Your search resulted in 3163 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Biological effectiveness of ground-contact wood preservatives as determined by field exposure stake tests
1984 - IRG/WP 3297
Field exposure tests conducted on stakes treated with different creosotes, mixtures of creosote and waxy oil as well as different CCA wood preservatives over a period of 25 years, gave the following results: The CCA preservatives provided excellent biological protection to treated stakes, especially against fungal attack. The CCA Type I, currently approved for use under South African conditions is...
W E Conradie, A Pizzi
Performance of treated spruce in Canadian field test sites
1989 - IRG/WP 3506
Spruce material under test in Canadian field test sites is performing better than anticipated. From the comparison of the performance of spruce treated with various preservatives, it appears that penetration may be far more important on durability performance than the preservative itself or the retention of preservatives in the wood. However, there is still insufficient data on the influence of pe...
J P Hösli, E E Doyle
The remaining concentration of inorganic wood preservative components in EN 252 stakes after ground contact
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50159
In order to determine the biological efficiency and the remaining concentration of different inorganic and organic active ingredients during service, EN 252 specimens were impregnated with 3 copper based wood preservatives. The stakes were installed in the test field of the DESOWAG GmbH, Rheinberg, for at least 7 years. At the end of the field test some of these stakes were divided into 10 uniform...
E Melcher, H-W Wegen
Field Trials with mini-stakes
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20244
In 1995 an extensive field test program with wood mini-stakes, 8 x 20 x 200 mm, was started. In these trials a large number of parameters are being evaluated, including several new wood preservatives, differently chemically modified woods and natural durability of various wood species. The test sites are three fields in Sweden for in-ground and “close to ground” testing, one subterranean termi...
M Westin, A O Rapp, Y S Hadi, T Nilsson
In ground performance of wood treated with a substituted isothiazolone
1990 - IRG/WP 3612
Isothiazolones (I.T.A.'s) are a class of biocides that have potential for use as wood preservatives. The substituted ITA, RH-287, (4,5,dichloro-2-n-octyl-isothiazolone-3-one) is being evaluated as a broad spectrum wood preservative. The evaluation program includes in ground stake tests which were established at two test sites in Mississippi, USA The tests used southern yellow pine treated...
L E Leightley, D D Nicholas
Diversity of wood decay fungi isolated from ground-contact wood stakes in Korea
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10952
This study was conducted to investigate wood decay fungi from 5 different ground-contact wood stakes in Korea. A total of 73 basidiomycetes were isolated and identified into 20 genera and 22 species by using molecular method. Among all fungi, only 6 species were brown-rot fungi and the others were white-rot fungi. Pinus densiflora and Quercus variabilis showed high fungal diversity and isolation f...
S-M Yoon, M-J Kim, W-J Hwang, Y-S Choi, D-W Son
Mini-stakes – an alternative test method for EN 252?
2023 - IRG/WP 23-20691
Market approval of wood treatment products requires knowledge and prove of long-term durability. Efficiency of wood treatment with a specific product is evaluated based on variety of tests, including penetration evaluation, leaching studies as well as decay tests. EN 252 standard test is a core method for wood durability evaluation in a ground contact, both for commercial product approval and scie...
R Digaitis, P Larsson Brelid, N Terziev, M Klamer, A W Christof, J Stenaek, N Morsing
Field performance of MCA-treated wood in ground contact
2023 - IRG/WP 23-30782
Micronized Copper Azole (MCA) was evaluated for its ability to resist biodegradation at two Canadian test sites using Pacific silver fir and white spruce stakes, and lodgepole pine and red pine roundwood posts. After 12 years of exposure the treated stakes exhibited low to moderate levels of decay while the untreated controls had failed. When stakes were moved to an active termite site, the untrea...
C Wilson, J Zhang, R Stirling
Wood preservatives: Field tests out of ground contact. Brief survey of principles and methodology
1976 - IRG/WP 269
This paper contains the following spots: 1.: The general need for field tests. 2.: Interests and limits of field tests in ground contact. 3.: Various methods in use for out-of-ground contact field tests. 4.: Fungal cellar tests are they an alternative to above-ground decay exposure tests? 5.: Conclusions....
Wood furfurylation process and properties of furfurylated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40289
The first processes for “furfurylation” of wood (wood modification with furfuryl alcohol) were developed several decades ago. Furfuryl alcohol is a renewable chemical since it is derived from furfural, which is produced from hydrolysed biomass waste. Over the last decade modernised processes for furfurylation of wood have been developed. These new processes are based on new catalytic systems a...
M Westin, S Lande, M Schneider
Durability of pine modified by 9 different methods
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40288
The decay resistance was studied for pine modified by nine methods of wood modification: 1) Acetylation, 2) Treatment with methylated melamine resin (MMF), 3) Acetylation followed by post-treatment with MMF-resin, 4) Thermal modification, 5) Furfurylation, 6) Maleoylation (using water solution of MG or ethanol solution of maleic anhydride), 7) Succinylation, 8) NMA-modification and 9) modification...
