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Biological effectiveness of ground-contact wood preservatives as determined by field exposure stake tests
1984 - IRG/WP 3297
Field exposure tests conducted on stakes treated with different creosotes, mixtures of creosote and waxy oil as well as different CCA wood preservatives over a period of 25 years, gave the following results: The CCA preservatives provided excellent biological protection to treated stakes, especially against fungal attack. The CCA Type I, currently approved for use under South African conditions is not inferior to the CCA Type II during long-term ground-contact exposure if the active elemental contents and effective retentions are taken into consideration. The creosotes provided good protection against termite attack but showed fairly poor fungal resistance during long-term ground-contact exposure under wet conditions. The addition of waxy oil greatly improved the effectiveness of creosotes against fungal attack. The CCA preservatives proved to be a better overall ground-contact preservative compared with the creosotes.
W E Conradie, A Pizzi

Performance of treated spruce in Canadian field test sites
1989 - IRG/WP 3506
Spruce material under test in Canadian field test sites is performing better than anticipated. From the comparison of the performance of spruce treated with various preservatives, it appears that penetration may be far more important on durability performance than the preservative itself or the retention of preservatives in the wood. However, there is still insufficient data on the influence of penetration on the performance of treated spruce. As data for species other than white spruce and data for sawn material is also incomplete, spruce cannot be accepted by the Canadian standards at this time.
J P Hösli, E E Doyle

The remaining concentration of inorganic wood preservative components in EN 252 stakes after ground contact
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50159
In order to determine the biological efficiency and the remaining concentration of different inorganic and organic active ingredients during service, EN 252 specimens were impregnated with 3 copper based wood preservatives. The stakes were installed in the test field of the DESOWAG GmbH, Rheinberg, for at least 7 years. At the end of the field test some of these stakes were divided into 10 uniform segments. Afterwards each segment was milled and mixed to guarantee a nearly homogenous sample. After further sample preparation like an acidic digestion the remaining concentration of the inorganic components copper, zinc, boron and fluoride were measured by means of AAS, ICP and an ion selective electrode. Concerning the remaining concentration the following ranking of the investigated active ingredients could be deduced: Cr (90%)> Zn (60%)> Cu (40-70%) >= F (40%) > B (concentration <10%). Furthermore the results show that the remaining content of copper differs depending on the wood preservative used. The lowest content was detected for the CCZnF-formulation, the highest for the copper-quat-preservative. Furthermore it is obvious that the rate of biological decay correspond well with the distribution of the wood preservative components in the segments.
E Melcher, H-W Wegen

Field Trials with mini-stakes
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20244
In 1995 an extensive field test program with wood mini-stakes, 8 x 20 x 200 mm, was started. In these trials a large number of parameters are being evaluated, including several new wood preservatives, differently chemically modified woods and natural durability of various wood species. The test sites are three fields in Sweden for in-ground and “close to ground” testing, one subterranean termite field in Indonesia for in ground testing, and finally one fungus cellar. The results of the test program show that some chemically modified woods perform surprisingly well and actually equal to or better than CCA-impregnated wood. This was also true for wood treated with some of the new preservatives included in the program. After more than six years of testing it is clear that the in-ground test results are comparable with ordinary EN 252 results with full sized stakes, 25 x 50 x 500 mm. Mini-stake EN 252 field testing is thereby an economic alternative to ordinary EN252, if the intention is to screen many parameters with a limited amount of material and with limited field space available.
M Westin, A O Rapp, Y S Hadi, T Nilsson

In ground performance of wood treated with a substituted isothiazolone
1990 - IRG/WP 3612
Isothiazolones (I.T.A.&apos;s) are a class of biocides that have potential for use as wood preservatives. The substituted ITA, RH-287, (4,5,dichloro-2-n-octyl-isothiazolone-3-one) is being evaluated as a broad spectrum wood preservative. The evaluation program includes in ground stake tests which were established at two test sites in Mississippi, USA The tests used southern yellow pine treated with RH-287 in accordance with AWPA Standard M7. Five year inspection data have revealed excellent performance by stakes treated with 2 kg/m³ RH-287 in an oil carrier solvent. At this treatment level stakes were protected from termite attack and fungal decay. These results indicate that RH-287 offers excellent potential for use as an in ground contact wood preservative
L E Leightley, D D Nicholas

