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Upright capillary absorption behavior of five important timbers and one bamboo species of Bangladesh
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40273
The upright or vertical capillary absorption rate of five different timber and bamboo species namely mango (Mangifera indica), kalajam (Syzygium cumini), kanthal (Artocarpus heterophyllus), sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo), mahagoni (Swietenia macrophylla) and mulibamboo (Melocana baccifera) were measured in relation to their specific gravity and duration of immersion. It has been observed that there was significant relation between increase of capillarity and timber species. From the analysis of data it was found that the rise of capillarity is more or less similar in case of bamboo, jam and kanthal but the values were comparatively lower than that of mahagoni, sissoo and mango. The value of the capillarity has been found the highest in mangowood. There was no significant relation with the rise of capillarity and advancement of time. Initially, the soaking rate of bamboo has increased at an increasing rate, but it soaks the solution at more or less same rate with time. It has been also observed that the absorption height has changed with the specific gravity of wood and absorption height has increased gradually with the increase of immersion time.
M A Islam, A K M A Bosunia, A K Saha, A K Lahiry


Manual of a mini treating plant for waterborne preservative treatment of timber and bamboo
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40130
This contributional article includes machinaries and equipments necessary for a small wood treating plant for the pressure treatment of tim bers with waterborne preservatives along with the cost and design. The preservative treatment limitations, treatment schedules and specifications for different products have been described. The cost of a mini treating plant will be 6,00,000 Tk. (13,000 US$), suitable for preserving timber and bamboo products for indoor and outdoor uses and will out last teak wood. The additional durability of timber and bamboo will create economically and environmentally safe conditions.
A K Lahiry


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 13: Report of fourth inspection (36 months) in Australia
1981 - IRG/WP 481
This report presents the results of the fourth inspection of the IRG/COIPM International Marine Test specimens installed in Sydney Harbour in December, 1977. The inspection took place on 9th December, 1980, after 36 months exposure. Full details of the treatment and installation of the specimens, as well as results of the first three inspections (after 6, 12, and 24 months exposure), have been presented in earlier reports. All inspections of this test have been carried out in accordance with the Working Plan (see IRG/WP/414) except for an X-ray examination of the specimens. This facility is not available at the test station. In conformity with the provisions of the Working Plan, the fifth and sixth replicates of the whole test (i.e. those specimens with '5' or '6' as the final digit of their serial number) were recovered and returned to the United Kingdom after 6 months and 24 months of immersion. Thus, only four replicates remain to be examined at this and ensuing inspections.
J Beesley


A medium for mass culturing of a bamboo boring beetle Dinoderus minutus Fabricius
1983 - IRG/WP 1182
The bamboo is a traditional product of Japan. But its susceptibility to insects is one of the most important problems. The author has found that for the determination of the effectiveness of insecticides it is very easy to obtain sufficiently numerous adults of Dinoderus minutus by using Buckwheat Cake. The Buckwheat Cake is prepared with buckwheat flour and thin paper. The author has previously found that Buckwheat Cake is suitable for the culturing of Lyctus brunneus and these results were presented in 1981. In culturing Dinoderus minutus, Buckwheat Cake has been found to be also easier and fasting in bringing forth the adults than natural bamboo.
K Suzuki


Performance of preservative-treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. Report of condition of specimens installed in Victoria, Australia
1980 - IRG/WP 3155
J Beesley, R McCarthy


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. 2nd Interim Report
1981 - IRG/WP 477
Three reference wood species - Alstonia scholaris, Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris, untreated and treated with 3%, 6% and 10% CCA and CCB solutions were supplied to all participants for submergence at local sites. Regular examination of samples is being carried out - 6 months, 12 months and then annually for 7 years.
R A Eaton


Coding scheme for samples for IRG world-wide co-operative field experiment
1975 - IRG/WP 360
Each sample has been given a number containing six digits (eg 16 23 05). The first 2 digits indicate the country and person supplying the timber, the second 2 digits indicate the species of timber, and the last two digits indicate the treating concentration. All samples which end with the numbers 26 to 50 are to be placed in one site in the United Kingdom, probably at the Imperial College site at Silwood. All the other samples will be returned to the persons in the following list according to the code number indicated.
R Cockcroft


Progress towards controlling soft rot of treated hardwood poles in Australia
1977 - IRG/WP 289
H Greaves


CCA modifications and their effect on soft rot in hardwoods
1982 - IRG/WP 3201
Decay tests were carried out on wood samples treated with three waterborne compounds all identical in composition but applied in different forms. There were significant differences in the effectiveness of the treatments particularly as regards the control of soft rot.
S M Gray, D J Dickinson


