IRG Documents Database and Compendium

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The utilization of preserved rubberwood
1982 - IRG/WP 3186
The paper examines the use of processed and kiln-seasoned rubberwood for manufacturing furniture and doors and windows, discusses methods tested and found acceptable for preserving the timber as well as for drying the treated timber in conventional kilns. It considers a type of furniture where narrow width timber of preserved and kilned rubberwood has been used with great success. It recommends that wherever rubberwood is available, its use could be very profitable to local entrepeneurs.
V R Sonti, B Chatterjee, M S Ashraf

Supercooling points of Anobium punctatum, the common furniture beetle
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10120
Ice formation within the body of larvae of the common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum causes death of the larvae. Freezing can therefore be used as a means of eradication of the larvae in infested wood. To optimize the freezing process, knowledge of the temperatures sufficient to kill the larvae is essential. Ice formation is initiated by temperatures equaling the so-called supercooling point, which can be found experimentally. The technique used to identify the supercooling points for larvae is described. The larvae used were from laboratory cultures held at 22°C and from cultures acclimatized to 10°C.
T E Hallas, K Bohn Hansen

Laboratory study on the effectiveness on photostable pyrethroids formulated with benzalkonium chloride to be used on furniture
1985 - IRG/WP 3346
The first results are presented of a study on the effectiveness of photostable pyrethroids formulated with banezalkonium chloride. Initially the products were submitted to preliminary tests and then the more efficient formulations were tested with a new essay that tries to simulate a dry-wood termite attack on furniture.
A M F Oliveira, A T De Lelis

Use of freeze disinfection for the control of the common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1528
The common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum is an extremely widespread pest of wooden objects in Danish museums. In order to develop non-chemical methods of controlling the pests, experiments were conducted to elucidate the lower lethal temperature of Anobium punctatum. The egg stage was used for the experiments as it is considered the most temperature resistant stage. Groups of Anobium punctatum eggs were exposed to temperatures of -14, -18, -22, -26 and -30°C. Freezing durations were 8 hrs, 24 hrs and 48 hrs, respectively. Preliminary results of the experiments are presented.
L Stengård Hansen

Bibliography on the common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum (De Geer) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae)
1980 - IRG/WP 1104
M-M Serment, H Becker

Non Toxic Remedial Treatment of Bamboo Structures/Furniture
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40516
Molds and beetles often attack bamboo furniture and structures when used in untreated or inadequate preservative treatment. Remediation or eradication of infestation often involves expensive chemicals (fumigants) and specialized methods, which are not available in villages. Novel inexpensive methods using easily available chemicals were developed for controlling such infestations. Whereas application of common baking soda can be used to prevent molds, fumigation with ammonia or localized heat treatment can get rid of beetles in fixed structures.
S Kumar

Some observations on the damage to timbers and wooden articles in cultural properties by insects in Italy
1981 - IRG/WP 1135
The damage to cultural properties by insects, especially of wooden material, is a serious problem in Italy. We have carried out a preliminary investigation concerning the most widely distributed and dangerous insects damaging timbers and wooden articles in cultural properties. Up to now the investigation has been carried out in Toscana, Lazio and Emilia Romagna and has concerned some collections of particular artistic or historic value and certain structural and sculptured timbers in some churches and historic buildings. The insects found damaging the wood in the cultural properties belong to the Cerambycidae, Anobiidae and Curculionidae.
A Gambetta

Anobium punctatum De Geer (Coleoptera Anobiidae)
1980 - IRG/WP 1103
Anobium punctatum de Geer (1) est un Coléoptère qui appartient au sous-ordre des Teredilia et à la famille des Anobiidae. Cet insecte a été décrit pour la première fois par Charles de Geer, entomologiste Suédois dans ses "Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire des insectes" parues en 1774, sous le nom vulgaire de Vrillette pointillée et en latin " Ptinus (punctatus) griseo fuscus". Ces noms de genre et d'espèce ont été modifiés à plusieurs reprises (2) depuis cette date, au fur et à mesure des acquisitions systématiques. "Anobium punctatum" de Geer semble maintenant universellement adopt‚ mais il est possible de voir cet insecte désigner dans la littérature française relativement récente, sous les appellations fréquemment usitées d’Anobium striatum 01. ou plus rarement d'Anobium domesticum. Geof. L'origine grecque du mot Anobium (a : privatif, Bios : vie) tient au fait que les adultes sont capable de faire le mort quand on les touche et de "persister dans cette catalepsie au point de se laisser brûler" (R. Perrier, 1932). D'après les données récoltées jusqu'à present, il semble qu'Anobium punctatum ne soit cantonné que dans les régions tempérées des deux hémisphères Nord et Sud du globe terrestre. C'est ainsi qu’il est bien connu dans la presque totalit‚ des pays d'Europe dont Tooke (1949) dit qu'il est originaire.
M-M Serment