Diversity of wood decay fungi isolated from ground-contact wood stakes in Korea
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10952
This study was conducted to investigate wood decay fungi from 5 different ground-contact wood stakes in Korea. A total of 73 basidiomycetes were isolated and identified into 20 genera and 22 species by using molecular method. Among all fungi, only 6 species were brown-rot fungi and the others were white-rot fungi. Pinus densiflora and Quercus variabilis showed high fungal diversity and isolation frequency, but there was a significant difference in diversity between both of them. In addition, dominant species was also different depending on wood species. Wood species was the major source of difference in community of wood decay fungi. Therefore, this information will be useful for wood protection of outdoor facility made by wood.
S-M Yoon, M-J Kim, W-J Hwang, Y-S Choi, D-W Son

Wood preservatives: Field tests out of ground contact. Brief survey of principles and methodology
1976 - IRG/WP 269
This paper contains the following spots: 1.: The general need for field tests. 2.: Interests and limits of field tests in ground contact. 3.: Various methods in use for out-of-ground contact field tests. 4.: Fungal cellar tests are they an alternative to above-ground decay exposure tests? 5.: Conclusions.
M Fougerousse

Wood furfurylation process and properties of furfurylated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40289
The first processes for “furfurylation” of wood (wood modification with furfuryl alcohol) were developed several decades ago. Furfuryl alcohol is a renewable chemical since it is derived from furfural, which is produced from hydrolysed biomass waste. Over the last decade modernised processes for furfurylation of wood have been developed. These new processes are based on new catalytic systems and process additives. Two main processes for production of furfurylated wood have been developed for WPT (Wood Polymer Technology ASA) by the authors – Kebony&#61652; 100 for high modification levels of hardwoods and VisorWood&#61652; for lower modification levels of pine. Commercial production according to the Kebony process has been running since August 2000, mainly for flooring. A small Kebony production plant is now in operation in Lithuania. A larger Kebony/VisorWood production plant started up in September 2003 in Porsgrunn, Norway. Several new plants operating according to the VisorWood process, each with an annual capacity of 10 000 m³ or more, are under construction. The properties of furfurylated wood depend on the retention of grafted/polymerised furfuryl alcohol (PFA) in the wood. At high modification levels (high retention of PFA) the enhancement of a wide variety of properties are achieved: an exceptional hardness increase, exceptional resistance to microbial decay and insect attack, high resistance to chemical degradation, increase in MOR & MOE, and high dimensional stability. At lower modification levels many property enhancements also occur, however to slightly lower extent. Notable are resistance to microbial decay and insect attack, increase in MOR & MOE, and relatively high dimensional stability.
M Westin, S Lande, M Schneider

Durability of pine modified by 9 different methods
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40288
The decay resistance was studied for pine modified by nine methods of wood modification: 1) Acetylation, 2) Treatment with methylated melamine resin (MMF), 3) Acetylation followed by post-treatment with MMF-resin, 4) Thermal modification, 5) Furfurylation, 6) Maleoylation (using water solution of MG or ethanol solution of maleic anhydride), 7) Succinylation, 8) NMA-modification and 9) modification with reactive linseed oil derivative (UZA), Wood blocks of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood were modified in pilot plants. Methods 1-5 were performed by the authors at Chalmers University of Technology or at BFH in Hamburg. Methods 5-9 were part of a European research project (the Chemowood project, FAIR-CT97-3187) and therefore each of these modifications was performed by the project participant responsible for the method. For laboratory testing in TMCs (modified European standard ENV 807) and pure basidiomycete culture bioassays, smaller test specimens were cut from the modified wood blocks. Most of the modification methods were applied on test specimens for marine field testing (EN 275) and some methods to produce mini-stakes for field tests in five Swedish fields. Some modification methods result in modified wood with poor durability, whereas other methods (acetylation, furfurylation and MMF-treatment) seem to provide excellent resistance to microbial decay.
M Westin, A O Rapp, T Nilsson

Short-term field test method with accelerated infection of Basidiomycetes in wood
1981 - IRG/WP 2155
In the ŠIPAD - IRC Wood Protection Laboratory an attempt has been made to develop a simple short-term method for field testing out-of-ground contact wood using accelerated infections with Basidiomycetes. This method makes it possible to obtain a preliminary assessment of a preservative&apos;s quality and to estimate the possibility of achieving promising results in more expensive long-term tests. The idea was to use water traps (reservoirs) and 50 x 25 x 15 mm³ laboratory infected pine blocks as the substrate to improve the possibility of inoculation of L-joints.
N Vidovic

