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Service life prediction of wooden components – Part 1: Determination of dose-response functions for above ground decay
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20439
Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Douglas fir heartwood (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) specimens were exposed in double layer field trials at 24 different European test sites under different exposure conditions (in total 28 test sets). The material climate in terms of wood moisture content (MC) and wood temperature was automatically recorded over a period of up to eight years and compar...
C Brischke, A O Rapp


Experimental variations in the distribution of CCA preservative in lignin and holocellulose as a function of treating conditions (temperature, concentration, pH, species, and time)
1984 - IRG/WP 3277
The exact distributions between lignin and holocellulose and retentions on wood of copper, chromium and arsenic as a function of various sets of conditions in a 3x3x4x2 factorial experiment in which combinations of three temperatures of treatment, three CCA solution concentrations, four pH's of the initial CCA solution and two timber species, namely Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus grandis, a...
A Pizzi, E Orovan, M Singmin, A Jansen, M C Vogel


Statistical analysis of durability tests - Part 2: Principles of time-to-failure and application on field test data
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20512
Service life prediction is an important topic in wood research, especially with regard to the Construction Products Regulation (CPR). Both laboratory tests as well as in-service performance testing is therefore essential, in combination with proper monitoring and analysis tools. A crucial concept is variability and the incorporation of variability in tests and analysis. In this paper we focus on t...
J Van den Bulcke, I De Windt, C Brischke, C R Welzbacher, A O Rapp, J Van Acker


The effect of certain wood extractives on the growth of marine micro-organisms
1977 - IRG/WP 438
S E J Furtado, E B G Jones, J D Bultman


Soft-rot ultrastructure
1981 - IRG/WP 1138 (+ Addendum)
The stages of growth of soft-rot fungal hyphae in birch cell walls has been studied using transmission electron microscopy. These observations are compared with time-lapsed cinemicrographic studies on infection and cavity development within wood cell walls which show a start-stop hyphal growth pattern. The fine structure of hyphae during each stage of the decay process shows that hyphae penetratin...
M D C Hale, R A Eaton


Protocol for evaluation and approving new wood preservative
1985 - IRG/WP 2159
M E Hedley, J A Butcher


Local preservation with difluoride pills: Life-time of preservative
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40127
A brief history of the situation in the Netherlands with respect to the preservation of joinery is given. Already in the eighties in the Netherlands many spruce window frames were treated with difluoride pills. One of the possible disadvantages of this kind of diffusing preservatives is the high leaching rate found in laboratory situations. The leaching rate in practice is influenced by many facto...
W J Homan, C Blom, B W Holleboom


Microcapsule formulation of fenitrothion as a soil termiticide
1991 - IRG/WP 1478
The efficacy and the mode of action of a microcapsule formulation of fenitrothion against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were investigated. The physicochemical property that this formulation does not allow the active ingredient to diffuse through the capsule wall contributed to a long lasting efficacy and safety for the men spraying. The residual effect of the fenitrothion microcapsule in soil was...
H Teshima, T Itoh, Y Abe


Tentative method of testing wood preservatives against blue staining
1977 - IRG/WP 259
The blue stain of sawn wood is still a real problem in Poland. Although a preservative based on sodium orthophenylphenoxide has been introduced into sawmill practice, and the technology of wood protection developed with it, new information has been obtained concerning blue stain in wood material destined for export. In order to select new chemicals or to improve the effectiveness of the ones in cu...
E Tarocinski, O Lewandowski, M H Zielinski


CCA Chemistry
1983 - IRG/WP 3268
A Pizzi


Errata to Document No: IRG/WP/3276
1984 - IRG/WP 3285
W E Conradie


Radio frequency heating times for sterilization radiata pine solid piles
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40815
In this work was sterilized wood packaging material of radiata pine, stacked as solid piles without stickers, for determining the heating times using radiofrequency treatment. The experiments were performed in a radio frequency semi-industrial equipment. The results showed that the radio frequency heating times increases with wood volume and that radio frequency treatments were faster than convent...
H Esquivel, V Sepúlveda, J Torres, L Salvo, R A Ananías


Time dependent over-uptake of etherificated melamine resins
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40109
Waterbased methanol-etherificated melamine-formaldehyde resins can increase the fungal resistance of the treated wood though they are known to be non-toxic. Therefore melamine-resins are at the present an object of research activities of European projects and of some companies. The paper highlights the importance of quoting the duration of the diffusion when immersed in the treating solution, as m...
D Lukowsky, R-D Peek


Evaluation of the decay caused by Chaetomium globosum Kunze, in the course of time
1987 - IRG/WP 2288
The main research done on soft rot has been directed to determining, by microscopic study, the different stages of penetration into the wood of the fungi that cause it. On the basis of the information furnished by this research, in this work we have tried to quantify its effect, by evaluating the weight loss caused by Chaetomium globosum Kunce in wood of Pinus sylvestris L. and Fagus sylvatica L. ...
M T De Troya, A M Navarrete


