IRG Documents Database and Compendium


Search and Download IRG Documents:



Between and , sort by


Displaying your search results

Your search resulted in 64 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.


The influence of climate changes on Central European forests with an emphasis on Slovenia
2022 - IRG/WP 22-50368
When forests are managed sustainably, they play an essential role in protecting climate and biodiversity. They protect soils and water resources, provide livelihoods, and contribute to the well-being of rural and urban communities. European forests are multifunctional and provide a range of ecosystem services. These include the production of renewable materials that can replace materials with a larger environmental footprint, thus also contributing to climate neutrality and overall sustainability. Forestry is one of the key sectors capable of reducing dependence on non-renewable resources, mitigating climate change, and thus enabling the transition to a circular bioeconomy. At the same time, forest ecosystems worldwide face a number of threats that are exacerbated by climate change. Global warming will affect future species distribution, timber supply and wood properties (quality). Conservation and management of forest genetic resources, the base of forest biodiversity and productivity, is an essential component of sustainable forestry. In addition, sustainable forestry requires a constant and efficient supply of high-quality seed and seedlings of forest trees. With a high share of forest cover and abundant natural resources, Slovenia shows great potential for transition into a circular bioeconomy. Due to the impact of climate change, recognition of the importance of biodiversity and the concepts of sustainable forest management, changes in the species composition of Slovenian forests are expected in the near future, which will be reflected in a higher proportion of deciduous tree species, affecting all actors in the forest-wood value chain. This paper aims to highlight up-to-date facts about the state of forests in Europe, forests and forestry in Slovenia, the importance of sustainable forest management for forest-based climate change mitigation and adaptation, the role of forest genetic resources and provision of tree seeds and seedlings for sustainable forest development.
J Gričar, L Krajnc, M Westergren, S Rus, H Kraigher


Methods of treatment of wood preservatives. The selection of appropriate preservation process with particular reference to mixed tropical forest resources. A key address
1982 - IRG/WP 3177
All wood is biodegradable. Many timber species have, however, sufficient natural durability to permit their use, particularly in protected situations, without any special precautions. Many others, of course, are readily attacked by insects and where there is sufficient moisture and air, by wood-decaying fungi. It is these timber species which benefit most from treatment with wood preservatives. Even the so called durables may also benefit so since all sapwood is perishable and durable heartwood in the sea or in ground contact eventually fails from attack by animals and/or micro-organisms. In recent years it has become apparent that for high hazard end uses it is necessary to consider the timber species/preservative type/treatment method as a single unit. It is of course possible, after accumulation of experience and test data, to group certain timber species into classes which can be processed together but until this has been established it is necessary to consider each and every timber species as a distinct biological entity which will respond differently to other timber species to preservative treatment. It has also been found that the most widespread treatment process, vacuum/pressure treatment, is inappropriate for many of the timber species available from the world's forests, particularly hardwoods. In ground contact, the commercially available preservatives do not provide the needed protection against fungal decay and in low hazard uses other preservatives and processes may be used more cost effectively for at least equally satisfactory results. In many temperate countries depletion of durable hardwoods led to wide use of perishable conifers in high hazard sites; wood preservation using tar oils or water-borne fixed preservatives applied by pressure improved these conifers so that in many uses they outlasted the best of the durable hardwoods. Thus, and rightly so, emphasis has been placed in most temperate countries on this approach, non-leachable preservatives applied by pressure to permeable coniferous wood. It is thus reasonable to assume that wood preservation has been very successful. Or has it? It depends on the approach made, and whether the objectives of those using wood preservation have been met. The selection of treatment methods depends heavily upon the objectives and the way successful wood preservation is gauged.
C R Levy


Inventaire des "déchets" ou produits connexes de la filière bois
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-33
G Marcotte


Wood preservation in China
1989 - IRG/WP 3546
Huiming Zhou, Zhongwei Jin


Role of Global Cooperation in Wood Protection for Conserving Forest Resources
2007 - IRG/WP 07-50249
The current uses of treated wood are discussed along with the emerging concerns for continued use of these products. The issues of new chemicals, treatments for wood based composites, migration of chemicals from treated wood, and the disposal of these products at the end of their useful life are all outlined. The potential for the IRG to serve as the focus for research discussion as well as collaborative projects to help enhance wood performance are discussed.
J J Morrell, G Deroubaix


