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Surveillance médicale des personnels exposés aux produits de préservation du bois
1990 - IRG/WP 3588
J-C Aubrun

Biocides - Efficacy assessment and doses for wood preservatives (product type 8). Local/geographical aspects. Termite control as case study
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20181
Currently, the efficacy of a wood preservative, as biocidal product type 8, is assessed as a ‚critical value' (CV), an efficient dose (retention in wood at a given depth of penetration). CVs are planned to be adapted for exposure to basic target organisms (5 hazard classes) and additional requirements concerning the occurrence of local target organisms in relation with climate, building design and relevant economical impact. Among them, the termite case study is illustrative. The vote of a french law, on 26 may 1999, aiming to protect consumers and to organize termite control puts termites, a "local target at the euro scale and a universal one in some euro territories", in the spotlights of actuality and helps to point out some of the remaining questions raised by the implementation of Dir 98/8 on Biocides. Based on CEN/TC/38 simulated use tests, which doses have to be used for conditions of exposure and climate, ranging from polar to tropical? Practical proposals are made to take into accound local prescription based on actual target organisms, and move on to standard biocide profiles.
G Ozanne

Risk assessment and the approval of wood preservatives in the United Kingdom
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-23
An approval system operates in the United Kingdom (UK) for the regulation of wood preservatives. The regulatory authority uses a risk assessment approach to evaluate how far the potential for harm to people and the environment from wood preservatives is likely to be realised in practise, and hence the controls required for products to be, used safely. The evaluation for approval purposes also takes into account the effectiveness of wood preservatives. A tiered approach is adopted to data requirements, and likely exposures are considered under the proposed conditions of use so that testing is minimised and controls are commensurate with risk.
R M Turner

Correlation between different international standard assessment procedures with termites. Part 1: Field exposure
1983 - IRG/WP 1198
Ramin treated with copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA), pentachlorophenate and lindane, each at three retentions, and three other untreated timbers were assessed in the field against Coptotermes lacteus and Nasutitermes exitiosus. Replicate specimens were exposed around five mounds of each termite species over a period of five years in south-eastern Australia. The field results provided the basis for judgement of corresponding laboratory trials conducted accordingly to the standard procedures of Europe, U.S.A. and Australia. In the field none of the wood preservative treatments with-stood termite attack for the full period of five years, not even CCA at the highest retention of 2.3 kg/m³. Merbau and Jarrah were the most resistant timbers but there was noticeable variation between trees.
M Lenz, C D Howick, N Tamblyn, J W Creffield, M Westcott

Environmental risk assessment of treated timber in service: The Environment Focus Group approach
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50162
In the context of the Biocidal Products Directive (98/8/EC), and of the OECD work on wood preservatives, the Environment Focus Group (EFG), comprising 8 institutes and the European Wood Preservative Manufacturers Group, has been working on the environmental risk assessment of treated timber in service. A literature review of emissions from treated timber has revealed that very little existing data is usable for environmental risk assessment; the most relevant data are kinetic curves of emissions over time, which show clearly the non-linear emissions behaviour of treated wood over time. The EFG has suggested real exposure conditions for treated timber in the environment, and listed typical exposure scenarios. Five representative scenarios are characterised in detail, for use in the calculation of Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PECs). The existing methods to determine emissions from treated wood have been reviewed. Most existing experimental models cannot be used to predict environmental emissions. Monitoring of commodities in service has its specific constraints. Chemical analysis and ecotoxicity testing have also been reviewed and their relationship has been discussed. Principles for the design of experimental models, for the determination of emission fluxes from treated wood to the environment, have been established.
G Deroubaix, G Labat, I Le Bayon, S Legay, P Marchal, C Yrieix, E Melcher, R-D Peek, S De Geyter, J Van Acker, W J Homan, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy, E D Suttie, A J Nurmi, A-C Ritschkoff, D Rudolph, I Stephan, D Aston, E F Baines, J B Simonin

Natural exposure weathering tests: Their role in the assessment of wood preservative efficacy
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20006
Previous work has demonstrated the potential and usefulness of natural ageing procedures in e evaluation of wood preservative efficacy. This results from the combination of physico-chemical influences and microbiological interactions with both substrate and wood preservative. In this paper, results are presented for a range of biocide types. Discussions are centred on the value of natural exposure weathering tests for preservative efficacy assessment and the importance of biological persistence in the design of effective wood preservatives.
G R Williams, J Brown

