Your search resulted in 317 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Application of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to the quantitative analysis of organotin preservative solutions and treated wood
1978 - IRG/WP 3125
One technique frequently used for the quantitative analysis of material containing inorganic compounds is energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. It has been shown previously that this technique can be readily used to determine the retentions of chromated copper arsenate and ammoniacal copper arsenate treated wood. This paper reports the results of a preliminary study to determine wheth...
J N R Ruddick
The Effect on Biological and Moisture Resistance of Epichlorohydrin Chemically Modified Wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40224
Southern pine solid wood and fiber were chemically modified with epichlorohydrin to help in understanding the role of moisture in the mechanism of biological effectiveness of chemically modified wood. The solid wood had weight gains from 11% to 34%, while the fiber had weight gains from 9% to 75%. After modification, part of the specimens were water leached for 2 weeks or extracted for 2 hours ...
R E Ibach, B-G Lee
Evaluating the Process of ACQ-Treated Woods with TGAand CEM Analysis
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20374
To provide an understanding of the fundamental thermal behaviour and the disposal-end products of ACQ-treated woods, this study is comprised of two categories of examination. The first is related to the use of TGA under different thermal decomposition conditions (nitrogen or air, and 5 or 40 oC/min), and the use of EDX to examine certain residual elements of the char. The second applies the CEM ...
Han Chien Lin, Tsang-Chyi Shiah, Jung Ting Tsai
Evaluation of rapid methods for detecting wood preservatives in waste wood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50024
For the disposal of wood waste under ecological sound conditions information about its hazardous potential is required. Several analytical methods are available for the detection of most elements in wood preservatives. Industrial process conditions, however, demand methods with very short turn around times. In this research several methods of analysis were judged on their speed and accuracy. A num...
W J Homan, H Militz
Detection of defects in standing poles by X-ray techniques
1980 - IRG/WP 2132
The application of X-ray techniques to wood pole inspection procedures has been evaluated. Internal defects were accurately identified using X-ray inspection methods. These methods and their possible influence on the safety and economic aspects of wood pale utilization are discussed....
W D Gardner, R S Johnstone, W Pitt
Comparative studies on the distribution of lignin and CCA elements in birch using electron microscopic X-ray microanalysis
1987 - IRG/WP 1328
The microdistribution of metal preservatives in treated wood has received considerable research over the last two decades. Despite this, little effort seems to have been made to try and correlate the distribution of CCA elements with respect to naturally occurring wood cell wall components in wood. In the present preliminary study an attempt is made to relate the distribution of lignin in-situ wit...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson
Ultrastructural and TEM-EDAX studies on the degradation of CCA treated radiata pine by tunnelling bacteria
1985 - IRG/WP 1260
An ultrastructural study was carried out on bacterial attacked Pinus radiata stakes treated with a high level (24.7 kg/m³) of Tanalith NCA preservative. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether the organism possessed intracellular and/or extracellular detoxification mechanisms in order to overcome the high levels of copper, chrome and arsenic present within the wood fibre walls. ...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson
X-ray analysis of selected anatomical structures in copper/chrome/arsenic treated wood
1973 - IRG/WP 320
Application of analytical electron microscopy to problems in wood preservation has been very limited. Indeed, less than ten workers appear to have published their results using the technique, and of these' only two papers deal with energy dispersion procedures in the scanning electron microscope; the others employ the more familiar wavelength dispersive methods of the electron probe....
Bacterial staining of samba (Triplochiton scleroxylon)
1988 - IRG/WP 1362
Red- and green-stained areas on Samba wood have been tested by IR, X-ray and Neutron Activation Multielement Analysis. No difference could be seen between stained and unstained areas. The red- and green-staining seem to be related to the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa which were isolated from both red- and green-stained areas on the wood surfaces....
A study of salt imbalances observed in recycled copper/chrome/arsenic preservative solutions in commercial practice
1987 - IRG/WP 3461
The study reported monitored tank solutions, sludge and other by-products using a standard CCA solution, when recycled. This recycling of the CCA solution is quite usual in between any commercial treatment schedules. Salt imbalances were observed and the possible reasons for such phenomena were studied. The paper discusses the procedure followed, the method of sampling the liquid after the charge ...
V R Sonti, S Sonti, B Chatterjee
IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 9: Report of third inspection (2 years) in Italy
1980 - IRG/WP 461
The wood samples were submerged in the sea at Follonica, Italy, in April 1977. Follonica, latitudine 42°55' North and longitude 10°45' East, is situated on the Tyrrhenian sea. The recorded temperature varies between 13°C to 25°C, salinity 37-38% and pH about 8. The inspections were carried out after 6 months (10/1977), 1 year (4/1978) and 2 years (4/1979)....
A Gambetta, E Orlandi
IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 7: Second report on the samples in Papua New Guinea
1980 - IRG/WP 459
This report presents the findings to date regarding specimens installed in Papua New Guinea, as part of a world-wide marine trial of certain timbers treated with CCA or CCB preservatives. The details of the trial are set out in document number IRG/WP/414. The report discusses the findings in the context of the conditions prevailing at the trial site and of the properties of the trial timbers. The ...
S M Cragg, C R Levy
IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 20: Report on the inspection of specimens at Sekondi, Ghana after 48 months
1985 - IRG/WP 4116
The results of the second inspection of CCA- and CCB-treated test panels exposed at Sekondi, Ghana, in June 1980, are presented. The panels of Pinus sylvestris treated with 3% CCA are stil unattacked after 48 months. Panels treated with 10% CCA and still in test (Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris and Alstonia scholaris) are still free of attack. Locol species treated with 3% CCB have all been dest...