Forest management policies and timber supplies in British Columbia
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10244
British Columbia has a huge wealth of timber resources, currently exceeding 7 billion m3 of mature timber on about 43 million ha classified as productive forest lands. That land area also supports a current volume of over 2 billion m3 of timber in immature stands. How much of the volume will be made available as an annual timber supply for the forest industry is dependent upon a set of policies governing timber harvest regulation, including social decisions on land and resource allocations, such as parks, and required resource management practices, such as environmental protection measures. These policies are considered by the province's Chief Forester along with detailed inventory data when determining an Allowable Annual Cut for each sustained-yield management unit. This paper provides an overview of timber harvest regulation in British Columbia and examines some of the major policy initiatives affecting timber supplies. Results of the recent Timber Supply Review are presented, along with a forecast of timber supply trends over the next several decades. Opportunities for increasing future supplies are identified.
R B Addison


Wood preservation in Uruguay
1987 - IRG/WP 3404
The purpose of this paper is a brief description of the current status of wood treatment in Uruguay. The forest resources of the country are summarized, the environment, their economic importance and future potential. The present wood treating facilities are described, together with the chemicals used and the standards generally accepted. Wood treated products used in the Uruguayan market are cited as well as their future. Indicative figures are given on the relative prices of treated wood and its competitives like concrete or imported hardwoods, as well as of the economic incidence of treatment in the price of wood. Finally, a few words about the present status of teaching and research on wood preservation in Uruguay.
G Baillod


Report an some aspects of forest and the timber preservation in Fiji 1999
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40189
This report is divided in two sections. One is the general description of some aspects of the Forest indicating timber availability in Fiji. The other Section is an "Status of Timber Preservation in Fiji in 1999".
S D Kumar


What can DNA fingerprinting, aggression tests and morphometry contribute to the identification of colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10371
Multilocus DNA fingerprinting, aggression tests and morphometry were compared to evaluate their potential for the identification of colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Hawaii. DNA fingerprinting separates the termites from all studied collection sites. Since the genetic similarity between termites from different collection sites lies in the range of the genetic background similarity in the population, collection sites in this study represent independent colonies. No significant differences could be found in the intra- and intercolonial aggression levels. While aggression tests do not support colony identification, morphometric measurements do show differentiations between colonies. However, classification of individuals to their original colony does not reach the 100% success provided by genetic analyses. No correlation between genetic similarities and aggression levels or morphometric distances could be found. This suggests that neither aggression levels nor morphometric parameters are significantly influenced by genetic factors in this species. Genetic studies appear to be the most useful approach to the identification of colonies and the analysis of small scale population structures in C. formosanus.
C Husseneder, J K Grace


Forest products laboratory methodology for monitoring decay in wood exposed above ground
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20074
Research at the Forest Products Laboratory on the durability of wood in service has included a full complement of laboratory and field tests. In this report, we present a review of past and current methods used to evaluate the condition of preservative-treated wood exposed above ground. Current protocols are described for tests on wood packaging, roofing, and dimension lumber.
R C De Groot, T L Highley


Influence of abiotic factors on the production of Basidiocarps by lignocellulolitic Hymenomycetes from native forest and plantations of Pinus elliottii Engelm in the Fontes do Ipiranga State Park, São Paulo, Brazil
1991 - IRG/WP 1469
A report on the influence of abiotic factors on the production of basidiocarps by lignocellulotic Hymenomycetes of native forest and Pinus elliottii. It was concluded that the climatic conditions (temperature, humidity, microhabitat) and the decay stage of the logs affected the production of basidiocarps by Hymenomycetes.
M Aparecida de Jesus