Marine exposure assessment of the natural resistance of a number of lesser known species of tropical hardwoods to teredinid and limnoriid borers
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10520
Naturally durable species of timber are used as an alternative to preservative treated timber for marine structures, but many species have not been evaluated for their potential for use in this environment. EN 275 specifies a 5-year test period - too long a period for screening tests to be economically viable. In this study, candidate timber species were selected for testing in the sea on the basis of their resistance to limnoriid attack determined in previous laboratory trials. Comparative resistance to teredinids was assessed by comparing the rate of deterioration observed in candidate species of lesser known hardwoods against that for greenheart and ekki, species of timber that have a proven track record for marine construction. Scots pine sapwood was used for comparison, as a non-durable timber. At the site selected, rapid deterioration of Scots pine specimens due to teredinids and to Limnoria tripunctata occurred. Acaria quara, cumaru and uchi torrado (respectively Minquartia guianensis, Dipteryx excelsa and Sacoglottis guianensis) were not attacked over the six month exposure period, whereas slight teredinid attack was detected in ekki and greenheart.
J R Williams, S M Cragg, L M S Borges, J D Icely

Future Directions Regarding Research on the Environmental Impacts of Preservative-Treated Wood: Environmental Impacts of Preservative-Treated Wood. February 8-11, 2004, FL, USA Workshop – Research Needs
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50222
This paper presents a series of documents that focus on research needs for potential future work focusing on the environmental impacts of preservative-treated wood. These documents were developed through a conference sponsored by the Florida Center for Environmental Solutions (FCES), located in Gainesville, Florida. The conference was held in Orlando, Florida, February 8 – 11, 2004 and the title of the conference was, “Environmental Impacts of Preservative-Treated Wood.” Approximately 150 people from 15 countries attended the conference. The “research needs” documents developed to date were summarized from: 1) feedback received from conference participants prior to the conference and 2) a two hour workshop held at the conclusion of the conference. A draft voting ballot has been prepared from these documents. This ballot is currently being reviewed by the FCES conference Technical Advisory Committee and a final ballot will be released in mid-April for a vote among the conference participants. A copy of the draft voting ballot is included at the end of this document. Results of the vote will be released at the 35th Annual IRG Meeting in Slovenia.
H M Solo-Gabriele, J D Schert, T G Townsend

Treatment application method and CCA efficacy in Corsican pine - Assessment by serial exposure and soil burial tests
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40006
A previous report on this research (Newman and Murphy, 1992) identified possible variation in the efficacy of a CCA preservative applied to Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. maritima) dependant upon the treatment application method (Bethel, Lowry or Steam/Bethel). This paper presents further data from biological testing of CCA treated Corsican pine using serial exposure and unsterile soil techniques. After 3 serial exposures to Coniophora puteana FPRL 11E and Coriolus versicolor FPRL 28A the treated wood performed in the order Bethel > Steam/Bethel > Lowry and Lowry > Bethel > Steam/Bethel respectively. Weight losses in the order of 40% and 30% were generated by Coniophora puteana and Coriolus versicolor at retentions of 3.9 kg/m³ and 1.0 kg/m³ CCA respectively. After 12 and 26 weeks unsterile soil burial the order was Lowry > Bethel > Steam/Bethel with weight losses of up to 30% at 1.0 kg/m³ CCA. The data are considered in relation to the decay mechanisms of the various biological agents used.
P R Newman, R J Murphy

Occupational exposure risk assessment at a commercial treatment plant using copper azole preservative
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-15
Experience with traditional water-based preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) applied in closed system vacuum pressure impregnation plants has shown that operator atmospheric exposure is low during normal operation. TANALITH E is a commercially available copper azole wood preservative introduced as a chrome and arsenic-free alternative to CCA based on the actives copper, tebuconazole and boric acid. To assess operator exposure, extensive atmospheric monitoring was conducted around a TANALITH E treatment plant facility, including static monitoring points during routine plant operations and long-term operator exposure. The atmospheric concentrations of the three actives and two of the amine carriers were subsequently determined by analysis. The results from the evaluation are discussed with particular emphasis on the assessment of risk to treatment plant operators working with copper azole wood preservatives.
A S Hughes, M Connell

