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Leaching of Active Components from Preservative Treated Timber. Stage 1: Semi-Field Testing
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20302
The project is aiming at finding realistic leaching rates from preservative-treated wood in use class 3 (above ground). The project focuses on developing a field trial method for investigating leaching. Panels are subjected to outdoor exposure under natural weather conditions at a test field at the Danish Technological Institute. The leachate is collected and monitored by chemical analysis of the active ingredients. The project is ongoing and the paper presents results from approximately 12 months’ of exposure. The study includes commercially available organic and inorganic fungicides using 4 different application methods: vacuum-pressure-, double-vacuum-, flow coat and supercritical treatment. Different test set-ups examine the influence of a number of different parameters. The results obtained from outdoor exposure will be compared with a laboratory test method (proposal of CEN/OECD, DOC TC38 WG 27 N039). The method investigated has proved to be useful in characterising the leaching behaviour from preservative-treated wood. The results from the present project are intended to serve as part of the basic documentation according to Directive 98/8/EC (The Biocidal Products Directive, BPD) for leaching of active ingredients in use class 3.
N Morsing, B Lindegaard


Field trial with poles of Scots pine treated with six different creosotes
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30115
In the middle of the 50's field trials with creosote-treated poles were started in France, Germany and Sweden. The trials were initiated by WEI (Western-European Institute for Wood Preservation). Six different creosotes were used and 40 poles per creosote were installed at each test field. Results after 39 years of exposure in Simlangsdalen, Sweden are reported. Poles treated with a heavy creosote were less decayed than poles treated with medium-heavy creosotes. Poles treated with a light creosote were most decayed.
Ö Bergman


Short-term field test method with accelerated infection of Basidiomycetes in wood
1981 - IRG/WP 2155
In the ŠIPAD - IRC Wood Protection Laboratory an attempt has been made to develop a simple short-term method for field testing out-of-ground contact wood using accelerated infections with Basidiomycetes. This method makes it possible to obtain a preliminary assessment of a preservative's quality and to estimate the possibility of achieving promising results in more expensive long-term tests. The idea was to use water traps (reservoirs) and 50 x 25 x 15 mm³ laboratory infected pine blocks as the substrate to improve the possibility of inoculation of L-joints.
N Vidovic


Quantitative assessment of the condition of field specimens
1981 - IRG/WP 2154
Suggestions for a discussion on the desirability of an extension to the existing procedure of assessment of the condition of field specimens by adding more objective, reproducible methods in order to obtain earlier and more specific information than at present on the effect of biological attack on strength and other properties of the specimens as well as the time aspect.
H Friis-Hansen


Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts by the double-diffusion method
1982 - IRG/WP 3196
Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated by the double-diffusion method with two chemical combinations showed average lives of 11.2 years (copper sulphate and potassium dichromate at 10.5 kg/m³ retention)and of 14.3 years (copper sulphate and sodium mono-H arsenate at 7.1 kg/m³ retention), as determined in five test sites in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The exponential model was the best fit when expressing average life by the Decay Index (DI) as a function of time.
E S Lepage, A R De Freitas


Austrian field test method for anti-sapstain chemicals
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20020
Although Austria is a small country, the annual consumption of anti-sapstain products ranks to approximately 500 tons annually. In 1994, only three products will be approved by the Austrian Wood Preservation Committee (AWPEC). There is demand for a field test method, which demonstrates the efficacy of an anti-sapstain product and consequently implies the acceptance and approval of product by the AWPEC. Present field test was carried out in 1992 and 1993. The results were evaluated after six months storage of test stacks. A TCMTB based product was used as a reference. The results show that the AFPRL method proves very suitable for the simulation of practical situation in Austrian treatment plants, where pine and/or spruce are treated periodically and where different methods of stack storage are applied.
R Gründlinger, M Brandstätter, H Melzer, O Janotta


Quantitative assessment of field specimens. A proposal for discussion
1980 - IRG/WP 2143
H Friis-Hansen


Field testing of soil insecticides as termiticides
1986 - IRG/WP 1294
This paper reviews field methods used to evaluate soil insecticides as termiticides by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gulfport, Mississippi. Field tests are conducted on a minimum of five "nationwide sites" in the United States to determine the efficacy of chemicals in various soil types and against different termite species. Test results of selected insecticides are presented.
R H Beal