A new ground-contact wide-spectrum organic wood preservative: DNBP
1986 - IRG/WP 3358
A new organic wood preservative, which 25 years field tests have proved to be of efficiency and effectiveness comparable to CCA wood preservatives for ground-contact applications, is presented. Physical and chemical tests, supporting the long term field test results as well as indicating the characteristics of this preservative, are also presented.
W E Conradie, A Pizzi

Forest products laboratory methodology for monitoring decay in wood exposed above ground
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20074
Research at the Forest Products Laboratory on the durability of wood in service has included a full complement of laboratory and field tests. In this report, we present a review of past and current methods used to evaluate the condition of preservative-treated wood exposed above ground. Current protocols are described for tests on wood packaging, roofing, and dimension lumber.
R C De Groot, T L Highley

Preventive action against fungal decay: A comparative experiment on the effects of natural and artificial infection of wood by Basidiomycetes
1981 - IRG/WP 2160
M Fougerousse

A note on testing the efficacy of wood preservatives above ground
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20078
A number of test methods have been used to evaluate the performance of wood preservatives in above ground situations. These have included EN 113 tests following natural exposure weathering (NEWT), L-joint or T-joint tests, lap-joint tests, and decking tests. A new test referred to as the A-frame test has been developed and is under evaluation. This is based on a sandwich-type test in which a thin (3.5 mm) sample is exposed outdoors between two untreated samples on a rack or A-frame. The advantages and disadvantages of these types of tests are discussed in a short note.
G R Williams, J A Drysdale, R F Fox

The isolation of actinomycetes from wood in ground contact and the sea
1980 - IRG/WP 1110
M S Cavalcante, R A Eaton

The rate of redistribution and loss of leachable preservatives under service conditions
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30026
This paper describes experiments carried out to determine patterns of preservative redistribution and any associated losses which occur when wood containing unfixed water-soluble wood preservatives is exposed to service conditions where leaching is possible. Scots pine sapwood treated with disodium octaborate was used as a model system. Results are recorded and discussed for trials representing painted joinery out of ground contact and unpainted stakes half buried in the ground. The results indicate that in the painted samples out of ground contact the water-soluble compound was redistributed longitudinally and away from the joint zone during the first months of exposure, although little redistribution occurred laterally. No difference in redistribution patterns could be associated with paint type. Ground contact stakes showed a loss in the water-soluble compound of about 40% in the first six months exposure. Most of this appeared to occur from the surface zones of the stake exposed to the weather, particularly from the extreme top. In addition, the compound appeared to migrate upwards from the below-ground portion of the stake to the above-ground portion. These results provide new information on the extent of movement of water-soluble preservatives in painted, jointed timber out of ground contact and in unpainted timber in ground contact. It is concluded that the long-term significance of the observed redistribution effects for painted joinery should be evaluated to confirm that there is no likelihood of shortcomings in performance in practice. For the ground contact situation, results confirm that rates of redistribution and loss are high enough to indicate inappropriateness of such materials for practical use without associated technologies to reduce mobilities.
R J Orsler, G E Holland

Above ground testing of wood preservatives - some experiences from Sweden
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20079
Field stake tests for the evaluation of wood preservatives have been used for more than 50 years in Sweden. In the Nordic countries a system for approval of wood preservatives, which includes field test, has also been in operation for more than 25 years. This system has been described in an IRG Document by Henningson & Jermer (1988). The Nordic system is now in a process of harmonization with the European system based on CEN&apos;s hazard classes (Henningsson & Jermer, 1994). Strangely enough, field testing for approval purposes in Sweden and the Nordic countries has only been done with stakes in soil contact. In earlier days approval requirements for a preservative for above ground situations was determined on the basis of results obtained in stake tests. Subsequently the Nordic approval system accepted laboratory decay tests as an approval basis for above ground preservatives. The European Standard EN 113 or comparable methods were allowed. This means that wood preservatives for above ground use could be approved after only laboratory tests, which - as a matter of fact - was against the generally accepted testing philosophy in these countries. The absence of standardised methods for field testing of above ground preservatives, however, does not necessarily mean that such tests have not been performed in Sweden. In the following some examples of above ground testing will be given. Although these tests may not particularly have been designed for testing the efficacy of wood preservatives, they may be of interest in discussing methodology and they may be imptortant in special cases. The examples are: Test with plank pieces; Window-frame corners; Organotin degradation test; tests with piled samples; tests about the natural durability of wood panels.
B Henningsson, Ö Bergman