F F K Ampong, N Asare-Nyadu
Summarized comparison of four techniques for detecting defects in poles
1979 - IRG/WP 2126
Since our discussions in open session of Working Group II at Peebles, a number of workers in Australia have collaborated in comparing the efficacy of X-ray, sonic testing, or resistivity measurements for detecting internal defects in poles. The purpose of this circular is to draw to your attention some of the results, in summary form. No attempt has been made to compare techniques. More detailed a...
Comparative studies on the species effects of wood preservatives
1989 - IRG/WP 3521
For the examination of the resistance against fungal attack, wood blocks of 3 softwood species were treated with CCA (type 3), CFK, AAC and IF-1000 independently. The wood blocks were exposed to the fungal decay with Tyromyces palustris. The degradation of the wood blocks treated with these preservatives was quite widely different among wood species examined in this study. Hem-fir treated with CCA...
K Yamamoto, S Matsuoka
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of CCA treated wood
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3700
Ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir wood sections were treated with CCA preservative. To elucidate the mechanism of fixation of the CCA, the wood surface was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). CCA treatment increased C1 (carbon bonded to carbon and/or hydrogen) and decreased C2 (carbon bonded to one oxygen) in XPS C1s spectra, both in unextracted and pre-extracted sections. This sugges...
J N R Ruddick, K Yamamoto, P C Wong, K A R Mitchell
Laboratory evaluation of chlorothalonil against the Formosan subterannean termite
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1559
The fungicide chlorothalonil was evaluated as a wood preservative to prevent attack by the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Southern yellow pine wafers treated with chlorothalonil (CTL) in P9 oil, CTL + chlorpyrifos in P9 oil, or CTL in xylene were conditioned by evaporative aging at 40° C for 4 weeks and exposed to termite attack in a mod...
J K Grace, P E Laks, R T Yamamoto
IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 3: Report of first inspection of samples at Lae, Papua New Guinea
1978 - IRG/WP 446
Samples for the international marine test were placed on frames numbered I to VII. Frames numbered VII of both CCA and CCB trials are being stored dry in the laboratory at F.P.R. & D.C. Frames I to VI of both trials were suspended in the sea at Lae Harbour (Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea) on 6th December 1977. The first inspection of the CCA trial was carried out on 8th June 1978, at which ...
S M Cragg, C R Levy
Environmental consequences of various materials in utility poles - A life cycle analysis
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3726
A model for environmental life cycle analysis, LCA, has been created to compare environmental impact from transmission poles, made alternatively of concrete, steel, aluminium and pine wood treated with CCA type B or creosote. The main pollution sources and energy use are included in the LCA. One pole size, 12 meters long, is presented in the study, a so called "45 kV" pole. Poles of different mate...
M Erlandsson, K Ödeen, M-L Edlund
A comparison of analytical techniques
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20061
This paper compares carefully-controlled weight retentions and analysis by XRF, ICP, combustion methods and a new extraction procedure for the new preservative, Copper(II) Dimethyldithiocarbamate (CDDC). Various experimental parameters such as particle size and drying conditions were investigated. In general, the correlations between and among the procedures are very high. The extraction-colorimet...
A C Gallacher, C R McIntyre, M H Freeman, D K Stokes, W B Smith
Determination of bis-(N-cyclohexyl-diazeniumdioxy)-copper in different matrices by photometer, thermal energy analyzer and HPLC
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20179
For the quantitative analysis of bis (N-cyclohexyl-diazeniumdioxy)-copper (Cu-HDO) three analytical methods are used. The employment of the different methods depends on the matrices involved. For several years now, the colorimetric determination of Cu-HDO by photometer has been applied to solutions and concentrates of wood preservatives. In principle, the technique consists of a quantitative conve...
J Wittenzellner, W Hettler, M Maier
The micro-distribution of copper/chrome/arsenate in Acer pseudoplatanus and Eucalyptus maculata
1973 - IRG/WP 319
The excellent field performance of copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) treated timber has been accepted for many years. The preservative loadings used in practice have been based on field trial results, backed by service tests. The performance of treated hardwoods in trials and practice indicated that provided the required loading and penetration could be achieved the performance would be good. Recent un...
D J Dickinson
Amenability of radial permeability of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) as affected by aspects of cell ends in uniseriate ray parenchyma tissue
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40252
The principal objective of this article was to recognise and understand the amenability of ray parenchyma cell ends (end platform) in uniseriate ray tissue to influence the radial permeability of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) by examination of most (Queen Charlotte Islands in Rhondda, South Wales) and the least (South Oregon in Dalby, North-East England) seed origins that grown in ...
I Usta, M D C Hale
Interactions between soft rot fungi and CCA preservatives in Betula verrucosa
1988 - IRG/WP 1367
Ultrastructural investigations were carried out to obtain information on the cell wall distribution of CCA elements during soft rot decay of 4% K33 CCA preservative treated birch (Betula verrucosa) wood. TEM observations on fibres at various stages of S2 cavity formation by mutabilis showed a distinct pattern of electron dense materials to occur within the S2 cell wall region. These materials (gra...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson
Direct analysis from wood of the blue stain fungi Aureobasidium pullulans and Hormonema dematioides by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10595
Aureobasidium pullulans and Hormonema dematioides are the two organisms used in the EN 152 laboratory method for determining the effectiveness of preservatives against blue stain in service. The literature concerning the disfigurement of surface coatings and exposed timber in-service states that A. pullulans is the dominant blue stain fungus, due to its frequent isolation from stained material. In...
M J Ray, D J Dickinson