Your search resulted in 22 documents.
Fumigation as a remedial treatment: A review of North American literature
1983 - IRG/WP 3253
The development of the use of fumigants for eliminating decay in timber and roundwood in North America is reviewed. Initial experiments on oak wilt identified volatile chemicals which eradicated decay in roundwood. Subsequently, extensive experimentation on Douglas-fir poles in service showed that treatment with chloropicrin eliminated internal decay for more than ten years. Vorlex was also quite ...
J N R Ruddick
Studies on the infestation behaviour of the powder-post beetle Lyctus brunneus (Steph.) and its physical control in the wood yards of the Caspian forests of Iran
1985 - IRG/WP 1271
Lyctus brunneus (Steph.) is a pest which has not been previously thoroughly studied in Iran. It severely attacks Iranian hardwoods, especially those used in wooden houses and that have not been treated. Research work was necessary to determine the natural resistance of the most important timber species in Iran against this insect....
Long-term effectiveness of fumigants in controlling decay in Douglas fir waterfront timbers
1986 - IRG/WP 3364
The persistence, movement, and effectiveness of chloropicrin and Vapam (sodium N-methyl dithiocarbamate) in large, horizontal Douglas fir timbers were evaluated 7 years after fumigation. Chloropicrin prevented reestablishment of decay fungi; reinvasion occurred in some Vapam-treated timbers. Residual fungistatic effect was detected up to 1.2 m from the fumigation site in chloropicrintreated timber...
T L Highley
Laboratory fumigations to determine the minimum temperature for methyl bromide eradication of the oak wilt fungus in red oak
1983 - IRG/WP 3243
Laboratory chamber fumigations of naturally-infected ret oak log sections exterminatet the oak wilt fungus in sapwood at temperatures down to 0°C. Only low, sporadic fungus survival was observed when log sections were gassed with methyl bromide at -5°C and aired for 4 da. at 0°C. Lower temperature treatments were not effective even if gas levels or exposure times were increased by 50%....
E L Schmidt
Methods for testing fumigant efficacies against termites
1986 - IRG/WP 1297
Methodologies for testing fumigants against termites are reviewed and factors needed to be taken under consideration for standardization listed. Toxicity should be defined by both direct exposure to the gas and under more practical "barrier" conditions which include test enclosures simulating abiotic surroundings of the termites, i.e. wood, nest material, etc. To observe latent effects, mortality ...
N-Y Su, R H Scheffrahn
Movement and persistence of chloropicrin, Vapam, Dazomet and methylisothiocyanate in red and white oak timbers
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3728
This study describes the movement and persistence of four fumigants in sawn red and white oak timbers exposed out of ground contact for 2 years. Chloropicrin moved the furthest from the point of application, and was the most persistent. Vapam was next best, followed by Dazomet. Methylisothiocyanate (MIT), applied as pellets, was not effective, probably because MIT was lost from pellets prior to tr...
T L Highley
Traitement curatif des bois en place. Hygiène et sécurité
1990 - IRG/WP 3585
Remedial treatment of wood attacked by insects
1981 - IRG/WP 3175
A review is presented of remedial treatments against wood-boring insects in wood in service. Preconditions and fundamental principles of insect control are compared with the control of fungal attack and reasons are given for the fact that remedial treatments against insects are more commonly applied than against fungi. With regard to insect control measures with a simultaneous preventive effective...
Methyl bromide eradication of the oak wilt fungus in logs. Laboratory and field fumigation
1981 - IRG/WP 3168
Concern over accidental introduction of the oak wilt fungus (Ceratocystis fagacearum) into oak-importing nations has prompted a study supported by the U.S. National Lumber Exporter's Assn. to assess the efficacy of methyl bromide fumigation to eradicate the fungus from logs and lumber. Laboratory and field fumigation trials to develop a reliable and realistic treatment were performed on r...
E L Schmidt, M M Ruetze, D W French
Fumigant movement in Canadian wood species
1984 - IRG/WP 3296
Pole sections prepared from seven Canadian wood species (Thuja plicata, Thuja occidentalis, Pinus contorta, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Pseudotsuga menziesii, southern yellow pine) were fumigated with chloropicrin, methylisothiocyanate and Vapam and the rates of fumigant penetration determined. All three fumigants were applied directly into holes bored radially into the pole sections. Analysi...
J N R Ruddick
On the effectiveness of fumigants against wood-destroying insects and fungi in wooden cultural property
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10030
Based on a survey of the history of the use of fumigants the actual agents are mentioned in relation to their biogenic effect on wood-destroying insects and fungi as well as their corrosive behavior on cultural property. Furthermore the conditions for the use of reactive fumigants in buildings are discussed. Trials to control wood-destroying insects and fungi by nitrogen and bromomethane are the m...
W Unger, A Unger
Trials of new treatments for prevention of kiln brownstain of white pine (Pinus strobus)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30068
White pine (Pinus strobus) often develops a surface brown oxidative stain when kiln dried. Such stain downgrades high quality lumber and is most likely to occur when fresh, unseasoned lumber is stacked during warm weather prior to kiln drying. Use of reducing agents or pH alteration has been successful, but may have some practical limitations for general use. This study attempted to prevent browns...