Lignocellulotitic Hymenomycetes from native forest and Pinus elliottii Engelm in the Fontes do Ipiranga State Park, São Paulo, Brazil
1991 - IRG/WP 1468
Results show a distinct microflora for each forest type. A total of 9 families, 45 genera and 67 species were distributed among the two forest ecosystems were studied. Antrodiella, Auricularia, Grammothele, Steccherinum, Stereum and Trametes were found only in the native forest, where Antrodiella hydrophila (Berk. & Curt.) Ryv., Grammothele sp, Phellinus gilvus (Schw.) Pat., Rigidoporus microporus (Fr.) Overeem, Schizopora flavipora (Cke.) Ryv. and Trametes versicolor (Fr.) Pilat. were the most frequent species. Logs associated with Dentipellis dissita (Berk. & Cke.) Mass., Hydnochaete badia Bres., Lentinus calyx (Speg.) Pegler, Lentinus nigroosseus Pilat., Phellinus gilvus (Schw.) Pat., Rigidoporus lineatus (Pers.) Ryv., Steccherinum reniforme (Berk. & Curt.) Banker., Tomentella pallida (Rick) Penteado, Trametes versicolor (Fr.) Pilat., showed rapid decay during the sampling period. The Pinus elliottii plantation demonstrated specificity for Cladoderris dendritica Pers., Skvortzovia furfurella (Bres.) Bononi & Hjortst. The majority of the logs in this type of forest yielded Scytinostroma basidiocarps. Cladoderris and Scytinostroma formed basidiocarps over the entire log. Logs with Hypochnicium punctulatum (Cke.) Erikss., H. Sphaerosporum (Hohn. & Litsch.) Erikss., Scytinostroma aff. galactinum (Fr.) Donk, Scytinostroma sp1, Scytinostroma sp2, Skvortzovia furfurella (Bres.) Bononi & Hjortst., Trechispora cohaereuns (Schw.) Julich. & Stalp., and Trechispora sp had apparently a higher rate of decay than others. Antrodiella hydrophila (Berk. & Curt.) Ryv., Hypochnicium sphaerosporum (Hohn. & Litch.) Erikss., Hymenochaete aff. dura (Berk. & Curt.), Lentinus calyx (Speg.) Pegler, Pachykytospora alabamae (Berg. & Cke.) Ryv., Porodisculus pendulus (Schw.) Murr., Schizopora flavipora (Cke.) Ryv., Scytinostroma aff. galactinum (Fr.) Donk and Trechispora cohaereuns (Schw.) Julich & Stalp., are reported for the first time in Brazil.
M Aparecida de Jesus


Wood preservation in Spain
1983 - IRG/WP 3266
This report includes some statistical data on the potential of Spanish forests and the country's timber consumption as well as detailing the extent of development of the wood products industries, and will help to give a better understanding of the use of this raw material in Spain. The main biological deteriorating organisms which damage wood are given and the capacity of the industrial treatments for preventing their damage is described, including an inventory of the vacuum/pressure and double/vacuum plants, together with the consumption of the different types of preservative used. Also the extent of wood treatment undertaken by the various industries has been analysed together with the conditions which characterize these. The homologation system that permits the manufacture of wood preservatives, their import, trade and marketing is also explained and, finally, a current list of existing standards and specifications that are used in Spain is appended. From studying this paper it can be concluded that wood preservation in Spain is characterized by: 1) under-utilization of the industrial treatment capacity available; 2) a low level of treatment, except for poles and sleepers, and consequently there is a scanty consumption of preservatives; 3) a lack of standardization; and 4) there is, in many instances, a lack of adequate laws and regulations. But looking forward, the future can be viewed with optimism and with good expectations in the coming years for an increasing development of the wood preservation industry which could result in a potential saving of timber of about 10% of the apparent yearly consumption.
A Lopez de Roma, R Cockcroft