M Westin, A O Rapp, T Nilsson
Short-term field test method with accelerated infection of Basidiomycetes in wood
1981 - IRG/WP 2155
In the ŠIPAD - IRC Wood Protection Laboratory an attempt has been made to develop a simple short-term method for field testing out-of-ground contact wood using accelerated infections with Basidiomycetes. This method makes it possible to obtain a preliminary assessment of a preservative's quality and to estimate the possibility of achieving promising results in more expensive long-term te...
A new ground-contact wide-spectrum organic wood preservative: DNBP
1986 - IRG/WP 3358
A new organic wood preservative, which 25 years field tests have proved to be of efficiency and effectiveness comparable to CCA wood preservatives for ground-contact applications, is presented. Physical and chemical tests, supporting the long term field test results as well as indicating the characteristics of this preservative, are also presented....
W E Conradie, A Pizzi
Forest products laboratory methodology for monitoring decay in wood exposed above ground
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20074
Research at the Forest Products Laboratory on the durability of wood in service has included a full complement of laboratory and field tests. In this report, we present a review of past and current methods used to evaluate the condition of preservative-treated wood exposed above ground. Current protocols are described for tests on wood packaging, roofing, and dimension lumber....
R C De Groot, T L Highley
A note on testing the efficacy of wood preservatives above ground
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20078
A number of test methods have been used to evaluate the performance of wood preservatives in above ground situations. These have included EN 113 tests following natural exposure weathering (NEWT), L-joint or T-joint tests, lap-joint tests, and decking tests. A new test referred to as the A-frame test has been developed and is under evaluation. This is based on a sandwich-type test in which a thin ...
G R Williams, J A Drysdale, R F Fox
The isolation of actinomycetes from wood in ground contact and the sea
1980 - IRG/WP 1110
M S Cavalcante, R A Eaton
The rate of redistribution and loss of leachable preservatives under service conditions
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30026
This paper describes experiments carried out to determine patterns of preservative redistribution and any associated losses which occur when wood containing unfixed water-soluble wood preservatives is exposed to service conditions where leaching is possible. Scots pine sapwood treated with disodium octaborate was used as a model system. Results are recorded and discussed for trials representing pa...
R J Orsler, G E Holland
Above ground testing of wood preservatives - some experiences from Sweden
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20079
Field stake tests for the evaluation of wood preservatives have been used for more than 50 years in Sweden. In the Nordic countries a system for approval of wood preservatives, which includes field test, has also been in operation for more than 25 years. This system has been described in an IRG Document by Henningson & Jermer (1988). The Nordic system is now in a process of harmonization with ...
B Henningsson, Ö Bergman
In ground contact field trial results of preservative treated incised and unincised spruce
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40076
Field trials of treated spruce stakes have been demonstrated that incising the stake before treatment improves the preservative uptake both for CCA and creosote. This results in a substantially extended service life for the incised stakes over the unincised stakes for preservative concentrations at commercial levels. After 24 years in ground contact the majority of incised spruce samples are sound...
E D Suttie
Testing wood in ground contact: An artificial soil
1977 - IRG/WP 280
This document is an interim report on the development of the artificial soil medium. It includes some information on the relationship between soil, wood and water which is of relevance in testing....
E F Baines, D J Dickinson, J F Levy
The use of zirconium as an inert fixative for borates in preservation
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30256
Stand-alone borates have been used in internal protected situations as wood preservatives for about 60 years. They have not been deemed acceptable for external situations because of their leaching characteristics. Work carried out to reduce the leachability of borates has been reviewed briefly here, and a specific fixation agent based on zirconium has been tested in standard leaching and decay tes...
J D Lloyd, J L Fogel, A Vizel
Ground contact performance of wood treated by the MSU process
1990 - IRG/WP 3609
Environmental concerns have prompted a renewed interest in accelerated fixation schemes for CCA-treated wood. Results from stake tests of southern pine (Pinus sp.) treated using a conventional Bethell cycle are compared with matched stakes treated using the MSU Process. The effects of adding boric acid to the preservative formulation are also discussed. Differences among test plots are discussed....
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey, R W Landers
The Effect of Soil on the pH of Untreated Southern Pine in Ground Contact
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10742
Untreated southern yellow pine samples were subjected to three soils that had been amended to provide acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. Wood pH was measured prior to, and then one, two, four and eight weeks after being placed in the soil to determine the effect of soil pH on wood pH....
C Vidrine, C Schauwecker, L Jin, A F Preston
The Effect of Soil pH on the pH of Treated Southern Pine in Ground Contact after 12 Months
2011 - IRG/WP 11-50281
Southern pine samples treated with soluble and particulate copper solutions were subjected to three soils that had been amended to provide acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. Wood pH was measured prior to, and after 6 and 12 months after being placed in the soil to determine the effect of soil pH on wood pH....
L Jin, C Schauwecker, C Vidrine, P Walcheski, A Preston