A new accelerated field test for termites
1983 - IRG/WP 1178
A new accelerated field test method for termites is described. Two series of tests were conducted with this accelerated method and the results were very encouraging.
W E Conradie, A Jansen


In ground contact field trial results of preservative treated incised and unincised spruce
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40076
Field trials of treated spruce stakes have been demonstrated that incising the stake before treatment improves the preservative uptake both for CCA and creosote. This results in a substantially extended service life for the incised stakes over the unincised stakes for preservative concentrations at commercial levels. After 24 years in ground contact the majority of incised spruce samples are sound and have provided data which indicates that the stakes treated with CCA or creosote to commercial standards could last for more than 41 years.
E D Suttie


Evaluation by experimentation on site of a new method for termite control
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10173
A new concept of subterranean termite control consists of the installation of toxic baits in or around the infested construction. Dow Elanco has developed a bait system based on Hexaflumuron. This active ingredient is an insect growth regulator with slow acting effect. A lot of trials were conducted in the USA, but none in France until now. We realised on site experiments, in order to estimate the efficacy of this bait system against French termites. 3 on site experiments (field trial, private house, building) and the first results are described.
A-M Pruvost, M-M Serment, M Jéquel


A method of predicting the average life of field tests on preservative-treated stakes
1977 - IRG/WP 297
The paper presents an analysis of the results of completed field stake tests on untreated and preserved timber, and develops a method of predicting the average life of incomplete stake tests on wood preservatives from the failures that have occurred so far.
D F Purslow


Development of a method for testing wood preservatives with soft rot fungi
1975 - IRG/WP 250
Although the first publications on experimental soft rot attack date back 20 years ago, so far no test method for evaluating the efficacy of wood preservatives against soft rot attack (Ascomycetes and Fungi Imperfecti) has been generally accepted. The reasons are diverse and the shortcomings and the disadvantages of the methods described are well known and have repeatedly been discussed. The soil burial method developed by G. THEDEN (1961) using non-sterilised soils with their natural flora of micro-organisms is said to be poorly reproducible. One possibility to work with clearly defined test fungi and easily reproducible test conditions was developed and described by P. KAUNE in the BAM as the vermiculite burial method. For the further development of this method, in the past years numerous investigations have been made in the BAM to select test fungi and define a test arrangement. Their results will be summarised below.
M Gersonde, W Kerner-Gang


Correlation between a laboratory bioassay and field trial conducted to determine the termiticidal effectiveness of bifenthrin
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20248
Details are given of a laboratory bioassay and field trial undertaken to determine the termiticidal effectiveness of the synthetic pyrethroid bifenthrin, when impregnated into Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood specimens. Results show a strong correlation between the laboratory and field methods of evaluation. Protection threshold limits obtained were the same for the two test species of termite employed, Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt and Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Lower and upper threshold limits obtained for M. darwiniensis in both the laboratory and field were 10 and 20 g/m3. The threshold limits for C. acinaciformis were not determined, but must be less than the lowest retentions tested (<2.5 g/m3 in the laboratory and <5 g/m3 in the field).
J W Creffield, K Watson


Performance of treated and untreated sawn fence posts of Scots pine and Norway spruce
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30247
Sawn fence posts are a rather important product and the objective of this trial was to assess their durability. In 1985 a field trial with treated and untreated fence posts of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) was set out at the test field in Ultuna, Uppsala, Sweden. The posts had a dimension of 75 x 100 x 1400 mm3. The preservatives applied were a CCA, an ammoniacal copper and a creosote. In 1991 fence posts of the same species and size were set out at the test field in Simlångsdalen, Sweden and the preservatives used were a CCA and an ammoniacal copper quaternary compound. The assessment showed that all treated fence posts were attacked very little (mean rating 0 - 0.5) during the first 3 - 4 years at the two test sites. After 7 to 8 years the mean ratings were around 1.0 (slight decay). In Ultuna, after 13 years of exposure, the mean ratings are around 2.0 (moderate decay). The mean service life of untreated Scots pine was 10.2 years in Ultuna and 5.4 years in Simlångsdalen and for untreated Norway spruce 7.5 and 3.2 years, respectively.
Ö Bergman