Wood preservation in Kenya
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40191
Current research on wood preservation in Kenya is mainly on the development of biological control of wood-destroying termite species, using mycoinsecticides. The major research institutions include the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Moi University and the International Centre for Insect Physiology (ICIPE). Training institutions include Forestry Training College, Forest Products Training Institute and Moi University. A number of publications, mostly an biological control of termites, are available and they range from workshop and conference proceedings to theses and journal publications. Wood-destroying termite species include several genera in Macrotermitidae and one drywood termite genus. Wood preservation facilities are available in Kenya, mainly for assorted timber products, sleepers and utility poles. The major preservatives used are CCAs, PCP and Creosote oil. There are still no set standards, specifications and requirements for wood preservatives and little, if any information exists on the marketing aspects of wood preservatives. The yet to be established Industrial Chemicals Act and the recently introduced Environmental Management and Coordination Bill (1999) may be able to handle regulatory, environmental, health and safety aspects of wood preservation in Kenya.
G Ochiel


Decay resistance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) heartwood against brown rot
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10433
Natural decay resistance of wood is mainly restricted in the heartwood and based on wood microstructure and chemical composition. The genetic variation in the durability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood against decay and the relationship between resistance and chemical composition was studied. The laboratory tests of 6 and 8 weeks were carried out with a brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana (Schum. ex Fr) Karst (strain Bam EBW 15). The increment core samples of sapwood and juvenile heartwood, obtained from about 30-year-old half-sib progenies, were decayed using a modification of the standardised EN 113 method. The average density of the sapwood was 391 mg/cm3 (one stand) and that of heartwood samples 337 and 376 mg/cm3 (two stands). The average mass loss of the sapwood samples was 114 mg/cm3 (6 weeks, stand 1) and that of the heartwood samples 80 mg/cm3 (6 weeks, stand 1) and 123 mg/cm3 (8 weeks, stand 2). The variation among heartwood samples was high. The additive genetic component was small in stand 1 but quite large in stand 2, which resulted in a low narrow sense heritability h2 in stand 1 (0.07) but high in stand 2 (0.37). New samples were taken from the most resistant and susceptible trees for chemical analyses. The concentration of resin acids was higher in the group of decay resistant trees than in the group of decay susceptible trees. About 90 % of the resin acids in the heartwood were of the abietane type, abietic acid being the most abundant.
H Viitanen, A M Harju, P Kainulainen, M Venäläinen


Comparative study of termite diversity in moist evergreen forest and dry evergreen forest, Chanthaburi province, Thailand
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10480
Sixty out of one hundred plots of two forest types (moist evergreen forest (MEF) and dry evergreen forest (DEF)) in Chanthaburi Province, eastern Thailand, were randomly surveyed for the presence of termites from all possible habitats. Three hundred and forty-five samples were collected from December 1999 – April 2000. Morphological identification of the 345 samples gave results for 3 families, 8 subfamilies, 20 genera and 42 species, of which 37 species of 19 genera were recorded from MEF and 27 species of 15 genera from DEF respectively. One undetermined species of the genus Angulitermes was recorded, which represents a new addition to the termite list of Thailand. Microcerotermes crassus Snyder, classified as a wood feeder, was found to be the dominant species in MEF and DEF, while Globitermes sulphureus (Haviland) was the second most dominant species. Ancistrotermes pakestanicus (Silverstri, 1912) a fungus growing termite, was another dominant species in MEF. In the cool-dry season, MEF showed an H’-index value of 2.415 and in the hot-dry season an H’-index value of 2.284. The H’-index values of DEF in the cool-dry and the hot-dry seasons were 2.121 and 1.67 respectively. Identification of specimens from a different survey revealed that seasonal changes did not greatly affect termite species richness in all study sites. Species diversity and species richness or termite activity tend to be lower in the hot-dry season (April).
S Chutibhapakorn


Wood preservation in Turkey
1982 - IRG/WP 3216
The report reviews the forestry potential of Turkey and also the historical background of wood preservation in the country. The wood preservation industry in Turkey is mainly concentrated on the treatment of poles and railway sleepers. There is no official body responsible for wood preservation activities, and therefore its promotion depends mainly on the voluntary research efforts carried out by the universities and the Forest Research Institute. Present standards are inadequate to meet contemporary standards of wood protection used in other countries. These should be completely revised and updated. Its forest products potential and geographical location combine to give Turkey a great advantage for exportation of its timber to the Middle East countries. But first of all Turkey has to solve its own problems of promoting a productive industry and efficient wood preservation.
R Ilhan, R Cockcroft


