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Efficacy of Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride (DDAC), Disodium Octaborate Tetrahydrate (DOT), and Chlorothalonil (CTL) against Common Mold Fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30338
The fungitoxic properties of four fungicides, alone and in combination, against four different mold fungi commonly associated with indoor air quality problems were evaluated on two different wood species and sheetrock. The fungicides were chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) (CTL) in a 40.4% aqueous dispersion, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) in two different forms - a ...
J A Micales-Glaeser, J D Lloyd, T L Woods


Performance of borate-treated lumber in a protected, above-ground field test in Japan
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30395
This document is supplemental to the previous IRG document (Tsunoda et al. 2004). An experiment to simulate the sill plate (dodai) of the Japanese houses was conducted at the termite field test site of the Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere of Kyoto University in Kagoshima Pref., Japan where two economically important subterranean termite species [Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and R...
K Tsunoda, A Byrne, P I Morris, J K Grace


Developments in Borate Treatment of Canadian Species for Decay and Termite Resistance
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30443
The increased interest in boron treatment of wood over the past 20 years is mainly due to its environmental acceptability, potentially deep penetration in wood, and its efficacy against decay and termites. Based on Forintek’s research in the past two decades, the boron penetration and retention requirements for decay and termite protection in various national and international standards for Cana...
Jieying Wang, P Morris, S McFarling, T Byrne


Ambient-temperature borate dip-diffusion treatment of green railroad crossties
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40556
In the USA, borates are increasingly being applied prior to air seasoning and creosote treatment of railroad ties (railway sleepers). Borates are typically applied to green ties by vacuum pressure application at 1 to 10% disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) concentration or by traditional dip-diffusion treatments at elevated temperatures. Higher temperatures are used to maintain the 30 to 50% so...
Jae-Woo Kim, A M Taylor, C Köse


Steam accelerated borate diffusion: Optimizing dry tie treatment
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40713
A small laboratory study was carried out which demonstrated that dry wood dip treated in a high concentration borate solution could not be subsequently treated properly with oil borne copper naphthenate unless it was subsequently steam treated to accelerate borate penetration into the wood and re-dry the wood beforehand. A larger study with commercial sized cross ties (railway sleepers) was carri...
J-W Kim, J D Lloyd


Comparative response of Reticulitermes flavipes and Coptotermes formosanus to borate soil treatments
1991 - IRG/WP 1486
Eastern (Reticulitermes flavipes [Kollarl]) and Formosan (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) subterranean termite workers (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) were exposed to borate-treated sand in an indirect exposure tunneling assay in the laboratory. In the ten day assay period, both termite species readily penetrated sand containing 5000, 10000, or 15000 ppm (wt. of compound / wt. of sand) disodium octabo...
J K Grace


Borate thermal treatments
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3715
Green, partially seasoned (air-dried, steam conditioned), or kiln-dried southern pine timbers were treated thermally using 15% disodiumoctaborate tetrahydrate solution. After treatment, sections were stored under non-drying conditions to allow for diffusion. Results showed that effective treatment meeting the AWPA minimum retention (0.17 B203 pcf [2.72 kg/m³] in the outer inch) and penetration (2...
H M Barnes, R W Landers, L H Williams


Treatment of Douglas fir heartwood with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (Tim-BorÒ ) to prevent attack by the Formosan subterranean termite
1991 - IRG/WP 1487
Toxicity of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (Tim-BorÒ) to Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), and termite feeding on treated Douglas-fir heartwood were evaluated in laboratory and field tests. Feeding on filter papers impregnated with Tim-BorÒ solutions reduced but did not eliminate termite gut protozoan populations. In a forced-feeding laboratory assay, Douglas-fir hear...
M Tamashiro, R T Yamamoto, J K Grace


