minimal destruction....
E L Schmidt, M G Dietz


Importance of bacteria in the deterioration of archaeological woods
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10122
An electron microscopic study of archaeological woods from different sites and of different ages revealed that the woods had been attacked by erosion bacteria, tunnelling bacteria and soft rot fungi. Bacterial erosion appeared to be most widespread, and was present independently as well as together with tunnelling and soft rot attacks. Thus, in many instances bacterial erosion was the only type of...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh, T Nilsson


Ultrastructural aspects of bacterial attacks on an archaeological wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10007
Transmission electron microscopy of wood from a Chinese ship submerged in the mud for over 900 years showed bacteria to be the main factor for its deterioration. The micromorphology of degraded wood cell walls was similar to that observed during the attacks of wood by erosion bacteria. Other bacterial forms, previously considered lo be scavenging bacteria, were also abundant in degraded areas of t...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh


Highly virulent wood-rotting Basidiomycetes in cooling tower timbers
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10125
Over the past ten years most industrial cooling towers changed their water treatment systems in order to meet environmental requirements. Since this alterations wood rot attack has been reported more frequently. Several Basidiomycete fungi were isolated and determined. Amongst the most important ones are strains of Physisporinus vitreus (Pers.:Fr.) P. Karst., Phellinus contiguus (Fr.) Pat. and Don...
J Van Acker, M Stevens, V Rijckaert


Stability and performance of tributyltin compounds
1984 - IRG/WP 3275
Based on the critical examinations of the disputable permanence of tributyltin compounds in wood, this paper deals with a number of examinations of the relative evaporation, thermal stability and oxidation stability of some TBT-compounds. While thermal and oxidative stability is high for all TBT-species, the relative evaporation at elevated temperature is highly variable, and lowest for the TBT-es...
F Imsgard, B Jensen, H A B Landsiedel, H Plum


An evaluation on durability of untreated mining timber support
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20121
Wedge blocks in dimension of 5 x 7 to 8 x 155 cm3 were cut from indigeneous scots pine pitprops. Each of wedge block pairs were numbered and half of them were placed as the test blocks between the steel arches and the strata in a hard coal pit. Controls in laboratory and test wedge blocks in the mine were then sawn into 20 by 20 by 300 mm standard test sticks. Impact bending, static bending and MO...
A Bobat


Comparison of decay rates of preservative-treated stakes in field and fungus cellar tests. Results after 40 months fungal cellar exposure
1983 - IRG/WP 2200
Decay rates of preservative-treated Pinus radiata stakes during 40 months exposure in the FRI fungus cellar were compared with those of similarly treated material in a field test. Decay rates in the fungus cellar were from 4 to 100 times higher than in the field, although for the majority of preservatives the rate was between 7 and 12 times higher. The lag phase before onset of decay, noticeable w...
M E Hedley


The influence of gaseous oxygen concentration on fungal growth rates, biomass production and wood decay
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10283
The effects of air and several levels of oxygen balanced with nitrogen (% oxygen (v/v) nitrogen to 100%) on growth rates, biomass production and wood decay were investigated. The best technique for measuring daily growth rates in anaerobic jars was found to be by using 40 mm petri dishes which were attached to the walls of the jars. At the end of the test period the same petri dishes were also use...
S M Kazemi, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


Effect of vegetable compost on leaching of CCA components from treated wood - An Update
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50048
In an earlier study, the effect of compost on CCA-C leaching was compared with leaching losses under different exposure conditions. Small treated cubes (25 mm³) were destructively sampled over a 12 month period and the residual CCA determined for exposure to compost in a compost bin, exposed to natural rain and buried in soil. This study provides a comparison after 3 years of samples exposed to c...
P A Cooper, Y T Ung


Sampling rates and the probability of detecting defective treatment in the sampling of preservative treated timber
1987 - IRG/WP 2277
When attempting to enforce standards of penetration and retention set for treated timber, the regulating authority must establish a sampling or inspection scheme which will prevent large quantities of substandard product entering the market. On the other hand, the scheme should not penalise treaters for the small quantities of such material which are inevitably produced by any industrial process. ...
M J Kennedy, L E Leightley


Variation in infection rates of blue-stain, mould and white rot tropical fungi on mixed light Malaysian woods
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10334
The modified 3-week FRIM laboratory method for screening of anti-sapstain formulations against three representative tropical fungi causing blue-stain (Botryodiplodia theobromae), mould (Paecilomyces variotii) and white rot (Schizophyllum commune) infection of sapwood species was used to examine the relative resistance of the sapwood of eight mixed light Malaysian woods, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestri...
A H H Wong, S Ahmad


Microbial decay of an archaeological wood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10053
A light and transmission electron microscopic investigation of an archaeological wood was undertaken to determine the cause of its deterioration. The wood came from a bulwark constructed in early 1100 in the lake Tingstäde Träsk on the island Gotland in Sweden. The samples of the wood, which was identified as Pinus sylvestris, were taken from a depth of 0.85 m below the bottom level. The wood wa...
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel


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