Experiences with environmental risk assessment within the Biocidal Products Directive
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-21
The Biocidal Products Directive (98/8/EC, the BPD) aims to authorize biocidal products based on risk assessment for both man and the environment. Active substances for wood preservation products and rodenticides were selected for the first list under the review program (Regulations EC 1896/2000 and EC 2032/2003) because several member states had experience with the evaluation and authorization of such products under existing national law. The main difference with the BPD approach is the introduction of risk based decision making. This required the development of models to estimate exposure, guidelines for measuring exposure and several guidance documents for risk assessment for man and environment. The preparation of dossiers to support the listing of active substances for use in wood preservatives in annex I of directive 98/8/EC revealed strengths and weaknesses in the current approach and allows suggestions for improvement. Products had to be selected covering the current uses and the uses for the future. This at a time that most of the guidance documents were in draft form or not yet available. Emission scenarios had to be selected and the data for input. Leaching data are critical and harmonized laboratory test methods were not available. Field leaching data and monitoring data, if already available, are difficult to bring into the models. A close cooperation within industry on one side, from manufacturers of active substances over formulators to the end users, and consultation with competent authorities on the other side is a prerequisite to successfully market wood preservatives within the scope of the biocides directive. Resource and investments are becoming so significant that a global approach is the only way forward.
P Blancquaert

Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC and PT 08
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-1
The ECB Biocides Work Area is responsible for the scientific and technical issues concerning the approval of active substances in biocidal products as laid down in Directive 98/8/EC concerning the placing of biocidal products on the market. The first part of the presentation will deal with the Review Programme, especially it's legal context, the status of submitted dossiers and the problems that were encountered at this stage of the Review process. The second part of the presentation will shortly address exposure assessment for wood preservatives and the available Guidance Documents.
K van der Jagt

The risk assessment process. Point of view of a biocide manufacturer [Évaluation du risque. Point de vue d'un fabricant de biocide]
1990 - IRG/WP 3568
Risk assessment is an inherent part of our everyday lives. The risk assessment equation combines Hazards and Exposure. For the Wood Preservation Industry, the hazards may be characterised by the toxicity a the ecotoxicity of chemicals and the exposure by the identification of exposed people, of the exposure routes and exposure frequency. To quantify the exposure, good co-operation is required between the manufacturer, the formulator and the end user. In the absence of exposure data, mathematical models can be used to estimate exposure using worse case scenarios. Having established the risk associated with a product or process, the manufacturer should work with the end-user to establish and communicate risk management practices.
D Baur

What is OECD doing to promote harmonization of biocide regulations
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20182
OECD began work on biocides in 1997 to help Member countries co-operate in the assessment and registration of these products. The work is a part of OECD's Pesticide Programme, and is co-ordinated by the Biocides Steering Group. The goal is to harmonize regulatory approaches to allow countries to conduct evaluations of biocides more efficiently. More efficient evaluations can advance the protection of human health and the environment and result in more timely decisions for industry. The first activity done was the Survey of OECD Member Countries' Approaches to the Regulation of Biocides performed in 1997-1998. The survey collected information on countries' regulatory procedures covering the following aspects: · categorisation, regulation and responsibilities (which ministries are involved) · data requirements (detailed information for each use category) · regulatory procedures · efficacy · labelling requirements · human exposure assessments · environmental exposure assessments · risk assessment · other issues (minor uses, low risk products and biological biocides). It focused on the following seven broad biocide groups: (1) disinfectants/sanitizers; (2) preservatives/ microbiocides; (3) anti-fouling products; (4) wood preservatives and structural treatments; (5) microbiocides for waste disposal and strip mine sites; (6) products used in aquatic non-food sites (molluscides, lampricides, algicides..) and, (7) products used for vertebrate and invertebrate pest control. The new work programme Following completion of the survey, a work programme was agreed by the Pesticide Forum in November 1998. It includes activities in the following six areas: · harmonization of data requirements; · efficacy - testing and acceptability criteria; · development of test guidelines for human health and environmental fate and effects; · hazard/risk assessment - with an emphasis on exposure assessment; · co-operation between countries in biocide reviews; · risk reduction - focusing on information exchange. OECD Specific Activities on Wood Preservatives Activities specific to wood preservatives include: 1. Identification of data requirements for wood preservatives through descriptions of (a) use patterns (b) tasks involved in application, handling methods, etc, and (c) other exposure scenarios that underlie data requirements 2. Exposure assessment of wood preservatives. The objectives of the work on exposure assessment are to (a) exchange information on current approaches in Member countries, and (b) to develop, to the extent possible, a harmonized approach for future use. Two workshops will be held, one related to human exposure, the other to environmental exposure of wood preservatives. The workshops are scheduled to take place in the first half of 2000. 3. The development of a guidance document on efficacy testing and assessment for biocides including wood preservatives. 4. Test guidelines for leaching/migration from treated materials.
M Paneli, N Grandy

