Your search resulted in 2939 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Green Coloration of Wood in the Forest and Laboratory by Chlorociboria spp. – Applications for Furniture
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10947
Discoloration of wood caused by living saprophytic fungi is commonly found on lumber. These fungi do not destroy the integrity of wood, but the discolorations they cause are often considered undesirable. In Tunbrigde Wells (Great Britain), seldomly found green colored wood, usually considered commercially irrelevant, was valued for use in restoration of wood inlay artwork. The aim of this researc...
S Krause, W Unger, P Heydeck
Inhibition of wood decay and termite damage by calcium precipitation
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30111
Fungal decay of wood in service, especially brown rot, results in billions of dollars (US) of losses annually. Recent environmental restrictions, both U.S. and international, are limiting or eliminating the use of broad spectrum biocides for wood preservation, primarily due to problems with disposal. In order to design new, environmentally benign methods for control of wood decay fungi, it is esse...
F Green III, T A Kuster, L Ferge, T L Highley
Inhibition of termite damage by N'N-napthaloylhydroxyamine (NHA): Reticulotermes flavipes (Kollar) vs. Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10354
The calcium precipitating agent NHA has been shown to protect southern yellow pine (SYP) from wood decay and termite damage comparable to CCA in field tests (Gulfport, MS) for two years (Crawford and Green, 1999). In a collaborative study, SYP wood blocks were vacuum treated with three concentrations of aqueous NHA and exposed in a no-choice test to Eastern subterranean termites (FPL, USA) and For...
F Green III, S T Lebow, T Yoshimura
Evaluating the natural durability of native and tropical wood species against Reticulitermes flavip
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10539
Environmental pressures to eliminate arsenate from wood preservatives has resulted in voluntary removal of CCA for residential applications in the United States. A new generation of copper organic preservatives has been formulated to replace CCA for decking and in-ground applications but there is no guarantee that these preservatives represent a permanent solution to all related problems. There...
R A Arango, F Green III, K Hintz, R B Miller
Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and its Tolerance towards Copper-based Wood Preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10555
Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a suspicion about tolerance toward cop...
A C Steenkjær Hastrup, F Green III, C A Clausen, B Jensen
Transformation of Ophiostoma picea and Trichoderma harzianum with green fluorescent protein (GFP)
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10477
While microbial colonization of wood is presumed to be characterized by a myriad of interactions between numerous organisms, studying these processes is often difficult owing to the opaque nature of the wood and the inability to readily distinguish among the many species colonizing the material. One method for enhancing the ability to distinguish organisms is to induce specific proteins in one or ...
Ying Xiao, L M Ciuffetti, J J Morrell
Gas chromatographic determination of 1,8-naphthalimide, N-Hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide (N,N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine) and the sodium salt of N-Hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20259
A number of naphthalimide (NI) derivatives are used as efficient laser dyes, in medicine or in scanning electron microscopy. Only N,N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA) has been shown to be an effective wood preservative against wood decay fungi and termite damage. However, limited information is available concerning the analytical detection of NI-derivatives in treated timber. There is a clear need ...
E Melcher, F Green III
Proposed model for the penetration and decay of wood by the hyphal sheath of the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta
1989 - IRG/WP 1391
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of Pinus sp. decayed by the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta confirmed the existence of extracellular membranous structures previously described by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These structures appear to be an integral part of the hyphal sheath and assume a variety of forms including lamellar sheets, fibrils, and vesicles. These structures were observe...
F Green III, M J Larsen, L L Murmanis, T L Highley
Protection of southern pine using N,N-Napthaloylhydroxylamine: Field tests, soft-rot cellars and aquatic bioassay leach testing
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30204
Recent environmental restrictions are limiting the use of broad-spectrum biocides for wood preservation. There is an urgent need for new, sharply targeted, environmentally benign wood preservatives. N'N-Napthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA), a water-soluble calcium-precipitating agent, has been shown to inhibit decay by brown-rot and white-rot fungi in soil-block tests and prevent damage by Easte...
D M Crawford, F Green III
Targeted inhibition of wood decay (Using everything but the kitchen sink)
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10203
Low molecular weight oxidative decay agents have been implicated in the degradation of wood by brown-rot decay as evidenced by chemical analysis of brown-rotted wood and detection of oxalic acid and hydroxy radicals. Fenton chemistry (H2O2 / Fe++) is often proposed as the mechanism for generating hydroxy radicals. Previous authors have shown iron to enhance the brown-rot hydrolysis of wood, while ...
F Green III, T A Kuster, T L Highley
The difficult choice of the preservation industry when changing to more environmentally acceptable products
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50156
Until recent years the preservation industry in Norway had no problems with the environmental authorities. However, during the last three years the pressure has increased, and the authorities' solution to restrict hazardous chemicals is to introduce green (environmental) taxes for the products containing these chemicals, and also for the pressure-treated wood. The preservation industry ac...
F G Evans
Targeted inhibition of wood decay fungi: degradation of cotton cellulose
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10321
Brown-rot decay is responsible for 80% of the damage and replacement of wood in service. For nearly thirty years, researchers have postulated a one-electron oxidase system combining Fe+2 oxalic acid, and H2O2 in the production of hydroxy radicals which ultimately oxidize cellulose in situ. Recently, researchers have been investigating antioxicants, in combination with biocides (Schultz, et al.,199...