E L Schmidt, E Christopherson, T L Highley, M H Freeman
Fumigation of New Zealand grown western red cedar for export markets
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30262
The objective of this study was to demonstrate that methyl bromide fumigant penetrates into the centre of western red cedar (Thuja plicata L.) timber to meet the standard for export markets. Kiln dried western red cedar was used and a cavity (50x 30 x 13mm3) was prepared into the centre of each sample board (500 x 200 x 26 mm3 thick). An absorbent sachet used in industry for cross checking that th...
B Kreber, G Durbin, D Wilson
Efficacy of fumigants in the eradication of decay fungi implanted in southern pine timbers
1986 - IRG/WP 3365
Southern pine timbers (15.2 cm x 15.2 cm x 4.26 m) were fumigated at midlength to evaluate the effectiveness of the fumigants chloropicrin, Vapam, Diazomet, Busan 40, Vanicide 51, Vanicide TH, sodium bisulfite, and ethanolamine in eradication of decay fungi. The fumigants were introduced into 2.54 cm holes which were closed immediately with rubber stoppers. Movement and persistence of lethal conce...
T L Highley, W E Eslyn
Development of a disinfection treatment for oak logs to be imported from the USA
1984 - IRG/WP 3283
The European veneer industry depends greatly on oak supplies from the USA. To prevent the accidental introduction of the American Oak Wilt Disease (Ceratocystis fagacearum) into the member states of the EC, a disinfection treatment was developed for oak logs under consideration of the technical requirements of veneer production. Laboratory experiments and field trials in Germany and in the USA sho...
W Liese, M M Ruetze
Reduction of kiln brown stain in radiata pine lumber after log fumigation with methyl bromide
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30129
Methyl bromide fumigation of freshly felled radiata pine log sections effectively killed living cells in parenchyma to at least 75mm into sapwood. Lumber cut from logs (fumigated and control) stored 1 month outdoors (dry) showed slightly reduced brown stain when kiln dried at conventional temperatures. A more dramatic reduction and elimination of brown stain was noted in lumber cut from fumigated ...
E Schmidt, M E Hedley, D R Page, D Cross
Log fumigation prevents enzyme-mediated sapwood discolorations in hardwoods
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10003
Non-microbial sapwood discolorations in hardwood lumber can cause economic loss by degrade of quality. Based on the hypothesis that the enzyme-mediated sapstain may develop in part from byproducts of parenchyma cells in wood, reshly felled logs of red oak (Quercus spp.) and sugar hackberry (Celtis laevigata) were fumigated under a plastic tarp with methyl bromide. Log sections were checked after f...
E L Schmidt, T L Amburgey
Fumigation of red beech in New Zealand for prevention of graystain
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10343
The discoloration of sapwood of red beech (Nothofagus fusca) after drying has been an ongoing problem which may lower value of material for certain applications (such as flooring) by as much as 50%. The dark gray stain noted after the drying and planing of lumber is not prevented by fungicide dips, and is most likely similar to the enzyme-mediated stain noted in a variety of commercial hardwoods. ...
E L Schmidt, B Kreber
A study on insect pests and preservation of fire-damaged timbers in Da Xing An Ling forest region
1991 - IRG/WP 1499
Investigated insect pest of timbers of Da Xing An Ling forest region by means of sampling inspection. Meanwhile we had researched insects pest situation, regularity occurred and biological nature for fire damaged timbers attacked in the log yard. The results showed that the mainly insect species are small black-marmorated longicorn (Monochamus sutor L). We had eagaged in various small tests of tim...
Lu Wenda, Li Jian, Shao Jing Wen, Liu Yixing, Cui Yongzhi
Effect of fumigation with Sulfuryl Difluoride on wood inhabiting fungi, a laboratory test
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30410
Special methods are necessary for the control of wood destroying organisms in the preservation of monuments and historic buildings because of the conservation of their originality and uniqueness. The control of wood destroying organisms can be realized with conventional liquid wood preservatives or alternative methods. One of these methods is the fumigation. One fumigant, which was in the past of...
A Pfeffer, W Unger, G Fröba, G Binker
ISPM No. 15 and the Incidence of Wood Pests: Recent Findings, Policy Changes, and Current Knowledge Gaps
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30568
Largely as a result of international trade, hundreds of species of bark- and wood-infesting insects have become established in countries outside their native range. Many of these exotic insects have caused severe economic and environmental impact to urban and forest trees in the receiving countries. Most bark- and wood-infesting insects have been transported to new countries by means of the wood...
R A Haack, E G Brockerhoff
Management of invasive West Indian drywood termite in Queensland: Transition from mandatory to voluntary treatment
2023 - IRG/WP 23-11002
Cryptotermes brevis, the West Indian drywood termite (WIDT) is the most destructive drywood termite globally. It is capable of infesting both softwoods and hardwoods in timber structures. In Australia C. brevis was first discovered in 1940s and later an established infestation was discovered in Maryborough, Queensland in 1966 and then in Brisbane and Bundaberg in 1975. In 1977 the Queensland Gover...
C Fitzgerald, B Hassan