Marine exposure assessment in southern Portugal of the natural resistance of a number of lesser known species of tropical hardwoods to teredinid and limnoriid borers
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10614
Naturally durable species of timber are used as an alternative to preservative treated timber for marine structures, but many species have not been evaluated for their potential for use in this environment. EN 275 specifies a 5-year test period - too long a period for screening tests to be economically viable. In this study, candidate timber species were selected for testing in the sea on the basis of their resistance to limnoriid attack determined in previous laboratory trials. Comparative resistance to teredinids was assessed by comparing the rate of deterioration observed in candidate species of lesser known hardwoods against that for greenheart, a species of timber that have a proven track record for marine construction. Scots pine sapwood was used for comparison, as a non-durable timber. At the site selected, rapid deterioration of Scots pine specimens due to teredinids and to Limnoria tripunctata occurred whereas slight teredinid and limnoriid attack was detected in the greenheart samples. A number of lesser-known timber species originating from South America and Ghana performed comparatively well over the two year exposure period.
J R Williams, S M Cragg, L M S Borges, J D Icely, G S Sawyer

Environmental Fate of Micronized Copper
2015 - IRG/WP 15-50310
The environmental fate of wood preservatives is an important aspect to estimate the health and environmental impact. Although biocides from treated wood may be released into the soil, water or air, the latter pathway is frequently neglected in favour of leaching studies. Nonetheless, wood dust is well known to cause a variety of adverse health effects, in particular diseases to the respiratory tract, including forms of cancer, and the hazard is higher if dust originates from treated wood. Previous studies have assessed the exposure to chromated copper (Cu) arsenate, but there is a lack of information on the use of micronized copper (MC), which contain basic Cu carbonate particles with a size range between 1 nm and 250 μm. Former studies assessed leaching of Cu from MC- treated wood. We assessed the possible remobilisation in the air of Cu from MC- treated wood via two pathways: mechanical abrasion and fungal spore compartmentalisation. We propose an environmental fate model for MC by quantifying the amount and form of Cu released. In addition, we propose some preliminary investigations on the acute cytotoxicity of MC and treated wood abraded particles on biological models representing the lungs.
C Civardi, L Schlagenhauf, J Benz, C Hirsch, J Van den Bulcke, M Schubert, J Van Acker, P Wick,

Danish wood preservatives approval system with special focus on assessment of the environmental risks associated with industrial wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-01
The following is a description of the procedure used by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental risks associated with preservatives used in the pressure impregnation of wood. The risk assessment covers issues considered to be of significance for the environment and which are adequately documented so as to allow an assessment. Such issues are persistence and mobility in soils, bioaccumulation and the impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Unless required in special circumstances, the assessment does not apply to birds and mammals as the normal use of preservative treated wood is not expected to involve any noteworthy exposure of these groups. Approval of wood preservatives will be based on a general assessment of the environmental risk associated with the normal use of wood treated with the preservative in a realistic worst case situation. The assessment may address other aspects such as disposal and total life cycle.
J Larsen

Programme section 2, Test methodology and assessment
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20126
IRG Secretariat

A comparison of soft rot, white rot and brown rot in CCA, CCP, CCF, CCB, TCMTB and benzalkonium chloride treated Pinus radiata IUFRO stakes, after 9-15 years exposure at five test sites in New Zealand
1991 - IRG/WP 1485
The aim of this study was to determine if decay type varies significantly between five field trial test sites of different soil type, aspect and climate in 9-15 year old, replicate CCA, CCF, CCP. CCB, TCMTB and AAC treated IUFRO stakes. A visual on-site assessment of decay type on every test stake was made and observations confirmed by microscopical examination. Regression analyses were used to determine significant differences of percentage frequency of occurrence of each rot type between sites and preservatives. Large differences in percentage frequency of occurrence of rot type were evident between sites. One site was dominated by brown rot (85%) and two were dominated by soft rot (99 and 91%). The fourth site had intermediate proportions of brown rot (40%) and soft rot (71%) but had the second highest occurrence of white rot (32%) (highest = 37%; lowest = 11%). The fifth site was distinct in that a large proportion of stakes (69%) had both well established brown rot and soft rot. Stakes at the other four sites tended to have only one rot type. Some highly significant preservative effects were also found. Possible causes of these differences are discussed in terms of inter-site soil type, climate and other differences.
R N Wakeling

Proposed methodology for the assessment of safety indexes
1990 - IRG/WP 3562
Safety Indexes (SI)s are developped on the same concept as Efficacy Indexes (EI)s: EIs are retentions of wood preservatives (percentages of the critical values "efficacy") which are presumed efficient for a given biological class of risk. In the same way, SIs are retentions of wood preservatives (percentages of the critical values "safety") which are taken as acceptable for human health and the general environment. EIs and SIs as well are derived from different types of bioassays and related to objectives of quality which may be either regulatory or harmonized within the programmes of the Standard Committees (CEN TC/38 for example). Critical Values are characteristics of wood preservatives; EIs and SIs are characteristics of treated wood; they vary with the different classes of risks.
G Ozanne

