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Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test.
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage

Fire resistance of preservative treated fence posts
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30033
Pine fence posts were pressure treated separately with CCA-C, CCA-wax, CCA-oil and creosote. Treated posts and untreated controls were planted in the ground in a randomised block design, weathered for six months and then subjected to a controlled burning test using two fuel loads. Creosote treatment increased the time that posts were alight whereas CCA treatment had no such effect. However, CCA treated posts smouldered until destruction of the majority of the posts occurred. Posts treated with CCA-oil took longer for destruction to occur than posts treated with CCA-C or CCA-wax. Creosote treated posts and untreated controls did not show prolonged smouldering and consequently were not destroyed by the burning test, although their strength was reduced. A high fuel load increased the time that posts were alight and smouldering, and for CCA treated posts decreased their time to destruction.
P D Evans, P J Beutel, C F Donnelly, R B Cunningham

Performance of treated fence posts after 6 years in five test plots in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil
1976 - IRG/WP 376
Fence posts treated with creosote, pentachlorophenol and creosote/ pentachlorophenol mixtures showed good performance after 6 years of exposure in five test plots located in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. Good results were also achieved with copper sulphate/sodium arsenate and copper sulphate/potassium dichromate mixtures. Fungi and termites were the main destroying agents found attacking the posts.
M S Cavalcante

Pinus and Eucalyptus fenceposts treated with creosote and solvex tar by hot and cold open-tank process
1987 - IRG/WP 3455
A comparative study of the behaviour of two different wood preservatives, creosote and solvex-tar, was made, using two wood species, Pinus pinaster Ait and Eucalyptus globulus Labill, by the hot and cold open-tank process. Results showed that the creosote behaved better in relation with the uniformity of its distribution in wood. On the other hand, better results were obtained on Pinus for both preservatives.
M V Baonza Merino

Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts by the double-diffusion method
1982 - IRG/WP 3196
Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated by the double-diffusion method with two chemical combinations showed average lives of 11.2 years (copper sulphate and potassium dichromate at 10.5 kg/m³ retention)and of 14.3 years (copper sulphate and sodium mono-H arsenate at 7.1 kg/m³ retention), as determined in five test sites in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The exponential model was the best fit when expressing average life by the Decay Index (DI) as a function of time.
E S Lepage, A R De Freitas

Creosoted radiata pine by non-pressure methods
1988 - IRG/WP 3486
Posts of Pinus radiata have been impregnated with creosote by immersion for 1, 3, and 7 days, and by hot-and-cold open tank with hot bath temperatures at 40°C and 60°C. On the basis of the retention rates obtained, suitable procedures are described for wood elements that are going to be in ground contact, and an analysis is made of the way in which the variables tested affect the results.
M V Baonza Merino, C De Arana Moncada

Production of treated wood in Brazil in 1982 and 1983
1985 - IRG/WP 3327
The data of Brazilian production of treated sleepers, poles, crossarms, fence posts and other commodities are given for the years of 1982 and 1983. This report updates information given to the Group in Document No: IRG/WP/3321 Wood Preservation in Brazil, STU information no 445
M S Cavalcante

The effect of sapwood on the rate of deterioration of fence posts
1986 - IRG/WP 1277
In order to evaluate the effect of the presence of sapwood on the rate of deterioration of fence posts, 30 specimens with and without sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus paniculata, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus tereticornis were exposed in three test sites in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The results of the inspection carried out in 1985, after 5 years of exposure, are reported in the present paper.
M S Cavalcante, G A C Lopez, E S F Mucci, R G Montagna

Creosote immersion treatments in fence-posts of Castanea sativa, Pinus nigra and Pinus halepensis
1988 - IRG/WP 3488
The method of soaking in creosote was applied to fenceposts of Castanea sativa, Pinus nigra and Pinus halepensis, taking into account its easy use in the field. Absorption, retention and penetration rates were recorded and analysed. Absorption rates were higher in Pinus nigra than in Pinus halepensis, and lowest in Castanea sativa. Thin fence-posts always absorbed more preservative than thick ones. Penetration rates were similar in both pines, and much higher than in Castanea sativa. Retention levels were almost the same in Pinus nigra and Castanea sativa, and lower in Pinus halepensis.
C De Arana Moncada

Some statistics on the Brazilian Wood Preservation Industry: 1980-81
1982 - IRG/WP 3214
Statistical data on the production of pressure treated wood and on the consumption of wood preservatives are given for the years of 1980 and 1981 in Brazil.
M S Cavalcante, F C Geraldo, A R De Freitas

Production of treated wood in Brazil in 1984
1986 - IRG/WP 3357
The data of the Brazilian production of sleepers, poles, crossarms, fence posts and other commodities are given for the year of 1984.
M S Cavalcante