Co-operative field trial. Background notes and questionnaire for field sites
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3733
The first co-operative field trial was designed to study the occurrence of soft-rot in CCA treated hardwoods. Generally speaking very similar results were obtained from the different field sites. In the early part of the trial considerable variability was evident with regard to the rate and type of attack which occurred in the untreated material. With the CCA treated timber the type of decay was predominantly soft-rot. It cannot be assumed that with alternative preservatives that the same mode of failure will be as dominant. In such cases the treated timber in different sites may well perform differently. On the other hand, the pattern of failure may be very similar between sites with variation in rates of decay being more evident due to differing distribution of the causal organisms. Tolerant soft-rot fungi tend to be ubiquitious but this is not necessarily the case with other groups. After consideration in the sub-group it was decided to study the variability between sites with regard to the performance of a range of preservatives in a limited number of wood species. A standard CCA preservative would also be included as a point of reference. The overall objective of the trial was very simply summarised as follows: "To identify the number and type of sites required to have confidence in approving a wood preservative". This overall objective has the great attraction that it takes into account all the possible objectives raised in the discussion. It offers the scope to provide data and material to study a whole range of problems and factors of interest to the members, and of international importance when assessing and predicting the performance of wood preservatives.
D J Dickinson


Fungus cellar testing as an evaluation method for performance of treated timber in ground contact
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20227
A fungus cellar method for the accelerated evaluation of performance of treated wood in ground contact is described. The test soil comprised of sandy loam, vermiculite and Japanese horticulture soil "Kanumatsuchi" in a ratio of 6:2:2 by volume. The soil was inoculated with the dominant test fungus isolated with selective medium from decayed wood samples. Pairs of treated and untreated wood specimens Japanese cedar in contact with each other were buried vertically for two thirds their length. Assessment of the specimens was carried out periodically using the FFPRI graveyard damage index six- grade scale. Important factors for accelerating decay were the moisture control of the mixed soil, temperature and relative humidity, and the maintenance of fungus activity. The fungus used for inoculation favored a soil water holding capacity (WHC) of 50-80%. Under these conditions the untreated control specimens had a damage index in six months equivalent to three years FFPRI graveyard test service life, the decay accelerating rate by the fungus cellar to the graveyard test was 6 times. Under higher soil moisture conditions (WHC>80%) in the fungus cellar, soft rot was dominant and the decay rate was slower. DDAC treated specimens (8.4kg/m3) had a damage index of 2.6 in three years and 3.0 in four years. DDAC treated specimens (8.2kg/m3) in the graveyard test have been shown to be durable for 12 years (damage index of 2.3 in ten years and 2.6 after 12 years). This fungus cellar method has been shown to accelerate decay in DDAC treated specimens 3 times or more in comparison to the FFPRI graveyard test. On the other hand specimens treated with Copper-azole (6.0kg/m3 as retention of actives) had a damage index of 0 after eight years. The average service life in the FFPRI graveyard test is not decided as the Copper-azole treated specimens are in sound condition so it is not yet possible to evaluate the accelerating rate for the Copper-azole by the fungus cellar method. The fungus cellar method will be an useful method for the accelerated evaluation of performance of treated wood in ground contact provided the test conditions can be controlled.
Y Nagano


Supplementary experiment to the main trial (IRG/WP/367, 384) to determine the performance of preservative treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot
1977 - IRG/WP 3101
The field experiment being carried out by the IRG (described in document IRG/WP/367) is designed to obtain information on the performance of a preservative in different hardwoods in ground contact. A total of 57 timber species is being examined and 36 different field sites are involved representing a complete range of climatic conditions. IRG document WP/384 describes the treatment details of the trial. At the inception of the trial a decision was taken to limit the experiment by including only one preservative and this was chosen as a copper-chrome-arsenic type conforming to British Standard BS 4072 : 1974. The wisdom of that decision is now clear since, even with one preservative, there are more than 6000 stakes involved. At the IRG meetings in the last three years this experiment has been considered in the general discussion of soft rot in hardwoods, and the desire has been expressed to extend the scope to an evaluation of the performance of hardwoods treated with other preservatives. In this connection, creosote, copper-chrome-boron, copper-chrome-fluoride and PCP in fuel oil have been mentioned. In view of the length of time required to plan a co-operative trial up to the time of installing the stakes in the test plot it is apparent that the next stages of the work, involving detailed tests using other preservatives, will not be completed for some time. A programme was therefore planned by the authors to carry out a limited experiment on the lines of the first formal IRG field trial, but using CBC, PCP and creosote as the preservatives. By carrying out the treatments quickly it we hoped to be able to install the test stakes with a minimum of delay after the setting out the stakes in the main trial. It was decided to use three of the main experiment reference species. Betula pendula, Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris and one additional hardwood Eucalyptus maculata. It was further decided to expose the treated stakes at two sites, in the UK and Australia.
F W Brooks, C R Coggins, D J Dickinson