Ultra-structural observations on the degradation of wood surfaces during weathering
1987 - IRG/WP 2280
Radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood was converted into blocks with a transverse face about 5 mm square and measuring 8 mm longitudinally. Transverse (T.S.), Radial (R.L.S.) and Tangential (T.L.S.) surfaces were prepared and specimens exposed to the weather inclined at 45° facing equatorially for periods of between 20-60 days. After 30 days exposure erosion of the middle lamella was observed followed after 40 days exposure by extensive separation of individual fibres at the interface of the middle lamella and secondary wall. Degradation of the S2 layer of the cell wall revealed corrugations orientated parallel to the fibre axis suggesting preferential removal of cell wall components. Further degradation proceeded by progressive delamination and checking of the S2 and erosion of the S3 cell wall layer. In addition to the above changes preferential degradation of the rays was observed in radial (R.L.S.) and tangential (T.L.S.) longitudinal surfaces.
P D Evans, S Thein

Co-operative research project on L-joint testing. Sampling after 8 months exposure
1983 - IRG/WP 2208
It was anticipated in Document No IRG/WP/2192 that exposure of L-joints by the European co-operators would take place on 1 April 1983. Where L-joints were exposed at this time, sampling after 8 months exposure is due on 1 December 1983. The present document draws attention to relevant previous documents which describe the sampling methods to be adopted. It also provides Tables for recording the results.
J K Carey, A F Bravery

Quantitative assessment of the condition of field specimens
1981 - IRG/WP 2154
Suggestions for a discussion on the desirability of an extension to the existing procedure of assessment of the condition of field specimens by adding more objective, reproducible methods in order to obtain earlier and more specific information than at present on the effect of biological attack on strength and other properties of the specimens as well as the time aspect.
H Friis-Hansen

In-ground performance of two formulations of chlorothalonil after five years of exposure at three test sites in Australia
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30101
Sapwood specimens of Pinus radiata D. Don and Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. were each treated to three retentions of each of two preservative formulations (chlorothalonil in oil; chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos in oil) and installed in-ground at three field test sites in Australia. Specimens were treated with each formulation to achieve 3.2, 6.4 and 12.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil a.i. and 3.2 + 0.2, 6.4 + 0.4 and 12.8 + 0.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos a.i. For comparison, specimens of each timber species, treated to a commercial in-ground retention of a copper-chromium-arsenic (CCA) formulation, were also installed. Treated specimens (including controls) have been rated for their condition annually for attack by subterranean termites and fungal decay using a scale ranging from 4 (sound) down to 0 (failed). After five years of exposure, mean termite and decay scores for replicate test specimens at each site reveal that the performance of all three retentions of each formulation, particularly the two highest retentions, is comparable to CCA.
J W Creffield, T L Woods, N Chew

Exposure trial at tropical marine sites of pyrethroid/creosote mixtures as wood preservatives: Preliminary results
1989 - IRG/WP 4155
Pinus sylvestris sapwood blocks measuring 25 x 25 x 200 mm³, impregnated using a Lowry or Rüping pressure treatment cycle with solutions of permethrin, cypermethrin or deltamethrin in BS144 creosote, have been exposed at marine sites in Australia, Papua New Guinea, the U.K. and Singapore. The effectiveness of these solutions in preventing marine borer attack is being compared with the efficacy of creosote alone, creosote/CCA double treatment, pyrethroids alone and no treatment. Blocks at the tropical sites have been installed in the intertidal zone in areas where the crustacean borer, Sphaeroma is active. Teredinids (shipworms) of several species are very numerous at these sites and the bivalve borer, Martesia, is present. Limnona colonies were found in untreated blocks at the sites in Papua New Guinea and Australia. The results of inspections after exposure periods of up to 26 months at the tropical sites are summarised in this report. Untreated sample blocks failed rapidly to borers, particularly teredinids. Pyrethroids alone reduced the level of crustacean borer attack and to a lesser extent, teredinid attack. All blocks treated with creosote-containing solutions have so far not been attacked by borers or degraded significantly by micro-organisms. Soft-rot and bacterial degradation occurred in untreated blocks and blocks treated with pyrethroids alone. Settlement by barnacles and serpulid worms appears to be inhibited by the creosote/CCA double treatment, but there is no evidence of long-term inhibition of barnacle or serpulid settlement by pyrethroid-containing solutions, whether with creosote or without. Samples at the site in the UK are exposed to teredinid attack. No inspections have yet been carried out at this site.
S M Cragg

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