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Differences in feeding activity among colonies of Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1983 - IRG/WP 1202
Feeding activities of 7 colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were examined. Wood-consumption rates among colonies differed significantly, ranging from 23.80-78.48 mg/g/day. This large intraspecific variation raised a question of whether differences in feeding activity reported for other termite species were due to interspecific differences. When rates were expressed as mg wood consumed by one g termite per day (mg/g/day), termites of larger body weight appeared to consume less wood. This negative correlation, however, was not significant when rates were expressed as mg wood consumed by an individual per day (mg/worker/day).
N-Y Su, J P La Fage


Feasibility of AE (Acoustic Emission) monitoring for the detection of the activities of wood-destroying insects
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2416
The feasibility of acoustic emission (AE) as a nondestructive testing method for the detection of the wood destroying insects was investigated. AEs were detected from the wood specimens under feeding attack of sugi bark borers or powder-post beetles. However, the feasible monitoring area of an AE sensor is influenced by the attenuation of AE amplitude, so that this could be a problem in the practical AE measurements, especially with wood specimens of higher moisture content.
Y Fujii, Y Imamura, E Shibata, M Noguchi


Longterm monitoring of termite activity on multiple feeding sites: a laboratory method intended for the determination of attractant/repellent properties of wood preservatives and baits
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20225
A method is introduced allowing the continuous monitoring of the activity of a small laboratory termite- colony at 8 different feeding sites simultaneously. The test assembly consists of a small central polycarbonate-tube containing a colonie of Reticulitermes santonensis (de Feytaud) beeing connected with 8 external feeding sites by small glass-capillaries. The termites passing through the glass capillaries to and from the feeding sites are interrupting an infrared light-barrier. Each signal from the light-barriers is conditioned and fed to a PC-based signal-recognition-, monitoring- and storage-system. First results show that a colony of 500 individuals of Reticulitermes santonensis (de Feytaud) will need approx. 2 to 3 weeks for establishing a new, full functional hierarchy. A well established Reticulitermes- colony will show 80 to 100 passings per minute to and from the eight feeding sites. The activity of Reticulitermes santonensis (de Feytaud) shows no circadian activity rhythmic.
M Pallaske, E Graf, H Takiuchi


Estimates of wood-consumption rates by termites
1983 - IRG/WP 1201
Effects of 2 components; termite-biomass and experiment duration on estimates of wood-consumption rates (mg wood/g termite/day), were examined. Three models; (1) no mortality, (2) linear mortality and (3) nonlinear mortality were used to calculate mean standing-crop biomass of termites. Model (1) predicted a significantly lower wood-consumption rate than those based on models (2) and (3). No significant difference was detected between rates based on models (2) and (3) when data within defined experiment duration were used.
N-Y Su, J P La Fage


Termite resistance of twenty-eight Indonesian timbers
1982 - IRG/WP 1150
A comparative study of termite resistance of 28 Indonesian wood species has been conducted using small samples measuring 5 x 10 x 20 mm³. The drywood termite Cryptotermes cynocephallus (Kalotermitidae) and the subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus (Rhinotermitidae) were used in the study. A resistance classification was derived on the basis of cluster analysis. The result reveals that Albizia procera, Dalbergia latifolia, Eusideroxylon zwageri, Tectona grandis and Intsia bijuga are completely resistant to both species of termite. Albizia chinensis and Artocarpus integer are resistant only to Cryptotermes cynocephallus, but vary between resistant and moderately resistant to Coptotermes curvignathus. Other wood species are classified as moderately resistant, susceptible or very susceptible.
Nana Supriana, P E Howse


The influence of fungal species and the level of decay on the mortality and feeding activity of adult Euophryum confine (Broun)
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10448
The mortality and feeding activity of adult Euophryum confine (Broun) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are used to establish the substrate conditions most suitable for their rearing. Weevils were allowed to feed on Pinus nigra (Arnold) sapwood blocks, either undecayed or decayed to 10% weight loss ±5% by two brown rots Coniophora puteana (Schum.:Fr.) Karst. and Serpula lacrymans (Wulf.:Fr.) Schroeter, or the white rot Fibroporia vaillantii (DC.:Fr.) Parmasto in a non-choice test for seven days at 20°C (±1°C) and 92% relative humidity ±5%. Weevils were also allowed to feed on blocks acid pre-treated to 10% (±1%) weight loss. Weevil mortality and block weight losses resulting from feeding were recorded. Those pre-treatments resulting in low mortality and high feeding activity were considered most suitable for rearing adult weevils.
M Green, A J Pitman