Theory of Aesthetics – Charm in Furniture and an Aesthetic Evaluation of Bleaching of the Natural Color of Wood through the Application of Experimental Bleaching Process
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30424
This paper consists of mainly three sections: In the first section, brief information is given on the theory of aesthetics as a branch of philosophy, historical progress of the aesthetics theory is summarized within the context of the term “beautiful”, and aesthetic values as well as the color and aesthetic effects of color in preparing the designs are explained. In the second section, relation between the wood and color is discussed from the viewpoint of aesthetic value, and information is given on the proposed method for bleaching the natural color of wood to some degree in order to develop the aesthetic value and increase the existing charm performance. In the third section, the bleaching methods applied for Scotch pine, Oriental beech, and Black poplar by using different hydrogen peroxide recipes for each are introduced, and the results obtained are evaluated from an aesthetic point of view.
I Usta

An Important Wood Destroying Beetle: Anobium punctatum (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) and Distribution of Western Black Sea region
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10666
Anobium punctatum (De Geer) is an economically important insect species regarding damage to wooden structures. The damage mostly occurs in historic wooden buildings, wooden chairs, tables and seats. It has been determined in the Istanbul, Ankara, Ayancik, Bartin, Rize, Trabzon, Gumushane and Gole regions of Turkey. There is no detailed study in terms of the distribution of this insect and the degree of its damage in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. In this study, it was determined that furniture beetle is intensively widespread in the region.
A Toper Kaygin, Y Yildiz, Ü C Yildiz, S Yildiz, S M Onat, N K Özkazanç, B Kaygin, S Çelíkyay

Colorimetric evaluation of three tropical woods after accelerated weathering
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20541
The use of wood in the furniture industry is directly associated with their physical, mechanical and organoleptic characteristics. The color of the wood is a major factor in the selection of forests species to employ in the furniture projects and is fundamental the maintenance of its colorimetric pigments over time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the colorimetric behaviour of three tropical woods used in the furniture industry forward to accelerated weathering. The woods of cumaru (Dipterix odorata), marupá (Simarouba amara) and tauari (Couratari sp.) were selected and fifteen samples of each were produced at dimensions of 5 x 20 x 315 mm (thickness x width x length). The artificial accelerated weathering was conduced according to ASTM G 154 (2006) and the procedures used five cycle intervals of 240 hours of exposure up to a total of 1,200 hours in a climatic chamber. The colorimetric assessment was performed with a espectrophotocolorimeter, with D65 illuminant and 10˚ angle at room temperature and the CIEL*a*b* color space system was employed (1976) with ASTM D 2244 ( 2009) for the total color variation. The cumaru wood presented the lowest colorimetric variation followed by tauari and marupá. It was observed that the red and yellow pigments significantly decreased in the first cycle of 240 hours of exposure in all woods, and their surfaces got greyish. However, the renewal of surfaces were noted by the decrease of the total variation in color due to the leaching of photodegraded products, tending to return the their original colors.
R Faustino Teles, A Florian da Costa

Development of composite furniture using bamboo strips, bamboo mat and rubber wood veneer
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40679
Bamboo offers cost-effective component in panel form is well suited to wood substitute can be used as furniture components. In the present study, borak (Bambusa balcooa ) bamboo were used for manufacturing bamboo panel. Mitinga (B. tulda) bamboo were used for making mat and rubber wood veneers were used for manufacturing mat overlaid veneer board. Borax-boric acid (BB) treatments were given to enhance the durability of mat, strips and veneer. The treatments were carried out using borax-boric acid (1:1) aqueous solution of different concentrations at different time schedule by soaking process. The optimum retention of preservative chemicals through mat, strips and veneer were determined. Using 5% BB solution, the average retention was found 21.90 kg/m3 in A (1.22 m X 0.91m) size mat and 24.39 kg/m3 in the B (0.61 m X 0.91m) size mat after 3 days soaking. Using 7% solution, retention of 25.17 kg/m3 A size mat and 28.44 kg/m3 were obtained in B size mat after 3 days treatment. In the case of bamboo strips, highest retention of 26.22 Kg/m3 was found when treated with 7% solution for 3 days. Highest retention 24.53 kg/m3 was obtained in 7% BB treated rubber wood veneers after 3 days soaking. Average retention of 22.07 kg/m3 was found when veneers were treated with 5% BB solution for 3 days. It was observed that, veneers were treated with 7% BB solution attained average retention of 19.20 to 24.53 kg/m3 after 1 to 3 days treatment. It was found that the retention were gradually increased with increasing concentration and time period. After preservative treatment, the materials were used in making composite products for chair.
K Akhter, M Mahabubur Rahaman, M H Chowdhury, M Zahirul Alam