Wood preservation in Thailand
1983 - IRG/WP 3265
The report gives a background to Thailand and its timber resources, production and consumption. The history of wood preservation in the country and its modern industrial development are described. Its 19 preservation plants are listed and the production figures of the two major ones given. The wood preservatives in use are noted and the costs of treating a railway sleeper in three different ways compared. The main hazards to Thai timbers, fungal damage, insect damage, and marine borers are detailed and 151 Thai timbers are listed with information on their natural durability and treatability. The organizations in Thailand concerned with the subject are outlined and the report ends by indicating that the future of wood preservation in the country is one of potential.
A Rananand, R Cockcroft


Chemical, physical and biological factors affecting wood decomposition in forest soils
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20281
Organic matter (OM) decomposition is an important variable in determining the potential of forest soils to sequester atmospheric CO2. Studies using OM from a particular location gives site-specific decomposition information, but differences in OM type and quality make it difficult to compare results among soils and forest ecosystems. By using a “standard” OM in decomposition studies, OM quality is held constant, and decomposition is a function of soil abiotic (moisture, temperature, O2/CO2, redox potential, pH, N, P, etc), and biotic (microbial biomass, functional diversity) properties. Wood is a good standard material to use in soil OM decomposition studies, since it is a normal soil component (woody residue, coarse roots), and a slow decomposition rate allows wood to remain in the soil for a number of years. In 1998 a wood stake study was initiated on both public and industry land throughout the U.S., Canada, and Europe. These sites represent a variety of climatic conditions and forest types, which cover a wide range of soil chemical, physical, and biological properties. Wood stakes of two tree species are being used to contrast different lignin types present in wood: loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), and aspen (Populus tremuloides). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the effects of abiotic soil properties on wood decomposition, and (2) to assess how these soil properties affect microbial activity and diversity during wood decomposition. This paper will present an overview of the study protocols, field and laboratory methods used, and discuss preliminary results from several of the study sites in North America and Europe.
M Jurgensen, P Laks, D Reed, A Collins, D Page-Dumroese, D Crawford


Physical properties variation of sound and top dying affected sundriwood (Heritiera fomes) in mangrove forest of Bangladesh
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10504
Top dying of sundri (Heritiera fomes Buch.-Ham.) in the Sundarbans is considered to be the most severe of all the diseases of tree crops in Bangladesh. The wood samples from sound, moderately affected and severely affected sundri trees from three different tree heights for every individual test were collected and their respective physical properties were examined to make a comparison. It was found that density decreased with the increase of disease severity and was found 5% for both the cases. The volumetric shrinkages also increased due to top dying and were found 6.42% and 3.34% higher for moderately affected and severely affected trees respectively. Similarly the initial moisture contents also decreased due to top dying and were found 5.34% and 16.19% lower for moderately affected and severely affected trees respectively.
S C Ghosh, A K M A Bosunia, M A Islam, A K Lahiry


Summaries of two Russian papers received from Professor Dr. D.A. Belenkov and V.A. Seletskaya of the Ural Forest Engineering Institute, Sibirsky Trakt, 37, Sverdlovsk, USSR, on the toxicity to Coniophora cerebella of salts of hydrofluoric acid and some fluoroborates
1977 - IRG/WP 298
1) Evaluation of the toxicity of some salts of hydrofluoric acid against the house cellar fungus (Coniophora cerebella Schroet) Data are presented on the method of probability evaluation of the toxicity of the fluorides of sodium, ammonium, potassium, zinc and iron. On the retention of fluorine in wood all salts, except iron, possess practically equal toxicity at the standard level of the probability of the protection of the wood - 0.95 . There is good agreement between the analytically and graphically determined dose level. Evidence is given for dose variabitility, probabilities of wood protection at 0.5 and 0.95, the curve of efficacy - activity and the construction of the empirical probit graph. 2) Investigation of the toxicity of some borofluorides towards the house cellar fungus Probability evaluation of the toxicity of borofluorides against the cellar fungus, and probit analysis evidence show that toxicity decreases in the sequence sodium borofluoride, copper borofluoride, tributyltin borofluoride. The effectiveness of protection method is able to evaluate the amount of fluorine and boron required in the wood.
C Grant