F Green III, T A Kuster
Preservative treatment of green timber by soaking in ammoniacal copper borate
1984 - IRG/WP 3292
Freshly sawn boards of radiata pine sapwood were preservative treated by soaking in ammoniacal copper borate. Optimum schedules were obtained by partially seasoning the boards for one week prior to treatment. This aided the absorption of preservative and reduced the required soaking time to approximately 2 hours. Complete boron penetration was obtained after one week of block storage under cover a...
P Vinden, A J McQuire
Detection of increased metal cations after wood decay using Chromeazurol-S
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20112
Chromeazurol-S (CAS) is a dye used for the spectrophotometric determination of metals, mainly aluminum (Al), berillium (Be) and copper (Cu). CAS has been widely used for determining the penetration of copper containing preservatives like CCA (AWPA A3-96). Additional uses include: i) detection of utility pole decay (Esyln, 1979), ii) a chemical spot test for aluminum in wood (Kukachka and Miller, 1...
F Green III, U Srinivasan, R B Miller
The development of a new boron-based wood preservative
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30085
The paper describes a new boron based wood preservative for the treatment of green timber. The product offers many benefits over conventional boron diffusion treatment including: 1. high viscosity, high concentration formulation; 2. permits dip treatment of a wide range of sawn board and pole sizes at ambient temperatures; 3. permits full cross section diffusion of borates without block stacking a...
P Turner, D Conradie
Wood Protection by Commercial Silver Formulations against Eastern Subterranean Termites
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30422
The scope of this paper is to compare commercial formulations of aqueous products containing silver for their ability to prevent termite damage by Eastern subterranean termites in a no-choice laboratory test. Five commercial products were tested in order to explore a broad range of formulation and silver forms: colloidal, ionic and nano-particles. Southern pine wood blocks were dip treated in each...
F Green III, R A Arango
Preliminary investigation of biological resistance, water absorption and swelling of thermally compressed pine wood panels
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40396
Wood can be modified by compressive, thermal and chemical treatments. Compression of wood under thermal conditions is resulted in densification of wood. This study evaluated decay and termite resistance of thermally compressed pine wood panels at either 5 or 7 MPa and at either 120 or 150?C for one hour. The process caused increases in density and decreases in thickness of the panels; however, lab...
Ö Ünsal, S N Kartal, Z Candan, R Arango, C A Clausen, F Green III
Increased sustainability for wood construction by recycling
2011 - IRG/WP 10-50275
Wood is the only renewable and certified industrially available construction material that has also unique opportunities as carbon storing, energy-independent and generally approved resource. However, if burning into energy is not counted, there are only few viable and competitive solutions for re-use or recycling of various wood products. The biggest challenge related to recycling of wood product...
H Heräjärvi, I Pirhonen, T Räty, P Saukkola
Extraction and analysis of DNA from green and seasoned timber as basic methods for determination of wood species and origin
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20523
Against the background of the European timber trade regulation EUTR, commenced to law by March 2013, the determination of wood species and tracing of its origin is getting a great importance. A promising approach for establishing fast and reliable tracking systems for wood products is DNA analysis. A critical point is the extraction of analysable DNA from the wood and its lignified cell walls. Thu...
K Jacobs, H Mende, W Scheiding
A Green and Novel Technology for Recovering Copper and Wood from Treated Waste - Part I
2015 - IRG/WP 15-50309
Preservative treatment of wood extends its service life. The US consumes about 70 million pounds of copper and produces about 7 billion board feet of treated wood annually. Burning and reusing CCA and copper treated wood wastes are disallowed by US EPA due to health and environmental concerns. Millions of pounds of copper and wood are disposed by landfill annually. The objective of this study was...
A Green and Novel Technology for Recovering Copper and Wood from Treated Wood Waste – Part II: Optimization, copper metal recovery, and process design
2017 - IRG/WP 17-50326
The US consumes 70 million pounds of copper and produces 580 million cubic feet treated wood annually. The EPA disallows burning and reusing treated wood waste due to health/environmental concerns. Vast quantities of copper and wood are landfilled. Two safe and low cost extraction systems, citric acid and ammonium citrate, were identified in Part I of this study. In Part II of the study, effects o...
S Chen, R Patel
Green approach in wood mineralization for improvement of fire properties
2022 - IRG/WP 22-30769
Various treatments have been developed in order to improve fire properties of wood. Because the use of some flame retardants can release toxic compounds in the event of a fire, leading to poisoning or even death of people from smoke inhalation, the use of no-toxic and more ecologically acceptable flame retardants is preferable. Mineralization of wood with the incorporation of carbonates has proven...
A Pondelak, R Repič, L Škrlep, N Knez, F Knez, A S Škapin
Danish wood preservatives approval system with special focus on assessment of the environmental risks associated with industrial wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-01
The following is a description of the procedure used by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental risks associated with preservatives used in the pressure impregnation of wood. The risk assessment covers issues considered to be of significance for the environment and which are adequately documented so as to allow an assessment. Such issues are persistence and mobility ...
Data sheet on wood-boring insects. Apate monachus Fabricius. 2. Position systématique, nomenclature, identification et distribution - Espèces végétales attaquée
1981 - IRG/WP 1105
R L A Damoiseau
Confocal laser scanning microscopy of a novel decay in preservative treated radiata pine in wet acidic soils
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10215
Light microscopy of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) field test stakes (20x20x500mm3) exposed in wet acidic (pH 3-4) soil for 12 - 24 months showed predominance of an unusual type of decay characte-rised by tunnelling attack of wood cell walls. After two years decay was moderate to severe in wood treated to ground contact CCA specifications and also equivalent retentions of creosote, and a numb...
R N Wakeling, Ying Xiao, A P Singh