Fungicidal activity of some organic solvents, copper carboxylates and their complexes with 2-aminoethanol
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30136
We evaluated the activity of eight organic solvents against wood - rotting fungus Trametes versicolor in order to choose the most appropriate one for rapid screening tests of some copper(II) carboxylates and their adducts with 2-aminoethanol. Their activity against the selected fungus was classified in the following order: chloroform > N,N-dimethylformamide > acetonitrile > methanol > dimethyl sulfoxide > ethanol > acetone. The non-polar white spirit did not dissolve in the growth medium and the results could not be directly compared with the results for other solvents. As an appropriate solvent for screening of the tested copper(II) carboxylates, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was chosen. Minimal inhibitory concentration against Trametes versicolor of the screened carboxylates was in the concentration range of 1x10-4 to 1x10-3 mol/l. Coordinated amine ligands slightly, and not significantly, decreased fungicidal properties of the tested carboxylates.
M Petric, F Pohleven


Detection of feeding behaviour of termites using AE monitoring
1991 - IRG/WP 1514
Using acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, the feeding activity of the termite inhabiting a wood specimen was investigated. The amplitude and the rate of AE from the specimen of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was larger than that of Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. The AE event rate was higher in the specimen with soldiers than without soldiers. The AE event rate decreased according to the resistance of wood specimens against termite attack.
Y Imamura, M Tokoro, M Owada, Y Fujii, M Noguchi


Modelling of PCP migration in the environment: Feeding the models with laboratory data
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-08
In 1989, Hydro-Québec began a study program on pentachlorophenol (PCP) to ensure safe use of the product at all stages. One of the aspects of the study is the creation of a predictive system for evaluating the behavior of PCP and oil migration from wood poles to the environment. This system comprises four mathematical models for predicting PCP and oil migration in and on the surface of the pole, in soil and in groundwater, and for predicting runoff. Laboratory experiments aimed at quantifying and supplying the input for each model have been designed. A method of analyzing both PCP and oil in water. wood and soil has been developed. The radial and longitudinal distributions of PCP and oil concentrations have been established for several combinations of wood species and treatments. Laboratory setups and preliminary results are presented.
A Besner, P Tétreault, R Gilbert


Feeding preference behaviour of Crytopermes cynocephalus Light and Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren on twenty-eight tropical timbers
1985 - IRG/WP 1251
A study on the feeding preference behaviour of a dry-wood termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light and a subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren on 28 species of tropical timbers has been conducted. The weight-loss of individual timber and the mortality of termite was·recorded after 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days of exposure. The results reveal that there are only five species among 28 species of wood which are completely repellent to both the dry-wood termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus and the subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus. These five wood species are Dalbergia latifolia, Eusideroxylon zwageri, Intsia bijuga, Lagerstromia speciosa and Tectona grandis. There are eight wood species which are repellent to Cryptotermes cynocephalus and seven wood species which are repellent to Coptotermes curvignathus. There are also only seven wood species which are completely arrestant or highly arrestant to both species of termite. Agathis alba and Mangifera indica are classified as highly arrestant to both the dry-wood and the subterranean termites. Other species are classified between moderately repellent to highly arrestant.
Nana Supriana


Temperature influence on the growing velocity and cellulolytic activities of Poria placenta strains from several locations
1986 - IRG/WP 2263
The differences observed on the FPRL 280 Poria Placenta strain at several Research European Laboratories for determining up the fungicide effectiveness of wood preservative has carry us to do a comparative study about the cellulolytic activity and growth velocity of each of this strains at different temperatures (22, 24 and 28°C). The results show significative differences when the temperature is changed.
A M Navarrete, M T De Troya


Questionnaire for Volume 2 of the basidiomycete monographs
1985 - IRG/WP 1254
12 monographs of wood destroying basidiomycetes were published in volume 1. Volume 2 includes the following 17 basidiomycetes: Antrodia serialis, Chondrostereum purpureum, Climacocystic borealis, Fomitopsis pinicola, Hyphoderma tenue, Lentinus degener, Lentinus squarrulosus, Paxillus panuoides, Phellinus contiguus, Poria xantha, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Rigidoporus vitreus, Serpula himantoides, Sistotrema brinkmannii, Stereum sanguinolentum, Trametes corrugata
T Nilsson


