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The Relationship of Fiber Cell Wall Ultrastructure to Soft Rot Decay in Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) Heartwoo
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10541
The ultrastructure of fiber walls in kempas (koompassia malaccensis) heartwood was examined in relation to soft rot cavity formation. The fibers consisted of middle lamella and thick secondary wall. The secondary wall was differentiated in to a S1 layer, and a unique multi-lamellar S2 layer. Two distinct forms of lamellae were recognisable, one type being considerably thicker than the other. They ...
A P Singh, A H H Wong, Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi

Resistance of Alstonia scholaris vestures to degradation by tunnelling bacteria
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1547
Electron microscopic examination of vessels and fibre-tracheids in the wood of Alstonia scholaris exposed to tunnelling bacteria (TB) in a liquid culture showed degradation of all areas of the secondary wall. The highly lignified middle lamella was also degraded in advanced stages of TB attack. However, vestured pit membranes and vestures appeared to be resistant to degradation by TB even when oth...
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel

Ultrastructural aspects of bacterial attacks on an archaeological wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10007
Transmission electron microscopy of wood from a Chinese ship submerged in the mud for over 900 years showed bacteria to be the main factor for its deterioration. The micromorphology of degraded wood cell walls was similar to that observed during the attacks of wood by erosion bacteria. Other bacterial forms, previously considered lo be scavenging bacteria, were also abundant in degraded areas of t...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh

Ultrastructure of degraded, CCA-treated Pinus radiata wood from a marine pile
1990 - IRG/WP 1461
During an inspection of marine piles, 12 years after installation, severe degradation was noted on one of them in the vicinity of a corroded eye-bolt. The wood was dark brown in colour and tended to crumble easily. Wood fragments were examined by light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy and were also analysed for carbohydrates and lignin. Light microscopy showed numerous ...
A P Singh, M E Hedley

Formation of soft rot cavities in relation to concentric layers in wood fibre walls
1983 - IRG/WP 1185
A large number of timber species attacked by soft rot have been examined using light microscopy. The S2 layers in a large number of the timbers exhibited special structural features in the form of thin concentric layers. Several observations indicate that these layers may be characterised as "weak" zones by being more easily degradable than the surrounding wall layers. The chemical structure of th...
T Nilsson, G F Daniel

Soft rot decay of Belian (Eusideroxylon zwageri) wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10119
The heartwood of Belian (Eusideroxylon zwageri), an East Malaysian timber species, is naturally durable due to its certain unique anatomical features and high content of extractives. The timber can tolerate years of exposure to hazardous conditions in ground contact and other situations without any significant loss in its strength. A few Belian transmission poles sampled from one locality in Saraw...
A H H Wong, A P Singh

Microbial decay in an extremely durable Malaysian hardwood Belian (Eusideroxylon zwageri) - an overview
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10216
The heartwood of Belian (Eusideroxylon zwageri) is highly regarded among the naturally durable Malaysian hardwoods, and is therefore a choice timber for soilcontact use in the humid tropics such as untreated telecommunication poles, fence posts and railway sleepers. The high microbial resistance of the wood is evidenced by the mere superficial degradation observed in some pole samples after 20 yea...
A H H Wong, A P Singh

Micromorphological Characteristics of Degradation in Bamboo Attacked by White Rot Fungus Lentinus edodes
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10575
In comparison with micromorphological works for wood decay, little known is about the decay pattern of bamboos by wood decay fungi. The present work was undertaken to understand the general degradation pattern of bamboo and the influence of polylaminate layers in bamboo fiber walls on the restriction of fungal decay. The weight loss of bamboo species Phyllostachys puberscens against the white rot ...
Chang Hyun Cho, Kwang Ho Lee, Yoon Soo Kim

Measurement of Cell Wall Moisture in Acetylated Radiata Pine Using Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
2016 - IRG/WP 16-20583
Understanding the interaction of water with acetylated wood is necessary to explain how the protective mechanism of acetylation functions. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance is one technique for assessing water in wood. Pinus radiata earlywood sapwood samples were acetylated to various weight percentage gains and then analysed with this method. Increased levels of acetylation showed significantl...
H G Beck, C A S Hill

The dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Examples of attack and remedial treatment
1988 - IRG/WP 1347
The film deals with several aspects of dry rot attack and eradication in buildings. The detailed biology and morphological charasteristics of the fungus are portrayed. The various forms of mycelial growth, the role of the strands in the nourishment and spread of the fungus, as well as the many types of fruitbody formation are outlined. Environmental and nutritional requirements of the fungus as we...
G Buchwald, B M Hegarty, W Metzner, R Pospischil, H Siegmund, P Grabow

Natural durability transfer from sawmill residues of white cypress (Callitris glaucophylla). - Part 3: Full penetration of the refractory sapwood of white cypress
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40167
The heartwood of white cypress, Callitris glaucophylla, is renowned for its termite resistance and durability against decay. The sapwood, which can represent up to 30% of log volume, is non-durable and refractory to conventional preservative treatment. Previous work ascribes the lack of permeability to oily deposits within tracheids and ray cells. Environmental scanning electron microscopy was use...
M J Kennedy, L M Stephens, M A Powell

Ultra-structural observations on the degradation of wood surfaces during weathering
1987 - IRG/WP 2280
Radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood was converted into blocks with a transverse face about 5 mm square and measuring 8 mm longitudinally. Transverse (T.S.), Radial (R.L.S.) and Tangential (T.L.S.) surfaces were prepared and specimens exposed to the weather inclined at 45° facing equatorially for periods of between 20-60 days. After 30 days exposure erosion of the middle lamella was observ...
P D Evans, S Thein