Effect of felling time related to lunar calendar on the durability of wood and bamboo -Fungal degradation during above ground exposure test for 2 years- (Preliminary report)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20311
Current study was carried out to know whether the felling time of trees and bamboos based on lunar calendar affects natural durability of felled wood-bamboo or not. Each of one sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) tree of 28 years old and one Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) of around 3 years old was cut 12 times between February and December in 2003. Six sets of sugi tree and bamboo were felled in ...
K Yamamoto, S Uesugi, K Kawakami


Methods for testing fumigant efficacies against termites
1986 - IRG/WP 1297
Methodologies for testing fumigants against termites are reviewed and factors needed to be taken under consideration for standardization listed. Toxicity should be defined by both direct exposure to the gas and under more practical "barrier" conditions which include test enclosures simulating abiotic surroundings of the termites, i.e. wood, nest material, etc. To observe latent effects, mortality ...
N-Y Su, R H Scheffrahn


The effect of high temperature and long pressing time on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of OSB
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40237
The exterior use of OSB is restricted because when it is exposed to wet conditions swelling, loss of internal bond strength (IB) and decay occur. In this study an alternative process of pressing which results in the production of dimensionally stable and a more decay resistant strandboard was investigated. Boards were pressed at elevated temperatures for prolonged pressing cycles and their physi...
G J Goroyias, M D C Hale


Comparison of decay rates of preservative-treated stakes in field and fungus cellar tests. Results after 40 months fungal cellar exposure
1983 - IRG/WP 2200
Decay rates of preservative-treated Pinus radiata stakes during 40 months exposure in the FRI fungus cellar were compared with those of similarly treated material in a field test. Decay rates in the fungus cellar were from 4 to 100 times higher than in the field, although for the majority of preservatives the rate was between 7 and 12 times higher. The lag phase before onset of decay, noticeable w...
M E Hedley


Blue stain resistance of exterior wood coatings as a function of their typology
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20145
Paints and wood stains were evaluated on their blue stain resistance using both EN 152 method and the reverse method. The typology of these exterior coatings was varied including standard and high solid solvent-borne coatings as well as different types of waterborne coatings. For the water-borne acrylic, alkyd based and hybrid coatings both applied as opaque primer paints and as decorative wood st...
J Van Acker, M Stevens, C Brauwers, V Rijckaert, E Mol


The effect of felling time of year on CCA fixation rate and quality of selected hardwoods
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40116
White birch (Betula papyrifera), poplar (Populus sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) trees were harvested in winter, in spring, before the leaves flushed, after leaf flush and later in the summer. Sapwood discs were cut from the freshly felled trees, dried and cut into 25 mm and 19 mm cubes. The cubes were pressure impregnated with CCA-C and fixed under high relative humidity and at 50°C or at room ...
Y T Ung, A Taylor, P A Cooper, D P Kamdem


Sludge formation in timber treatment with CCA preservatives. Origin and elimination
1984 - IRG/WP 3276
The exact distributions between lignin and holocellulose and retentions on wood of copper, chromium and arsenic as a function of various sets of conditions in a factorial experiment in which combinations of three temperatures of treatment, three CCA solution concentrations, four pH's of the initial CCA solution and two timber species, namely Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus grandis, are repor...
A Pizzi, W E Conradie, A Jansen


Effects of surfactants and ultrasonic energy on the treatment of wood with chromated copper arsenate
1977 - IRG/WP 3108
Sugar pine stakes 1'' x 1" x 16" were treated by a hot-water bath followed by soaking in cold CCA solution for 10 to 30 minutes. A similar number of stakes were treated by a cold-cold bath. Half of the stakes were subjected to ultrasonic energy during the CCA bath. The mean absorption for stakes given the hot-cold bath was 18.52 pcf (297 kg/m³) and 4.64 pcf (74 kg/m³) for those...
C S Walters


Strength properties of preservative treated pine and spruce wood after super-heated steaming
1984 - IRG/WP 3313
Possible changes of strength properties of CCF pressure impregnated pine and spruce with subsequent steaming at 110°C respective 120°C for 30 min were examined. For spruce analysis of variance indicated that none of the processes had a significant effect on bending strength, compression strength and the corresponding modulus of elasticity as well as on impact bending strength and shear strength ...
R-D Peek


Risk of pulmonary damage as a result of an evaporation of ca. 50 ppb = 42 mg HF, evaporated from wood treated by difluorides
1987 - IRG/WP 3401
In this review of the literature the effects of fluorides and fluorine on man are described, especially the low level effects of inhaled HF on human beings. The term "fluoride" is used as a general term everywhere, where exact differentiation between ionic and moluecular forms or between gaseous and particulate forms is uncertain or unnecessary. The term covers all combined forms of the element, r...
H F M Nijman


Unsuitability of the limiting dose as a criterion for assessing the toxicity of preservatives to wood-destroying fungi
1974 - IRG/WP 243
In the majority of methods for investigating preservatives for wood-destroying fungi their toxicity is assessed by determining what is called the "limiting dose". This normally denotes a range of preservative solution concentrations or retentions of dry preservative in the timber, the lower value serving to indicate the amount of preservative at which is observed the expected effect, e.g. the grow...
D A Belenkov


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