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Your search resulted in 383 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.


Fungal and bacterial attack of CCA-treated Pinus radiata timbers from a water-cooling tower
1991 - IRG/WP 1488
Transmission electron microscopy of decaying CCA-treated Pinus radiata timbers from an industrial water cooling tower showed presence of a thick biofilm covering some areas of the wood. The biofilm contained various morphologically distinct forms of microorganisms embedded in a slime. The study provided evidence of the activity of soft rot fungi and tunnelling and erosion bacteria in wood cells. T...
A P Singh, M E Hedley, D R Page, C S Han, K Atisongkroh


Preventing fungal attack of freshly sawn lumber using cinnamon extracts
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30432
The potential for using cinnamon oil as an anti-mold and stain compound was investigated on ponderosa pine sapwood. Cinnamon oil was highly effective when used in ethanol, but its activity declined when it was mixed with only water. Attempts to enhance water solubility with surfactants improved solution stability, but had no apparent effect on biological activity. Further studies with other co-so...
Shujun Li, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Flow charts for termite and decay tests to determine the natural durability of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don)
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20385
This paper deals with the experimental flow charts that were used for determination the effects of fungal decay and termite attack on Sugi heartwood during the course of the study of “Comparative studies of natural durability of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) among the geographic cultivate”, which was carried out by Usta et al (2006)....
I Usta, S Doi


Performance if internal remedial treatments to arrest fungal attack in poles and large timbers
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40834
Internal remedial treatments have been used to arrest internal fungal attack in utility poles and other large timbers. Water diffusible systems and volatile fumigants have both been used for this purpose. While both work, it is important to understand the performance attributes of each system. This paper reviews the literature on both systems and makes recommendations for future research....
J J Morrell


Bending creep test of plywoods under long term exposure to fungal attack
1981 - IRG/WP 2163
Bending creep test and decay test were coupled in order to evaluate the durability of structural plywoods and preservative efficacy. Experimental blocks, 5.0 x 1.2 cm² section x 35.0 cm length, were impregnated with distilled water and inoculated with mycelial fragments of test fungus. Polyethylene bags stretched with metal frame were used as decay chambers. The chambers containing inoculated blo...
M Takahashi


Evaluating the resistance of wood-based panel products to fungal attack
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20071
At present there is considerable disagreement among national research institutes within Europe and panel product manufacturers on the most appropriate method of testing and indeed the need for specific biological durability testing. This paper seeks to place before a broader international audience, the issues related to development of a European standard for evaluating the resistance to fungal dec...
R G Lea, R W Berry


Preliminary evaluation of new quaternary ammonia compound, didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate for preventing fungal decay and termite attack
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30375
This study evaluates the decay and termite resistance of wood treated with didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF), a recently developed quaternary ammonia compound containing boron. DBF contains boric tetrafluoride as a counter ion in its chemical structure. Laboratory decay resistance tests were performed using brown-rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris and white-rot fungus, Trametes versi...
S N Kartal, W J Hwang, Y Imamura


Water transfer in wood in relation to fungal attack in building - Effect of condensation and diffusion
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1543
Wood is continuously exchanging moisture with the surrounding atmosphere, the temperature and relative humidity are important factors. Wood moisture in this case is not enough to provoque decay by fungi. However, when, during the night, condensation appears cyclically, wood absorbs water and moisture content may be sufficiently high to allow development if drying does not take place. The water tra...
D Dirol, J-M Vergnaud


Factors affecting the resistance of fibre building boards to fungal attack
1975 - IRG/WP 252
Fungal decay is initiated at lower moisture contents in standard and tempered hardboards (18%) than in pine sapwood (26%). In contrast, in a saturated atmosphere, the equilibrium moisture contents of standard hardboard (14%) and of tempered hardboard (12.5%) are much lower than the moisture content permitting decay initiation whilst the equilibrium moisture content of pine sapwood (25.1%) approach...
C Grant, J G Savory


Comparative studies of natural durability of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) among the geographic cultivates
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10592
Variation of natural durability of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) (also known as Sugi) was investigated by accelerated tests for decay (Fomitopsis palustris (Berk. et Curt.) Murr.) and termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe) attacks on 13 clones of Sugi trees from Kyushu-Okinawa Region (Fukuka, Ooita, Saga, Miyazaki, Kagoshima). For this purpose, 57 twenty-five years old Sugi trees o...
I Usta, K Takata, S Doi


Laboratory methods for assessing the resistance of wood plastic composites to fungal attack.
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20340
Wood plastic composites (WPC’s) have many attractive material features including dimensional stability and resistance to moisture, but the wood in these materials remains susceptible to fungal attack. Assessing WPC decay resistance in laboratory trials has proven difficult because the slow moisture sorption characteristics of this material do not allow for sufficient fungal attack over the trad...
J J Morrell


Effect of fungal attack on maximum load capacity of simulated wall assemblies
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20363
The effects of moisture intrusion and fungal attack on the maximum load capacity of nailed assemblies was investigated using one white and one brown rot fungus against 4 material combinations over a 20 week period. Wetting significantly reduced the maximum load capacity of all four material combinations, while wetting and autoclaving only affected the OSB sheathing/spruce stud. The white rot fung...
N Melencion, J J Morrell