Ultrastructural observations on wood-degrading erosion bacteria
1986 - IRG/WP 1283
G F Daniel, T Nilsson

Soft-rot ultrastructure
1981 - IRG/WP 1138 (+ Addendum)
The stages of growth of soft-rot fungal hyphae in birch cell walls has been studied using transmission electron microscopy. These observations are compared with time-lapsed cinemicrographic studies on infection and cavity development within wood cell walls which show a start-stop hyphal growth pattern. The fine structure of hyphae during each stage of the decay process shows that hyphae penetratin...
M D C Hale, R A Eaton

Ultrastructural and TEM-EDAX studies on the degradation of CCA treated radiata pine by tunnelling bacteria
1985 - IRG/WP 1260
An ultrastructural study was carried out on bacterial attacked Pinus radiata stakes treated with a high level (24.7 kg/m³) of Tanalith NCA preservative. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether the organism possessed intracellular and/or extracellular detoxification mechanisms in order to overcome the high levels of copper, chrome and arsenic present within the wood fibre walls. ...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson

Ultrastructure of the attack of a naturally durable timber by tunnelling bacteria
1990 - IRG/WP 1462
The attack of the wood of Eusideroxylon zwageri, a naturally durable species, by tunnelling bacteria (TB) was examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Observations were made primarily on fibres. Parenchyma were included in some cases. Both fibres and parenchyma are rich in extractives. In fibres, extractives are primarily present in the lumen. The amber colouration of fib...
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel

Water-based water repellents for treatment of wood
1987 - IRG/WP 3446
The water uptake by wood can be reduced by treatment with a water repellent. The water repellents most commonly used are solvent based. In the present work a new type of water repellent that is water-based has been investigated. Two different treatments have shown an effect of the same order as a commercial solvent based product. The cellular distribution of the water repellents has been investiga...
I G Svensson, G Hägglund, I Johansson, W B Banks

Laboratory and field evaluation of Plasmite Reticulation System using bifenthrin as a chemical barrier within wall cavities against subterranean termites.
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20307
Laboratory and field bioassays undertaken to demonstrate Plasmite Reticulation system effectively delivers the termiticide (bifenthrin) within a simulated wall cavity at the required concentration. The chemical assay indicated that the amount of bifenthrin sampled at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25m along the simulated reticulation system tested (30m) exceeded the manufacturer’s minimum recommendation of ...
J R J French, B M Ahmed, J Thorpe, A Anderson

Degradation of the normal fibre walls of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) by the tropical blue-stain fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10286
Rubberwood was examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after exposure to the common tropical sapstain fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae for four weeks to study hyphal colonisation of wood cells and to determine if this fungus also degraded lignified normal fibre cell walls in addition to the walls of non-lignified elements. Light microscopy revealed relatively large ...
A A H Wong, A P Singh

Water sprinkled pine wood: A microscope study on boards showing streaking
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10033
Boards sawn from the outer sapwood of pine lumber previously water sprinkled for periods of 10-18 weeks and kiln dried, showed streaking after staining. Two types of enhanced stain uptake were noted: 1) a more concentrated and localized form after 10 weeks and 2) a more diffuse type which developed in later stages of water sprinkling. Areas showing enhanced stain uptake were examined using light a...
G F Daniel, T Elowson, T Nilsson, A P Singh, K Liukko

Estimation of effective diffusion path lengths in wood by swelling studies
1989 - IRG/WP 3524
The effective average distance that a solute must diffuse to penetrate the cell wall matrix following pressure treatment is estimated from the rate of swelling of wood, vacuum treated with water. It is assumed that the diffusion paths are similar for water and a solute such as a wood preservative component. Since bound water diffusion coefficients for water in wood have been estimated by others, t...
P A Cooper, R Churma

The attack of naturally durable and creosote treated timbers by Limnoria tripunctata Menzies
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10132
Limnoria tripunctata was found tunnelling in creosote treated Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) pilings and naturally durable greenheart (Ocotea rodiaei) gate seals at two sites on the south coast of the United Kingdom. Examination of thc creosote-treated wood showed that Limnoria tunnels were concentrated at a depth of 2-3 cm from the timber surface, where creosote loading was lower. Fewer tunn...
A J Pitman, G S Sawyer, G F Daniel

Role of cell wall structure in soft rot decay of bamboo
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10133
Models of soft rot hyphal penetration of bamboo cell walls are proposed. Soft rot hyphae show an interesting capability of penetrating the bamboo cell wall in different forms; typical longitudinal penetrating hyphae and tangentially orientated penetrating hyphae. The second form of penetration was found to be different from that normally associated with wood cell walls. The differences can be attr...
O Sulaiman, R J Murphy

Termite Response to Agricultural Fiber Composites: Hemp
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10548
Industrial hemp, Cannabis sativa, is a fiber usable in manufacture of nutritional products, rope, textiles, paper and building products. Due to the illicit recreational uses of Cannabis sativa varieties with high tetrahydrocannabinol content (marijuana), hemp is not grown commercially in the United States. However, it is grown in many other nations, and has been proposed as a replacement for sugar...
J K Grace

Degradation of the gelatinous-layer in aspen and rubber wood by the blue stain fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10168
Studies on the degradative ability of the blue stain fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae Pat. have shown several strains to cause significant weight losses (i.e. ca 20%) in the temperate and tropical wood species, aspen (Populus tremula) and rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis). In addition to the consumption of soluble carbohydrates and extractives, major changes in the ultrastructure of fibre cell walls...
O Encinas, G F Daniel

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