Some tests on ES - AS 11, a novel anti-sapstain formulation, and its properties
1987 - IRG/WP 3399
The results of some tests with the formulation ES - AS 11 are given. The formulation is an attempt to improve the performance of an anti-sapstain chemical by: 1) increasing its penetrability 2) uniquely combining its active ingredients. Very short times of treatment (dipping not longer than 5 seconds), low concentrations of active ingredients, and lower toxicological and environmental risks may be a promising result.
U Straetmans


Localization of oxalate decarboxylase in the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10161
Oxalate decarboxylase, the enzyme that breaks oxalic acid down into formic acid and carbon dioxide, was recently detected in mycelial extracts of the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta. Differential centrifugation was used to demonstrate that the enzyme is loosely associated with the hyphal surface. Enzyme activity can be removed by washing the hyphae with a low pH buffer. Only low levels of activity were detected in soluble and membrane-bound intracellular fractions. The presence of the enzyme on the hyphal surface and possibly in the hyphal sheath supports the hypothesis that this brown-rot fungus actively regulates the pH and oxalic acid concentration of its environment.
J A Micales


Studies on the biological improvement of permeability in New Zealand grown Douglas fir
1983 - IRG/WP 3231
This report outlines progress towards optimizing conditions for water storage of New Zealand grown Douglas fir with the aim of improving permeability to water-borne preservatives, in particular CCA. Small scale laboratory tests are in progress but the need to scale up to potential commercial applications is being considered. Mixed populations of bacteria isolated from 10 week water sprinkled Douglas fir are being used to inoculate green, sterile timber. Environmental parameters such as pH, temperature and nutrient status are controlled to evaluate optimum conditions of growth, enzyme production and pitmembrane degradation leading to permeability improvement.
K J Archer


Development of novel techniques for evaluating the feeding rate of Limnoria lignorum with specific reference to temperature influences
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10325
The faecal pellet production of Limnoria lignorum placed into repli-dish chambers containing seawater and a small chip of untreated Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) was observed. The repli-dishes were kept at a range of constant temperatures between 10 and 25°C and the number of faecal pellets produced by each of the animals was monitored. It was found that faecal pellet length generally increased with gut length and that temperature had no effect on the faecal pellet length. There was considerable variation in faecal pellet production rates, both from day to day for any particular animal and from animal to animal. Faecal pellet production rate was generally highest between 15 and 21°C and decreased above 22°C. The production of faecal pellets tended to decrease during moulting. Gut passages per day increased from 1.1 at 13°C to 3.4 at 21°C followed by a decrease to 1.6 at 25°C.
A Praël, S M Cragg, R A Eaton


Antifungal activity of a stilbene glucoside from the bark of Picea glehnii
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10402
Stilbene glucosides are widely distributed as phenolic extractives in the bark of Picea glehnii, a commercially species planted in the northern area of Japan, and its content reaches to more than 10% by the dried weight of the bark. Although antifungal activities of these compounds have been reported, the mechanism of growth inhibition is still unclear. Isorhapontin (5,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxystilbene-3-ß-D-glucoside) is the major constituent of the stilbene glucosides in the bark of P. glehnii. In the present work, the relation between metabolism and antifungal activities of isorhapontin for the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the wood staining fungus Trichoderma viride was investigated. Inhibition of fungal growth was obviously depending on the conversion of isorhapontin to the aglycone isorhapontigenin (3'-methoxy-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) by ß-glucosidic activities in the cultures. Exogenous addition of ß-glucosidase also enhances the antifungal activity of isorhapontin. Moreover, less than 100 ppm addition of the stilbene aglycone isorhapontigenin is sufficient to inhibit the growth of both fungi. However, further metabolism of isorhapontigenin was observed after prolonged incubation of the fungi and resulted in detoxification.
S Shibutani, M Samejima


The development of a screening method for the activity of pyrethroids against wood boring marine crustaceans, Limnoria spp
1978 - IRG/WP 443
The present work is concerned with the develepment of a suitable bio-assay technique to determine the biological activity (contact action) of pyrethroids against Limnoria spp. Estimates of the toxicity of three pyrethroids, permethrin, cypermethrin and decamethrin (the structures of which are shown in Fig. 1.) to the marine borer have been obtained.
D Rutherford, R C Reay, M G Ford


Report of activity of CEN/TC 38: Test Methods for Wood Preservatives
1987 - IRG/WP 2287
G Castan


On the Influence of Wood Destroying Fungi on the Feeding Intensity of Termites
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10893
The baiting and feeding stimulating effect of wood attacked by fungal isolates of the species Coniophora, Lentinus, Poria and Gloeophyllum on termites Reticulitermes santonensis is examined. There are significant relationships between the activity of fungal isolates and the feeding behaviour of termites. The most active isolates can be used for increase the attractiveness of wood to wood-destroying termites.
W Unger, T L Woods