Attempt for developing a new method for above ground field testing of wood durability
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20199
Field testing remains the most appropriate way for evaluation of wood preservatives or natural durability of wood species. Above ground tests are designed to answer specific questions concerning the outdoor utilisation of wood. Such methods supply additional information and confirm or reject preliminary laboratory results. The European standard (ENV 12037, "lap-joint") for assessment of the durability of preservative treated wood in above ground testing has recently been proposed. It may also be used to assess the natural durability of wood. The objective of the present paper is to bear some discussion on alternative above ground test methods. The existing lap-joint field test corresponds to the real exploitation conditions of timber, but shows no decay after 2-3 years of exposure. This could be misleading when assessing the efficiency of preservatives. The method suggested acts more quickly compared to the lap-joint method with regard to mould, stain and, presumably, decay fungi. It is an accelerated above ground field test providing conditions favourable for fungal growth, but following close the fluctuations of climate. Results are shown where samples treated with preservatives for above ground use and untreated samples were exposed to the accelerated above ground test for several months. Fungal discoloration of the timber surface was classified by visual examination according to a seven-grade scale. The field test described here may be recommended for quickly testing of the natural durability of wood in above ground conditions as well as for approval of preservatives.
N Terziev, M-L Edlund


International comparison of three field methods for assessing the in-ground termite resistance of materials - highlights after two years
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20157
First-year results of a comparative study, evaluating the in-ground termite resistance of a range of materials, including CCA and ACQ-treated timbers, using the below-ground exposure, ground contact and graveyard methods against diverse termite faunas were provided in IRG/WP/98-20132. Further annual inspections have confirmed early trends and identified notable differences between sites and methods. Termites have contacted specimens more frequently at tropical sites, irrespective of the method, and in below-ground exposure trials, irrespective of site. Overall, levels of fungal decay have been low. Fungal decay was more prevalent in specimens using the ground-contact and graveyard methods. Notable levels of termite attack have been recorded for some CCA- and ACQ-treated Pinus radiata specimens at the retention of 2kg/m3, after two years or only one year (Phuket, Thailand). Some specimens of the durable timber bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) have sustained significant levels of termite attack and fungal decay.
M Lenz, J W Creffield, A F Preston, B M Kard, C Vongkaluang, Y Sornnuwat


An attempt to develop a direct and reliable method for testing the preventive action of preservation treatments of wood against fungal decay
1980 - IRG/WP 2139
In wood preservation there are two classical ways for assessing the reliability of preventive treatments against wood decay: the laboratory tests in which the various parameters are evaluated independently and the field tests or service tests in which those parameters are acting together in the natural environment. One has always tried to build bridges between the two types of experiments and to establish correlations between their results, but a rather large gap is still persisting. The aim of the research which is reported was to develop a method for testing directly the preventive action against basidiomycetes decay when the treatments do not lead to a full impregnation of the wood, but only raise a barrier of limited depth. A method has been developed, testing the wood specimens (of various sizes and shapes for representing various types of end-uses) out of test vessels, i.e. in non sterile conditions, but with well checked pure cultures. The various steps of the research are exposed and the results so far obtained allow to expect some interesting possibilities of testing directly, rapidly and accurately the resistance of any wood product, in its ready to use form, to decay by basidiomycetes.
M Fougerousse