Variation in Canadian bluestain fungi: Tolerance to DDAC and DOT
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10303
Bluestain in Canadian wood products results in significant and unpredictable losses each year. In order to develop rational methods to eliminate or reduce the sapstain problem, a more complete knowledge of the causal organisms must be gained. This includes a knowledge of the variability in tolerance of different fungal species and strains to commercially used chemicals. In British Columbia, the ma...
J Dubois, A Byrne, J E Clark, A Uzunovic


Preliminary evaluation of borate baits and dusts for eastern subterranean termite control
1990 - IRG/WP 1433
Borates are of potential use in the development of baiting systems for subterranean termite control. In the 15-day laboratory assays reported here, the oral toxicity of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate to Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) was evaluated under choice and no-choice conditions. These assays suggest a range of 2500 to 5000 ppm to be applicable in developing baits, and that concentration...
J K Grace, A Abdallay, J M Sisson


Eastern subterranean termite responses to three soil pesticides
1990 - IRG/WP 1432
In laboratory assays simulating field conditions, tunneling and mortality of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) workers were evaluated in sand treated with aqueous solutions of formulated chlorpyrifos, isofenphos, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate. Chlopyrifos and isofenphos were evaluated at concentrations of 500 and 1000 ppm (weight of active ingredient / weight of sand), and disodium octaborat...
J K Grace


Modelling the control of decay in freshly felled pine poles
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10206
In a recent study investigating control of decay in freshly felled pine utility poles, it became apparent that the efficacy of different treatment methods was strongly related to the size of the material being treated. A topical application of 5% w/v disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT), brush applied to the cut surfaces of logs with otherwise intact bark was just as effective at excluding white...
M W Schoeman, W Van der Werf, J F Webber, D J Dickinson


L-joint trials: Part 3: Relative performance of a range of preservative products
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30292
Long-term trials using the L-joints described in BS EN 330 and AWPA Standard E9-97 have been in progress at BRE since 1982. This paper records the current assessments of decay of L-joints in trials started between 1982 and 1994 with treatments applied to both Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea sp.). Data are provided on a range of active ingredients including TnBTO, PCP, a...
J K Carey


Performance of borate-treated sill plates (dodai) in a protected, above-ground field test in Japan
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30278
This document is supplemental to the previous IRG document (IRG/WP 2000-30239). An experiment to simulate the dodai (sill plate) of the Japanese houses was conducted at the termite field test site of the Wood Research Institute in Kagoshima, Japan where two economically important subterranean termite species [Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe)] are established. DOT...
K Tsunoda, A Adachi, A Byrne, P I Morris, J K Grace


Disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, alone and in conjunction with a selected isolate of Trichoderma viride, reduces decay of fresh felled pine independent of the effect of weathering
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10054
Unpeeled billets of Corsican pine were treated with the following: 5% aqueous disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) solution; 5% DOT solution with an isolate of Trichoderma viride with a low susceptibility to borate; the Trichoderma viride isolate alone. Half of the billets in each treatment group were also placed in large-diameter plastic pipes to protect the billets from the weather. All three ...
M W Schoeman, D J Dickinson, J F Webber


Borate-treated food affects survival, vitamin B12 content, and digestive processes of subterranean termites
1990 - IRG/WP 1448
Toxicity of boron compounds was studied by analyzing survival rates and vitamin B12 contents in Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, that were exposed to dietary treatments for 10 days. The dietary treatments applied in moistened cellulose were (a) 0.05% boric acid equivalent (BAE) of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, (b) 0.05% BAE of anmonium pentaborate plus sodium sul...
L H Williams, S I Sallay, J A Breznak


Resistance of borate-treated lumber to subterranean termites in the field
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10255
Borate-treated wood samples were tested for their resistance against subterranean termites in the field. Wood samples (10.5x10.5x40cm3) of western hemlock were pressure impregnated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), and assigned into two groups on the basis of boron contents:high retention (1.5-2.2%BAE) and low retention(O.7~1.3%BAE). Eight rep...
K Tsunoda, A Adachi, T Yoshimura, A Byrne, P I Morris, J K Grace