Commercial Timbers of Kenya
2016 - IRG/WP 16-10876
The global timber trade has for years been too familiar with an assortment of available African timbers, reputed for their appearance in terms of colour, grain, pattern and durability. African forests are fast disappearing through over-exploitation as a result of demand for agricultural land. Kenya, the home of some of these valuable hardwoods, has been similarly affected, with its forest land cover declining from high 28% to a low 1.7% within the last 5 decades. Today Kenyan forests consist mainly of exotic fast-growing species (Eucalypts, Cypress and Pines), that supply the local demand for industrial timbers (utility poles, posts, construction timbers, pulp and paper, veneer and board materials). The furniture industry now relies on hardwoods imported from Central and Western Africa, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and S. Africa. The wood carving industry, with some 30,000 wood carvers engaged in the industry, still depends on hardwood species available locally. Being still a heavy consumer of fuelwood and charcoal, with indigenous hardwood species being preferred, it is to be expected that indigenous hardwood forests in Kenya will decline further, with fewer of what used to be a an extensive list of indigenous species that provided the source of commercial timbers of the country. The list of exotic and indigenous species presented in this paper, not exhaustive by any means, comprises mainly the common commercial species, with brief notes on appearance, properties, availability and uses There is a number of the lesser known species, about which little or no information is available, mainly used for artisanal work, fuelwood and charcoal.
R Venkatasamy

Susceptibility to filamentous fungi of plywood for furniture coated with waterborne acrylic lacquers
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40778
Filamentous fungi (mould), thanks to their little trophic requirements belong to organisms which grow exceptionally easy and fast in favorable hygrothermal conditions and attack both organic and inorganic materials even with only trace amounts of organic substances on the surface. The fungi often cause spoilage of foodstuffs, worsen the aesthetic of wood-based elements, and pose a threat to the environment. These fungi release mycotoxins and allergens, which may cause a series of infection, toxic or allergic symptoms in people and animals, so generating a health risk to endothermic organisms. The elements of furniture coatings, such as: solvent - and water-borne lacquers, natural veneers, paper foils or laminates may be a good ground for mould growth. The aim of the research was to identify the susceptibility of modern plywood for furniture purposes covered with water-diluted acrylic lacquer to the growth of moulds, as well as to determine the degree of degradation caused by moulds to chosen physical and mechanical properties of infected coatings. The susceptibility of beech plywood covered with the acrylic lacquers to fungal growth appeared to be lower than natural (uncoated) plywood, however, not sufficient to consider them as resistant to moulds according to the requirements of the building industry. The mould fungi caused the color change of tested samples. It was also stated, as result of fungi growth on coated surfaces, possibility of occurrence differentiated changes such as reduction in water resistance, deterioration of oil resistance, decreased resistance to abrasion, however the impact resistance and scratch resistance were relatively small change or remained unchanged. Resistance of acrylic lacquers used for coating of plywood and possibly also in other wood-based materials exposed to conditions favorable for growth of filamentous fungi, should be increased e.g. by the use of biocides.
A Fojutowski, M Nowaczyk-Organista, P Hochmańska

Green Coloration of Wood in the Forest and Laboratory by Chlorociboria spp. – Applications for Furniture
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10947
Discoloration of wood caused by living saprophytic fungi is commonly found on lumber. These fungi do not destroy the integrity of wood, but the discolorations they cause are often considered undesirable. In Tunbrigde Wells (Great Britain), seldomly found green colored wood, usually considered commercially irrelevant, was valued for use in restoration of wood inlay artwork. The aim of this research was to investigate the distribution of green colored wood in the Biosphere Schorfheide-Chorin, north of Eberswalde, Germany. 15 occurrences were found. The fungus was identified as Chlorociboria aeruginascens. While inoculation of wood with mycelium of the fungus grown on malt agar dishes was not possible, we were successful in transferring the fungus from infested wood to new Alnus glutinosa wood in a field trial. Trials with a pure culture of Chlorociboria aeruginosa completed the research.
S Krause, W Unger, P Heydeck