The full guideline for the “double layer test method” - A field test method for determining the durability of wood out of ground
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20290
This guideline describes a test method for wood to be exposed to the weather out of ground contact. The main objective of the method is to evaluate the durability of wood in above ground exposure as shifted overlaid stakes, which form the so called double layer. The method is applicable to the testing of untreated, treated and modified wood. Initially it was developed and found to be most useful for testing of natural durability. As a simple and effective test method, it spread quite fast. Up to now more than 30 double layer tests are running in different countries of the world. The inventors of the double layer test were asked to come up with a full and precise guideline for this test methodology to enable interested scientist making use of this test method. Therefore this IRG- document was written as an instruction for those who would like to perform this test.
A O Rapp, U Augusta


Leaching of active components from preservative-treated timber - Ongoing research: Status after approx. 4 months’ out-door exposure
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20276
The Danish Technological Institute is together with manufacturers of active ingredients and formulators of wood preservatives running a project aiming at finding realistic leaching rates from preservative treated wood in hazard class 3 (above ground). The project is focussed on developing a field trial method for investigating leaching. According to BPD hazard assessment has to be carried out for biocide products and a part of that includes possible environmental impact of preservative treated wood. Leaching of active ingredients from treated wood has to be measured and assessed. Several organisations (CEN, OECD and others) are in progress of developing laboratory leaching test methods. In order to give more realistic data for leaching of active ingredients it is important to study natural exposure. According to recent publications (IRG/WP 01-50171), it appears to be a significant difference between natural leaching and laboratory leaching methods and a relative comparison is, therefore, needed. Data from close to practice applications are important in order to support products in the BPD. Furthermore, the results are needed to provide benchmarking data to allow other laboratory or accelerated leaching data to be put into perspective. The results from the project are intended to serve as part of the basic documentation for leaching of active ingredients in hazard class 3. Panels are exposed outdoors under natural conditions at the field trial at Danish Technological Institute and the leachate is collected and monitored by chemical analysis of the active ingredients. The project is ongoing and the paper presents results from approximately 6 months of exposure. The study includes commercially available organic and in-organic fungicides using 4 different application methods: pressure-, vacuum-, flow-coat- and supercritical treated wood. Different test set-ups are investigated and the results obtained from outdoor exposure will be compared with a laboratory test method (CEN/OECD). Furthermore, the laboratory method suggested by CEN/OECD is evaluated and suggestions for improvement are stated.
N Morsing


A field method for determining the above-ground resistance of wood and wood products to attack by subterranean termite
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20035
A method for determining the above-ground resistance of wood and wood products to subterranean termites in the field is described. Termites are aggregated in 20-litre steel drums, each containing a highly susceptible timber substrate. At the centre of each drum, specimens of the test material under evaluation are sandwiched, using circular sections of wire mesh, between two layers of the substrate. The drums are connected by plastic piping to infested trees or to other drums which have previously aggregated target species of termites. Preliminary results in the use of this method are presented in a study comparing the resistance of eight untreated timber species and one species treated with a copper-chromium-arsenic (CCA) formulation to Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt and Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) in the Northern Territory of Australia. Advantages of this field method are discussed
J W Creffield


Collaborative field trial out-of-ground contact
1982 - IRG/WP 2179
At the 12th meeting of the IRG in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia it was decided after considerable discussion that the best way to proceed with the work of the subgroup was to centre it around a co-operative field trial based on the L-joint test detailed in IRG/WP/2157. At the same time it was agreed that interested laboratories would also conduct their own methods, particularly the German planner test and the French and Yugoslavian inoculation techniques. It has since been decided to concentrate the main part of the test within Europe using Pinus sylvestris joints from a common source and to provide chemicals to other laboratories interested in conducting a similar trial with their own wood species. In this way it is hoped to achieve a tightly controlled comparative test with the CEN countries and to allow greater international comparison. The test is to employ simulated joinery units treated with a good and poor preservative system and exposed out of doors. Periodically replicates will be examined destructively. The destructive examination will consist of a measure of the onset of increased permeability of the wood and the initiation of colonisation by wood destroying Basidiomycetes. It is proposed to use two levels of TnBTO in a model preservative and to apply the preservatives by dipping and by double vacuum.
D J Dickinson, A F Bravery, J K Carey


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