Natural Durability of Tropical Species – Variations and Prospects
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10568
The tropical timber resources of the world play an unequivocal role in economic development of both the tropical timber producing and importing regions. This paper describes natural durability as an important and preferred wood quality of tropical species of the world with emphasis on Malaysian hardwoods, the link between various aspects of tropical hardwood durability, hardwood utilization and biological hazards of different regions of the world, the resource evolution in the utilization of tropical hardwoods including the introduction of plantation-grown durable species and increased use of wood composites, a summary of research on the major cause of variations in natural durability of tropical hardwoods focusing on heartwood extractive bioefficacy, their microdistribution in relation to natural durability, and heartwood extractives as future sources of novel organic wood protecting chemicals. Recent advances in genetic manipulation of disease resistance in certain tree species makes it theoretically possible to genetically produce naturally durable tropical species with their accompanying inherent anti-microbial substances, which if/when realized, would provide significant opportunities to produce transgenic naturally durable species befitting a natural wood protection concept.
A H H Wong, Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh, Wang Choon Ling


Environmentally benign biological wood preservatives by Streptomyces rimosus, SC-36
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10196
Microbiocides obtained from mutant culture Streptomyces rimosus SC-36 were evaluated for their abilities to inhibit the growth of brown-rot, soft-rot, white-rot, and sapstain fungi on wood. The test fungi were the brown-rot fungi Antrodia carbonica, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Neolentinus lepideus, and Postia placenta; soft-rot fungi Chaetomium globosum, Paecilomyces variotti, Phialocephala dimorphospora, Phialophola mutabilis, Scytalidium lignicola; and white-rot fungi Flammulina velutipes, Phanerocheate chrysosporium, Shizophyllum commune, and Trametes versicolor. The SC-36 treatment inhibited basidiospore germination and mycelial growth of test fungi in plate assay, plate bioassy, and wood-block (southern yellow pine and sweetgum) tests. Metabolites from SC-36 inhibited the growth of all test fungi. In field trials, the metabolites and living cell treatment of green pine log sections and field wood-blocks (eastern white pine and red maple) inhibited natural spore germination and mycelial growth of all forest-inhabiting fungi, thus preventing wood biodeterioration and biodiscoloration. Our results demonstrated that SC-36 can be used as an alternative to synthetic chemicals and an environmentally benign biological wood preservative.
S C Croan


Decay resistance of Siberian larch wood against brown rot fungi - Part 2. The effect of genetic variation
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10287
Wood natural decay resistance is mainly restricted in the heartwood part of tree and based on wood microstructure and chemical composition. However, the variation of decay resistant in different wood species is vide and the effect of genotype on decay resistance of Siberian larch wood grown in Finland is not known. The aim of this work was to find out the variation on decay resistance of Siberian larch from different genotypes using a preliminary screening test based on a malt agar block decay test (a modified EN 113 test). The increment core samples were collected in October 1997 from 53 different clones and the decay tests started in January 1998 and were finished at the end of March 1998. In future, these results can be used to find most decay resistant material for forest tree breeding.
H Viitanen, L Paajanen, T Nikkanen, P Velling


Wood preservation in Portugal
1985 - IRG/WP 3325
This report deals with the forest potential of Portugal and its timber industry and outlines the evolution of wood preservation in the country. The main hazards to timber in service are noted and the timbers used classified according to their natural durability and treatability. The wood preservatives used are detailed with estimates of the total consumption of the different types. Addresses are listed, of the known manufacturers and importing agencies, of the firms that treat by vacuum/pressure and those that employ the double-vacuum process, and of the organizations concerned with wood preservation research and wood preservation in general. Only two firms specialize in remedial treatments and there are two institutions which are responsible for restoring cultural properties. Information is given on requirements and approvals. The relevant standards are listed and the main Portuguese papers on wood preservation.
D De Sousa Castro Reimão, R Cockcroft


Next Page