In ground contact field trial results of preservative treated incised and unincised spruce
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40076
Field trials of treated spruce stakes have been demonstrated that incising the stake before treatment improves the preservative uptake both for CCA and creosote. This results in a substantially extended service life for the incised stakes over the unincised stakes for preservative concentrations at commercial levels. After 24 years in ground contact the majority of incised spruce samples are sound and have provided data which indicates that the stakes treated with CCA or creosote to commercial standards could last for more than 41 years.
E D Suttie

Testing wood in ground contact: An artificial soil
1977 - IRG/WP 280
This document is an interim report on the development of the artificial soil medium. It includes some information on the relationship between soil, wood and water which is of relevance in testing.
E F Baines, D J Dickinson, J F Levy

The use of zirconium as an inert fixative for borates in preservation
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30256
Stand-alone borates have been used in internal protected situations as wood preservatives for about 60 years. They have not been deemed acceptable for external situations because of their leaching characteristics. Work carried out to reduce the leachability of borates has been reviewed briefly here, and a specific fixation agent based on zirconium has been tested in standard leaching and decay tests. It was found that the performance of zirconium could be optimized for fixation at specific drying temperatures and at higher formulation pH. Using sufficient quantities of ammoniacal zirconium carbonate and potassium zirconium carbonate such formulations are then able to pass both Standard European and American Wood-Preservers&apos; Association methods designed for testing exterior wood preservatives. Formulations based on borate with a zirconium additive are probably suitable for use in exterior above ground and possibly ground contact situations. As only initial indicative tests have been carried out so far, further testing with a range of wood destroying organisms and field tests should be carried out to evaluate this system further.
J D Lloyd, J L Fogel, A Vizel

Ground contact performance of wood treated by the MSU process
1990 - IRG/WP 3609
Environmental concerns have prompted a renewed interest in accelerated fixation schemes for CCA-treated wood. Results from stake tests of southern pine (Pinus sp.) treated using a conventional Bethell cycle are compared with matched stakes treated using the MSU Process. The effects of adding boric acid to the preservative formulation are also discussed. Differences among test plots are discussed.
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey, R W Landers

The Effect of Soil on the pH of Untreated Southern Pine in Ground Contact
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10742
Untreated southern yellow pine samples were subjected to three soils that had been amended to provide acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. Wood pH was measured prior to, and then one, two, four and eight weeks after being placed in the soil to determine the effect of soil pH on wood pH.
C Vidrine, C Schauwecker, L Jin, A F Preston

The Effect of Soil pH on the pH of Treated Southern Pine in Ground Contact after 12 Months
2011 - IRG/WP 11-50281
Southern pine samples treated with soluble and particulate copper solutions were subjected to three soils that had been amended to provide acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. Wood pH was measured prior to, and after 6 and 12 months after being placed in the soil to determine the effect of soil pH on wood pH.
L Jin, C Schauwecker, C Vidrine, P Walcheski, A Preston

Long term performance of CCA preservatives in ground contact
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30223
Copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) preservatives have been use extensively in New Zealand since the mid-1950s for a wide range of ground contact uses, radiata pine being the main species treated. They have been the subject of a comprehensive field testing programme in up to five sites in New Zealand, the earliest tests being established in 1955. Main factors affecting performance have been formulation type, test site and test specimen size. In nearly all tests where efficacy of CCA has been compared with other preservatives, CCA has been more effective in controlling decay, particularly on drier sites. In a warm and wet site (annual rainfall 2,000 mm) where soft rot and brown rot predominate, there has been very little difference in performance between CCA and other multi-salt formulations, but in a very wet site (annual rainfall >3,500 mm) CCB and CCP have out-performed CCA.
M E Hedley, D R Page, B E Patterson

Natural durability of wood in ground contact - A correlation between field and laboratory tests
1985 - IRG/WP 2182
A field test is being carried out to evaluate the natural durability of 20 hardwoods. The resistance to decay and termite attack was evaluated in accelerated laboratory tests. The results of the field test after 6 years and 8 months indicate that there is not necessarily agreement between results from laboratory and field tests. It is pointed out that apart from the artificiality of the laboratory tests, a possible cause of the discrepancies can be the different performance of the same wood species in different test sites.
M S Cavalcante, G A C Lopez, R G Montagna, M E S Fosco Mucci

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