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Encapsulated Active Ingredients for Wood Preservation
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30717
Encapsulated organic fungicides and termiticides have been examined for use as wood preservatives in vacuum pressure treatment of wood. Encapsulation of active ingredients was found to improve wood penetration behaviour and reduces leaching as well as biodegradation of the active ingredients compared to industrial standard formulations....
E Oenem-Siakou, R Möller, R Craciun, J Wittenzellner, J Habicht

Comparison of Bifenthrin Formulations for Their Skin and Eye Irritation Potential Using the Pollen Tube Growth Test
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30521
The Pollen Tube Growth Test (PTGT) is an effective screening method for measuring the potential of a chemical formulation to affect living cells. The PTGT has been compared against other types of testing, and it shows a good correlation with, for example, the Draize rabbit eye test and the human skin patch assay. It measures the EC50, which is the effective concentration at which 50% growth is o...
S Millward, P Lobb

Encapsulation Systems Combined with DOT Borate Treatments – The Future of Treated Crossties
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40670
Borates have been utilized in wood protection systems for many decades but only recently have been used in North America to treat crossties. This colorless, ordorless and very effective wood protection chemical has the ability to arrest and prevent the colonization of wood by both basidiomycete decay fungi and insects such as beetles and termites while ties are air seasoning or in service. Since ...
S C Kitchens, T L Amburgey

Encapsulation of poles to prevent moisture uptake – a laboratory test
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40753
Premature failure of utility poles due to decay in soil contact is the main reason for early removal of utility poles, a measure that implies extra costs for utilities. Remedial treatments and barriers are common methods to prolong the service life of utility poles. The first part of this paper gives an overview of mode of action and commercial application of barrier systems as described in the li...
K-C Mahnert, U Hundhausen

Encapsulation of chlorothalonil with polylactic acid using nanoprecipitation method for rubberwood preservation
2018 - IRG/WP 18-30722
Wood is a very beneficial material for humankind. The current trend is employing organic biocides as wood preservatives to inhibit the wood from biodeterioration caused by fungi and termite. However, these organic biocides are facing some shortcomings when being introduced into the wood using conventional water-based treatment due to their poor water solubility. Polylactic acid (PLA) was employed ...
T-J Teng, M N M Arip, R Kadir, E-P Ng, H-L Lee

Environmental protection and long term in-service sustainability of preserved wooden poles is secured by non-toxic barrier protection system – History and case studies in South Africa
2018 - IRG/WP 18-50340
Non-toxic flexible sheeting systems have been developed to encapsulate the ground contact regions of preserved wooden poles and prevent their premature failure in South Africa since 1992 but the technology also has a long history of resistance by individuals with vested interests in the built-in redundancies of such poles. The concept has, however, been simultaneously validated by many independent...
A A W Baecker

Recent studies into improved fire retardancy of wood undertaken at Luleå University of Technology
2023 - IRG/WP 23-30784
Modern construction is moving more towards engineered wood products, such as glulam and cross-laminated timber (CLT). This increase is driven by the aspiration to deliver high-rise buildings with enhanced environmental profiles and human well-being. This desire to use wood in construction is pushing the need for fire treatments capable of meeting a products service life. However, the use of wood ...
D Jones, C-F Lin, I Kim, E Garskaite, O Karlsson, D Sandberg