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Penetration of oil-borne preservatives in American elm
1975 - IRG/WP 355
Pressure treatment of elm posts and cants by Rueping schedules resulted in erratic penetration. Instead of the expected gradual decrease in retention from surface inward in posts, inner zones frequently contained more preservative than the surface quarter inch. Heartwood was found penetrated when sapwood was not. There were numerous skips in treated zones. The prevalence and possible causes were investigated in an effort to find a remedy. The things investigated were effects of: 1) uneven growth rate in the outer zone of posts, 2) growing site, 3) eccentricity and width of growth rings, 4) intermediate wood 5) moisture content, 6) use of initial air pressure or not in treatment, 7) wetwood, 8) tension wood, 9) grain direction of preservative penetration and 10) anatomy of wood. Of these, only intermediate wood, use of initial air, wetwood and wood anatomy seemed to have an effect. The influence of intermediate wood and wetwood is probably minimal but might have some effect.
E A Behr

The effect of woody and non woody plants extractives on microbial resistance of non-durable species
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30392
The effect of Elm (Zelkova carpinifolia), Oak (Quercus castanifolia), Mulberry (Morus alba), Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) as woody plants, Rose (Rosa damascene) and Fumitory (Fumaria sp) as non woody plants extractives on durability of Beech (Fagus orientalis), Maple (Acer insgin), Alder (Alnus subcordata), and Lime (Tilia sp) were studied. First wood species having extractives were cut to small pieces and then were chipped and milled, by using Tappi (T20403-76) standard. Acetone and Methanol solvents were used to extract soluble materials from wood durable species, and their extractives percentage were measured. Also wood specimens of perishable species such as beech measuring 0.5 x 1 x 5 cm were prepared. The fungus (Trametes versicolor) was selected and taken from the forest (Darabkola in Mazandaran state). Solvated extractives were injected into non-durable wood species by negative atmospheric pressure and then treated wood specimens oven dried at 50 o C. Then all treated and untreated wood blocks again oven dried, cooled, sterilized, and exposed to the fungus. Milled wood (with and without extractives) as control specimens were poured into Pyrex tube glasses, oven dried, cooled, weighed, sterilized and also exposed to the fungal attacks. At the end of experiment (after 6 weeks) mycelium were removed from surfaces of exposed wood samples and wood blocks oven dried, cooled, and weighed. Results showed that weight losses of all treated wood species except Lime significantly decreased. Other results indicated that Alder and Lime absorbed solvent more than Beech and Maple. However, solvated extractive of Mulberry significantly was inserted less than other wood extractives.
S M Kazemi, A Hosinzadeh, M B Rezaii

A survey on Bio-Resistance of Oak and Elm in Caspian Sea Water
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20483
Logs of Oak (Quercus castanifolia) and Elm (Zelkova carpinifolia) have been cut to lumbers with dimensions of 300×100×30 mm. The oven dried samples have been impregnated with CCA (Chrome–Cupper-Arsenic). Treated and untreated (natural as a control) woods have been established for 3, 6, 9 and 12 months in Amirabad beach of Behshare under fishing environment. The observation results shows that in this beach, the staining fungi and balanus are able to attack control woods or live on them. With increasing wood maintaining in the sea, the presence of organisms becomes longer. The numerical results shows that weight losses of elm control samples drop to less than 5% after one year. However, control samples of oak have no weight losses in the same time of exposure. The treated samples not only have no weight reduction, but the absorbed salts make their weight increase. Low salinity level of Caspian Sea with respect to salinity of large sea (oceans), vanishes the wood drilling worms in Caspian Sea and this may be the main reason for the non-destruction of wood samples.
S M Kazemi

Influence of organosilicon compounds and nanocellulose treatment on dimensional stability of waterlogged elm wood
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10891
Commonly used agents for waterlogged wood consolidation (including the most popular polyethylene glycol) have proved ineffective and even dangerous to the preserved objects, jeopardising their integrity. Finding new, effective alternatives for safe preservation of wooden cultural heritage is therefore of key importance. The future conservation agents should, first and foremost, provide the integrity and dimensional stability of wooden artefacts and protect them against biological degradation. They should also be chemically and mechanically stable and show enhanced compatibility with wooden objects with no detectable side effects while being cheap, renewable, and environmentally friendly. Due to their unique attributes (e.g. excellent mechanical properties, biocompatibility, antifungal properties, unique chemical reactivity, hydrophobicity), nanocellulose and some organosilicon derivatives were used for the study to check their potential as consolidants for the conservation of waterlogged wooden artefacts. Their influence on the dimensional stability of archaeological waterlogged elm wood excavated from the bottom of the Lednica Lake in the Wielkopolska Region was determined. The results clearly show that nanocellulose suspension applied alone is not effective in wood stabilisation due to poor penetration of wood structure. In turn, some organosilicons have a great potential for stabilisation of waterlogged wood dimensions. Four out of eight tested derivatives demonstrated anti-shrink efficiency above 90%, while one of them reached as much as 99.36%. This makes the organosilicon derivatives promising wood consolidants, potentially useful in wood conservation practise. Therefore, further study on their physical, chemical and mechanical properties will be undertaken.
M Broda, B Mazela, I Dąbek, A Dutkiewicz, H Maciejewski, R Markiewicz, M Grzeszkowiak, S Jurga