Treatment of fresh green round bamboos culms (Dendrocalamus strictus) by sap-displacement (wick) method
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40311
Sap displacement method has great potential for treating short length bamboos as it does not require any technical equipment. The process is simple and large nos. of bamboos can be simultaneously treated in relatively short period. There is no wastage of chemicals as the remnant solution reused. Bottom ends and middle portion had better treatment in compared to lop end portion. With increasing length of the flow of preservatives is impaired. The method culms can conveniently 3m length.
R Lal, C N Vani


Laboratory tests on natural resistance to Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) attack of native hardwoods for crossarms production
1985 - IRG/WP 1266
Eletropaulo (Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S/A) and IPT (Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo S/A) are carrying on a study to evaluate wood species for crossarms in replacement of Aspidosperma polyneuron - Apocynaceae (Peroba-rosa) traditionally used for this purpose. Nineteen Amazon wood species were elected, with physical and mechanical properties equal or better than those presented by Peroba-rosa. Biological tests with these woods and physical tests of crossarms were carried out. Here is presented the results of the resistance test to Cryptotermes brevis attack.
M D Canedo, A T De Lelis


Biofouling and bioresistance of bamboo in marine environment
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10482
Proudly known as “green gold” and popularly called as “poor man’s timber”, bamboo is closely interwoven with the life of scores of people around the globe because of its versatile qualities and desirable strength properties as a structural material. It is used for innumerable purposes both on land and in water including seas and brackishwater bodies. "Presently, bamboos constitute an important raw material, and are vital to the economy of many countries" (John et al, 1995). In the words of Hanke (1990), "it is difficult to exaggerate the importance of bamboo as a structural raw material for most of human kind". "The 500-plus species are scattered throughout the warmer parts of the world, but the family achieves greatest abundance and most impressive luxuriance around the southern and southeastern edge of Asia, from the Indian monsoon region through China and Japan to Korea". Annually, about 4.56 million tons of bamboo from 30 genera comprising of 136 species is exploited in India alone (Anonymous, 1989). A vast quantity of it is used in the marine sector as fishing rods, sail masts, stakenet poles, mariculture cages and poles, fishing screens, fishing net supports, fish traps, fish baskets, floats for nets, floating rafts, floating fenders, floating platforms, etc., right from conventional capture fisheries to the most modern mariculture operations (Purushotham, 1963, Suri and Chauhan, 1984 and Santhakumaran and Sawant, 1993). Use of 30 lakh culms of bamboo per year for strikingly large screens of up to 10 Km and several other devices was reported by Satyanarayana Rao et al (1992) from Kolleru Lake in Andhra Pradesh, India, where brackishwater conditions prevail during certain seasons/in certain pockets. Similarly, bamboo cages of varying dimensions from 4 x 4 x 5 m to 50 x 5 x 5 m are reported to be employed for open ocean culture of fishes in Kampuchea, Indonesia and Thailand (Nayak, 2001). In all these utilities, bamboo is mostly used in untreated form. Yet, precise data on biofouling and bioresistance of different species of bamboo under marine conditions are not available except for isolated reports like that of Santhakumaran and Sawant (1993). Therefore, studies in this direction were taken up. Initially three widely used commercial Indian species of bamboo were tested and their performance is presented in this paper.
M V Rao, M Balaji, V Kuppusamy, K S Rao


Field tests out of ground contact in France: Definition of the test procedure and preliminary results after 18 months
1981 - IRG/WP 2161
M Fougerousse


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 10 from Naos Island, Panama
1980 - IRG/WP 462
Blocks of 3 wood species, Beech (Fagus sylvatica), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Alstonia (Alstonia scholaris) were exposed at site number 12 at Naos Island, Panama on March 8, 1978 by John R. DePalma. The arrangement of the panels in the exposure site is as shown in Figure 1.
D W French


Penetration analysis of two common bamboo species - borak and jawa of Bangladesh
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40247
Preservative treatment of two bamboo species, namely borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) and jawa (Bambusa salarkhanii Alam) was carried out with chromated copper boron (CCB) preservative by dipping method. The variation in preservative penetration between the two different species was determined. It was found that preservative penetrates into borak quicker than into jawa and easier into air-dried bamboo than into green one.
M O Hannan, A K Lahiry, N M Islam


Letter to the IRG meeting at Peebles, 1978
1978 - IRG/WP 181
J F Levy, R Cockcroft