Performance of Borate-treated lumber in a four-year, above-ground termite field test in Hawaii
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30265
We report the fourth year of field study results from a protected above-ground field test in Hawaii simulating the sill plate (dodai) used in conventional Japanese housing construction. Field tests were established in both Hawaii and Japan to examine the efficacy of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT, 2% and 3% shell and through) wood treatments. In Hawaii, chromated copper arsenate (CCA, 4 kg/...
J K Grace, R J Oshiro, A Byrne, P I Morris, K Tsunoda


Six-year Report on the Performance of Borate-treated Lumber in an Above-ground Termite Field Test in Hawaii
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30343
We report the fifth and sixth years of field study results from a protected above-ground field test in Hawaii simulating the sill plate (dodai) used in conventional Japanese housing construction. Field tests were established in both Hawaii and Japan to examine the efficacy of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT, 2% and 3% BAE shell and through) wood treatments. In Hawaii, chromated copper arsen...
J K Grace, A Byrne, P I Morris, K Tsunoda


Remedial wood preservative efficacy of BORA-CARE against the Formosan subterranean termite and eastern subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1991 - IRG/WP 1504
When a spruce board (3.8 cm x 8.8 cm x 2.4 m) was surface-sprayed with BORA-CARETM solution (containing 23% disodium octaborate tetrahydrate) and stored in an air-conditioned room (24 ± 2°C and 60 ± 5% RH) for eight months, ca. 40% of the wood (measured by the cross section surface proportion) contained borates at the rate of >2,500 ppm BAE (boric acid equivalent). In a choice bioassay, term...
N-Y Su, R H Scheffrahn


Resistance of borate-treated lumber to subterranean termites under protected, above-ground conditions
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30239
An experiment to simulate the dodai (sill plate) of the Japanese houses was conducted at the termite field test site of Wood Research Institute in Kagoshima, Japan where two economically important subterranean termite species [Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe)] are established. DOT(disodium octaborate tetrahydrate)-treated hem-fir samples [Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.)...
K Tsunoda, A Adachi, T Yoshimura, A Byrne, P I Morris, J K Grace


Distribution of boron from fused borate rods in Douglas-fir transmission poles
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30112
The diffusion of boron from fused borate rods (disodium octaborate tetrachydrate) was monitored over 42 months in CCA-treated Douglas-fir transmission poles. The boric acid equivalent was estimated by the curcumin/salicylic acid color test on increment cores removed from the poles. Moisture content of the poles was quite variable but was always above 20 percent. The percent of increment core lengt...
T L Highley, F Green III, W F Finney


A technique for determining the efficacy of water diffusible preservative plugs for implanting in joinery in service
1987 - IRG/WP 2291
A technique is described for determining the efficacy of soluble, diffusible preservative plugs for eradicating decay in joinery. It uses blocks of Scots pine sapwood or heartwood adjusted to known moisture contents prior to the establishment of the test fungus Coniophora puteana, from a single longitudinal dowel and the subsequent introduction of the preservative plugs. Prevention of decay, eradi...
J K Carey, A F Bravery


Life Cycle Assessment of borate treated wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-12
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is being used increasingly around the world by decision-makers to help incorporate the environmental component of sustainability into their activities. U.S. Borax regularly assesses how its products contribute to sustainable development. Using data gleaned from LCA of its products, the company recently completed its first ISO 14040 compliant cradle-to-grave LCA of lum...
M J Manning


Performance of borate-treated lumber in a protected, above-ground field test in Japan
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30344
This document is supplemental to the previous IRG document (Tsunoda et al., 2002). An experiment to simulate the sill plate (dodai) of the Japanese houses was conducted at the termite field test site of the Wood Research Institute in Kagoshima, Japan where two economically important subterranean termite species [Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe)] are established. ...
K Tsunoda, A Byrne, P I Morris, J K Grace


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