Performance of chromated copper arsenate-treated aspen fence posts installed in Forintek's Eastern test plot from 1951 to 1963
1984 - IRG/WP 3272
Aspen poplar fence posts were pressure treated by the full cell process using three formulations of copper chrome arsenate wood preservative. A total of one hundred and fifty nine of the posts were installed in service in Forintek's Chalk River post plot from 1951 to 1962. During the 1982 general inspection of the post plot all 159 posts were still in service. A groundline inspection was carried out on the material to determine the extent to which decay had progressed during this period. Samples were taken from the surface of tanalith C treated posts and subsequent microscopic examination revealed that soft rot attack was present in the outer portion of posts. The groundline area of posts treated with (K 33), CCA type B and (greensalt) CCA type A were in generally good condition after 22 years and 31 years respectively. Rate of decay was highest for CCA-C tanalith treated posts at 0.3 mm per year with a retention of 3.04 kg/m³ oxides.
C D Ralph

Performance of treated and untreated sawn fence posts of Scots pine and Norway spruce
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30247
Sawn fence posts are a rather important product and the objective of this trial was to assess their durability. In 1985 a field trial with treated and untreated fence posts of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) was set out at the test field in Ultuna, Uppsala, Sweden. The posts had a dimension of 75 x 100 x 1400 mm3. The preservatives applied were a CCA, an ammoniacal copper and a creosote. In 1991 fence posts of the same species and size were set out at the test field in Simlångsdalen, Sweden and the preservatives used were a CCA and an ammoniacal copper quaternary compound. The assessment showed that all treated fence posts were attacked very little (mean rating 0 - 0.5) during the first 3 - 4 years at the two test sites. After 7 to 8 years the mean ratings were around 1.0 (slight decay). In Ultuna, after 13 years of exposure, the mean ratings are around 2.0 (moderate decay). The mean service life of untreated Scots pine was 10.2 years in Ultuna and 5.4 years in Simlångsdalen and for untreated Norway spruce 7.5 and 3.2 years, respectively.
Ö Bergman

Influence of the peeling on the absorption in the sap displacement method
1990 - IRG/WP 3626
Results of tests on the Eucalyptus and pine fenceposts treated by sap displacement method are presented. Freshly cut post 2 m in length and 8 to 16 cm in diameter were placed for 6 days with their butt ends down in water soluble preservative solution (CCF) to a depth of about 65 cm, and these were inverted and kept in the same way for 3 days more. The treatment began a few hours after felling. The absorptions obtained in partially and totally barked fenceposts were compared. In both timber species, the barked fenceposts absorbed approximately two and a half times more preservative than the other fenceposts partially barked.
M V Baonza Merino

A study on the pressure impregnation of Eucalyptus globulus fence posts with CCA preservatives. Part 1
1988 - IRG/WP 3470
This paper describes the impregnation with CCA preservatives by full-cell process of Eucalyptus globulus fence-posts. Several treatments were made for different times of initial vacuum and treating pressure, with fence-posts from two coppice plantations (1st and 2nd rotations), assembled into three diameter classes: small, medium, large. The results concerning the absorption and lateral penetration of the product reveal that impregnation of Eucalyptus globulus though difficult is often possible. The highest average values were recorded in the small diameters, yet the standard deviation in all three classes is quite remarkable. Moreover fence-posts from the 1st rotation stand show a better behaviour with the treatment. There seems to be no significant correlation between absorption and initial vacuum or treating pressure times.
D De Sousa Castro Reimão, L Nunes

A study on the pressure impregnation of Eucalyptus globulus fence-posts with CCA preservatives. Part 2
1989 - IRG/WP 3514
This paper describes the second part of a study on pressure impregnation of Eucalyptus globulus fence-posts with CCA preservatives presented at the IRG 19th Meeting. Fence-posts of three diameter classes, were treated, considering only one treatment schedule. The results show possibility of vacuum-pressure impregnation of blue gum fence-posts, with diameter less than 9 cm, though mainly by longitudinal penetration, which is usually conditioned by the length of the fence-post.
L Nunes, D De Sousa Castro Reimão

Structural defects in CCA treated timber fence posts: A case study.
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40084
Since 1983 an environmental improvement programme has been in progress in the city of Dundee. This programme included the erection of rail and pale timber fencing throughout the city. The timbers had been pressure treated with CCA prior to painting with 2 coats of an exterior wood stain finish. However, the larger dimension timber fence posts (100 x 125 x 1500 mm3) regularly developed severe checks/shakes in service. These defects raised questions regarding the continued use of timber as a fencing material by the municipal authoritiy due to concerns relating to the long term efficacy of preservative treatment and timber durability. Statistical models generated from visual and physical measurements of aged post timbers recovered from field sites in the city indicated that a reduction in the development of structural defects was associated with lower heartwood:sapwood ratios. The sites from which posts were recovered also influenced defect development indicating inconsistent timber quality specifications and/or pronounced variation in environmental conditions at each site. This paper highlights the problem of many municipal authorities who, through lack of available information, fail to implement specifications for treated timber components tailored to their specific requirements.
S Muhsin, D C R Sinclair, A Bruce, H J Staines