Notes on the resistance of tropical woods against termites
1985 - IRG/WP 1249
This paper deals with a descriptive account on the effect of experimental methods, matrix, species of termites, solid wood and wood extract on the resistance and repellency of woods against three species of termites, i.e. Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light; Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren and Reticulitermes lucifugus (Rossi). Two methods of experiment were used, the Forced Feeding Test and the Feeding Preference Test. The Feeding Preference Test method was found more appropriate for assessing the arrestancy and repellency of woods against termites. This method is probably appropriate for predicting the normal feeding behaviour of termites in the field.
Nana Supriana


Fungicidal properties of boron containing preservative Borosol 9
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30348
The fungicidal properties of new boron containing wood preservative Borosol 9 is described in this paper. These properties were of particular interest as this new boron containing preservative, exhibit very good performance against wood damaging insects. But because the tested boron formulation contain also nitrogen compounds, we wanted to verify if nitrogen as a nutrient could promote growth of wood rotting and blue stain fungi. Fungicidal activity of the boron based wood preservative Borosol 9 was evaluated according to the standard EN 113 procedure. Samples made of Norway spruce were brushed two times with 10% aqueous solution of Borosol 9, air dried, steam sterilized and exposed to the following wood rotting fungi: Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Lentinus lepideus. After 16 weeks of exposure the specimens were isolated and their mass losses were determined. After this respective period, the treated wood samples lost on an average less than 1 % of their initial mass. Parallel to this experiment, blue stain testing according to the EN 152-1 procedure was performed. Specimens brushed with Borosol were for six weeks exposed to blue stain fungi Aureobasidium pullulans and Sclerophoma pithyophila. After testing period the specimens were isolated and anti blue stain efficacy was determined visually. Both tests showed that Borosol 9 has fungicidal properties. Preservative, containing the boric acid - alkanolamine complex did not enhance fungal decay or growth. On the contrary, they showed high activity against wood decay and blue stain fungi.
G Babuder, M Petric, F Cadež, M Humar, F Pohleven


Inhibition of termite feeding by fungal siderophores
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1558
Siderophores are iron-chelating extracellular fungal metabolites which may be involved in initiating wood decay. A purified siderophore extract isolated from the brown-rot decay fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers. ex Fr.) Murr. (Basidiomycetes: Polyporaceae) was found to deter feeding by Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). This fungus has previously been associated with preferential feeding on decayed wood by subterranean termites, and solvent extracts have been reported to induce termite trail-following, arrestment, and/or aggregation. This is the first report of Gloephyllum trabeum metabolites or fungal siderophores having a negative behavioral effect on subterranean termites.
J K Grace, B Goodell, W E Jones, V Chandhoke, J Jellison


A novel defaunation method of the protozoa to investigate cellulose metabolism in Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10050
The largest protozoa in the hindgut of workers of Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was selectively eliminated by forced-feeding on low-molecular weight cellulose (LC) with a mean DP of 17. Although one week's feeding on LC caused perfect disappearance of Pseudotrichonympha grassii Koidzumi, the selective defaunation method itself had no detrimental effect on the health conditions of termite on the basis of survival rates and weight changes of workers in the latter feeding. In addition, the fact that the defaunated workers repidly recovered their wood-attacking activity by being mixed with normally faunated workers could well support this assumption. By the results of changes of protozoan fauna when selectively defaunated workers were forced to feed on various cellulose substrates, it was suggested that each protozoan species had its inherent role in cellulose metabolism.
T Yoshimura, K Tsunoda, M Takahashi


Effects of terpene compounds on the growth and peroxidase activity of Phellinus pini
1979 - IRG/WP 2130
The volatile compounds myrcene, limonene, a-pinene, a-terpineol, D-fenchol and 1,8-cineole, present in the oleoresin fraction of coniferous wood, were tested individually and as mixtures for their effect on the growth and peroxidase activity of cultures of six strains of Phellinus pini (Fr.) A.Ames and one strain of Phellinus chrysoloma (Fr.) Donk (Phellinus pini var. abietis (Karst.) Pilát). Phellinus pini was more tolerant of the substances than Phellinus chrysoloma. There were differences in the tolerance and peroxidase activity between the strains of Phellinus pini. Peroxidase activity was generally higher in the test cultures than in the controls, but was lower in cultures exposed to 1,8-cineole and a-terpineol.
L Väisälä


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