Fungal Attack on Lignin and Cellulose: Elucidation of Brown- and White-Rot Mechanisms Comparing Biomimetic and In-Vivo Degradation Patterns
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10714
This paper examines research and hypotheses that have been developed over several years on wood degradation mechanisms. This information is combined with new data and analyses to explain why wood decay patterns caused by brown-rot fungi and specific types of white-rot fungi are different. New data, including work with both biomimetic studies on low molecular weight compounds, degradative enzymes, ...
V Arantes, B Goodell, A M F Milagres, Yuhui Qian, T Filley, J Jellison, S Kelley


Effects of polyvinyl alcohol on leachability and efficacy of boron wood preservatives against fungal decay and termites attack
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30526
In this study, the use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as boron fixative agent was investigated. Two levels of PVA (2.5 and 4%) were evaluated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) at three concentrations (1, 2 and 4% boric acid equivalent (BAE) using a double vacuum impregnation processes on Scots pine sapwood specimens. Leaching was performed according to a laboratory leaching procedure. Boron ...
A Mohareb, M F Thévenon, E Wozniak, P Gérardin


Biological performance of wood- and bamboo-polypropylene composites: Effects of particle content, particle size and Zn borate
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40577
Particle content and size of wood material in wood plastic composites (WPCs) can affect efficacy of WPCs against fungi and termites. This study evaluated fungal and termite resistance of WPCs manufactured by using two different levels of particle content (50 and 70%) and three different particle sizes (30, 60, and 100 mesh). In fungal resistance tests, Tyromyces palustris, a standardized test fung...
S N Kartal, S Aysal, E Terzi, T Yoshimura, K Tsunoda


Evaluation of field test data
2016 - IRG/WP 16-20594
The resistance against fungal decay and insect attack of wood can be highly variable, between boards and even within boards. The variability in durability is not always an issue, but for high demanding applications information about its reliability is required. This comprises the variability of outdoor performance. Durability testing in laboratory and outdoor exposures can provide a good basis to ...
F Bongers, C Brischke, J Van den Bulcke, W Gard, I De Windt, H Militz


Role of cell wall specific moisture content on the brown-rot fungal attack on wood
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40736
Wood is a hydroscopic resource because the cell wall polymers contain hydroxyl and other oxygen-containing groups that attract moisture through hydrogen bonding. Moisture content varies with changing moisture content in its environment. The moisture content in wood is responsible for many of the performance properties we observe. The strength properties of wood are dependent on the moisture con...
R M Rowell


Bio-deterioration of Southern Pine Stakes at Geographically Different Testing Sites
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20609
Southern pine (SP) sapwood is commonly used in preparing the standardized stakes for performance testing as referenced in the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA) Book of Standards. For example, the standardized above ground test methods E16/E18 and the standardized ground contact test method E7 all use sapwood of SP as the preferred wood species for preservative performance test. In this...
Jun Zhang, J Horton


Assessing the risk of marine borer attack of the timber trestles and decay of timber above the intertidal zone of the Barmouth Viaduct
2021 - IRG/WP 21-10974
The Barmouth Viaduct is a Grade II* listed structure which carries the single track of the Dovey Junction to Pwllheli line and footway over the Mawddach estuary. It is in a marine environment where timber below the high tide mark is at most risk in Use Class 5 and all timber above in Use Class 3.2, permanently exposed to the risk of wetting. The structure consists of a timber trestle viaduct of ...
J R Williams


Microbiological degradation of wooden piles in building foundations
1988 - IRG/WP 1370
White rot, soft rot and bacterial attack have been detected in softwood piles under buildings. In some cases bacteria were found to be the main degradation organisms in the studied piles. The water content of degraded piles was very high. The compression strength was quite low also in the piles deteriorated by bacteria. The density of wood was very variable, and the degree of degradation could not...
L Paajanen, H Viitanen


Questionnaire - Fungal decay types
1985 - IRG/WP 1265
T Nilsson


Improvements of monitoring the effects of soil organisms on wood in fungal cellar tests
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20093
Accelerated testing the durability of preservative treated timber in a so called "fungal cellar" or "soil-bed" to evaluate its performance in ground contact is widespread practice. In order to obtain a more accurate and reproducible estimate of preservative performance, several institutes, among them the BAM in Berlin, have routinely carried out static bending tests in addition to visual examinati...
I Stephan, S Göller, D Rudolph


Working Group I Sub-group 5 'Insects in dry wood'. Plan for data sheets
1982 - IRG/WP 1173
S Cymorek


Penichroa fasciata (Stephens) (Col. Cerambycidae) a pest in wood materials
1988 - IRG/WP 1365
Penichroa fasciata (Stephens) (Col. Cerambycidae) is found to be a frequent pest occurring in hardwood in storage in Italy. This paper reports the characteristic for identification, biological features, distribution and timber liable to attack....
A Gambetta, E Orlandi.


The restricted distribution of Serpula lacrymans in Australian buildings
1989 - IRG/WP 1382
Temperature data has been gathered over a number of years, not only for flooring regions of various buildings in Melbourne, but also within roof spaces and external to the buildings. Findings are discussed in relation to the distribution of Serpula lacrymans within Australia, its restriction to certain types of building construction and its restriction to flooring regions. The subfloor spaces of b...
J D Thornton


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