The treatment of Douglas fir fence posts: specification and compliance using new European standards
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20178
New European standards for the preservative pre-treatment of timber require the results of the treatment process to be specified and subsequently verified by examination of the treated timber for penetration and retention of the preservative. For penetration, the standards are restrictive in that there are only a limited number of options available to the specifier. Thus for ground contact service, the appropriate option is full sapwood penetration. This paper describes a study in which the ability to meet a results specification for full sapwood penetration of Douglas fir fence posts with CCA was examined by treating 500 fence posts using a vacuum/high pressure process. When all treated fence posts were examined it was demonstrated that full sapwood penetration was not always possible. However, by applying different sampling systems linked to "acceptable quality levels" it was possible to develop an inspection scheme that ensured that batches of fence posts treated to the best achievable level were accepted under a full sapwood penetration specification. However, it was demonstrated that such a system would also allow some sub-standard batches to be accepted.
R J Orsler, H Derbyshire

Field fencepost test of several species treated with water-borne preservatives by rural methods
1986 - IRG/WP 3385
Fencepost field results in ground-contact treated by rural methods: immersion-diffusion and sap displacement by evaporation are analyzed. Copper-chrome-arsenic and copper-fluor-chrome preservatives were used in two concentrations. The wooden species studied were: Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus and Quercus rubra. For each of the test units decay index evolution was analyzed after five years exposure. At the moment, the best results are obtained with the immersion-diffusion method.
M V Baonza Merino

Observation on the performance of CCB and creosote treated fence posts after 18 years of exposure in Greece
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30288
The effect of 18 years exposure on toughness of CCB and creosote combination treated pine was examined. Vacuum CCB treated fence posts were subsequently treated at their lowest part (ground contact) with creosote using the open hot and cold tank process. After 18 years exposure under warm dry temperate climatic conditions in Greece, samples were taken from the above ground contact, top, middle and ground contact and tested for toughness using a Denison single blow impact bending test machine. There was no significant reduction of toughness in any of these zones. Chemical analysis of the residual CCB of unexposed and exposed samples by ICP showed that copper and chromium losses were insignificant but boron losses were significant but was more than 50% of the initial. This was attributed to an effect of creosote treatment. The results of this study show that climatic conditions of the exposure site play an important role. The climate is wetter and more favourable for decay in Northern Europe while in Southern Europe decay may be slower. Adequate protection may be achieved by less rigorous methods.
J A Kakaras, G J Goroyias, A N Papadopoulos, M D C Hale

Studies on the determination of the durability of wooden poles and fence posts
1982 - IRG/WP 3195
This study was carried out by the Forestry Research Institute. 5 Turkish main tree species, Oak (Quercus), pine (Pinus sylvestris), beech (Fagus orientalis) and Fir (Abies bornmülleriana) wooden poles and fence posts, were treated with Tanalith-U and creosote applying pressure process. Tanalith-U was applied by full-cell process and creosote was applied by empty cell process. Treated and untreated wooden poles and fence post were installed in Bolu and Ankara plot areas. The study was started in 1958 and finished in 1976. At the beginning of the study, experiment period was 30 years but droped down to 18 years. In this research, durability of the treated and untreated wooden poles and fence posts were compared.
R Ilhan, O Taskin, A P Erten

Field fencepost tests of several species treated with water-borne preservatives by rural methods
1986 - IRG/WP 3385 E
Fencepost field results in ground-contact treated by rural methods: immersion-diffusion and sap displacement by evaporation are analyzed. Copper-chrome-arsenic and copper-fluor-chrome preservatives were used in two concentrations. The wooden species studied were: Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus and Quercus rubra. For each of the test units decay index evolution was analyzed after five years exposure. At the moment, the best results are obtained with the immersion-diffusion method.
M V Baonza Merino

A note on the occurrence of Ametastegia glabrata (Fallén) in motorway fencing
1976 - IRG/WP 375
During a recent survey of motorway fencing in England, evidence of insect damage caused by one of the species of saw fly Ametastegia glabrata (Fallén) was found in a very small percentage (1.7 per cent) of CCA and creosote-treated posts. The observation is perhaps of more academic than of practical importance, but if control is desired, contact insecticide treatment of posts or selective weed-killer application on sites could be tried.
R Cockcroft, R W Berry

Performance of water-borne pressure treated fence posts - A practical application of the new Canadian field test data base
1988 - IRG/WP 2305
50 years of test plot data acquisition have been recently set up as a computerized database. The new database which contains information on the service life of a great number of non durable Eastern Canadian wood species treated with various preservatives and many application processes is presented. As an example for its use, a summary of the performance of fence posts treated with waterborne preservatives is presented.
E E Doyle, R Dubois, J P Hösli

Creosote immersion treatments of fence-posts of different pines
1986 - IRG/WP 3386
This paper describes the preservation with creosote by immersion of fence-post of Pinus sylvestris, Pinus pinea and Pinus radiata. Taking into account the rural use of the fence-post, an easy method available in the field to the agriculturalists. A regressions analysis has been carried out, dealing with the absorption, retentions and penetrations shown after 1, 3 and 7 days of treatment. The greatest absorptions and retrentions were recorded in Pinus radiata, and the smallest in Pinus sylvestris. In the opposite, the penetrations have been quite different: maximal in Pinus sylvestris and minimal in Pinus pinea.
C De Arana Moncada

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