Accelerated fixation of CCA in borak bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) of Bangladesh
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40193
CCA-C fixation study on impregnated (6% CCA solution), then boiled, oven-dried, normal, air-dried and steamed bamboo slices of air-dried borak bamboo (Bambusa balocca Roxb) of Bangladesh, revealed almost complete fixation in steamed (accelerated fixation) and air-dried (3 weeks, slow fixation) bamboo slices compared to moderate to slow fixation in boiled, oven-dried, normal and 24h air-dried slices.
A K Lahiry


IRG test of preservative-treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. Report on condition of specimens installed in Victoria, Australia
1982 - IRG/WP 3207
J Beesley


The susceptibility of 35 Amazon wood species to Cryptotermes brevis (Walker)
1982 - IRG/WP 1160
Laboratory tests were carried to evaluate the susceptibility of 35 Amazon hardwoods to Cryptotermes brevis (Walker). The results were analysed statistically and showed that five wood species were non resistant, nine were resistant and the other twenty-one in between those classes of resistance.
M D Canedo


Improved PEC preservatives with added biocides
1985 - IRG/WP 3322
Biocidal chemicals have been incorporated into formulations within the broad framework of pigment emulsified creosote (PEC) to provide novel potential multi-purpose preservatives. Preparations of PEC plus TCMTB, Boracol 40, copper ethanolamine nonanoate, Quatramine 80, arsenic trioxide, Troysan Polyphase, and CCA have been formulated and assessed for preserving ability in soil-jar and Accelerated Field Simulator tests. In addition, a cationic oil-in-water emulsion preservative combination of PEC and CCA (PECCA), and an anionic formulation of TCMTB with PEC (PECBUS) have been manufactured in 400 L quantities to treat hardwood pole stubs and pine posts. The results indicate the potential of these improved second generation PEC-based preservatives to provide low-creosote containing treatments able to protect commodities against biodeterioration as well as provide dry, clean surfaces.
H Greaves, C-W Chin, J B Watkins


Performance of surface-treated hardwoods and softwoods out of ground contact
1990 - IRG/WP 3592
A number of fungicides were tested as brush treatments for protection of southern pine, Douglas-fir, maple, and red oak against decay above ground. Cross-brace and L-joint test units were treated just before assembly and exposed from 3-10 years. Untreated Douglas-fir cross-brace units were not decayed at either the Mississippi or Madison, WI, site. Untreated red oak cross-brace units were not decayed at the Madison site. The two hardwood species were more difficult to protect from decay than the softwood species. Decay development in maple cross-brace units was considerably slowed by several of the treatments but none of the treatments provided complete protection from decay during the 9 or 10 years exposure in Mississippi. Most of the treatments did not reduce decay development in red oak cross-brace units. Many treatments protected pine cross-brace units. The L-joints were exposed for only 3-4 years, but appear more difficult to protect from decay than the cross-brace units.
T L Highley


Heat treatment of bamboo
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40216
Bamboo is a fast growing material with remarkable mechanical properties. In many tropical and subtropical countries bamboo is available in suitable dimensions for a reasonable price. Therefore it is used for many purposes which range from the basket production up to the industrial production of parquet or paper. However, bamboo is known as susceptible to fungal or insect attack and it is difficult to treat with preservatives. Therefore BFH investigated the possibility to protect bamboo by other methods and tested the application of a heat treatment. European grown bamboo (Phyllostachys viridiglaucescens) and Asian grown bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) were heat treated and were subsequently inoculated with the basidiomycetes Coniophora puteana, Coriolus versicolor and Schizophyllum commune in an agar block test. Further the durability of treated specimens against soft rot fungi was tested. The changes of the mechanical properties (MOE and shock resistance) caused by the heat treatment were determined too. The application of temperatures above 200°C caused a clearly enhanced durability against a basidiomycete as well as against a soft rot attack but the shock resistance was intensely reduced. Further investigations are still ongoing. The study has been carried out with financial support from the Commission of the European Communities, specific INCO programme INCO-DC 961344.
H Leithoff, R-D Peek


Recent soft-rot research in softwoods and hardwoods
1980 - IRG/WP 1108
The purpose of this paper is to describe briefly the current status of our research on soft-rot fungi. The work to be discussed is still in progress and any results described must be regarded as provisional.
J A Butcher


Resistance to soft rot of hardwood plywood treated with CCA salt
1983 - IRG/WP 3258
Plywood made from indigenous hardwoods was treated at an average loading of 34 kg Celcure A per m³ and was installed in a field test. After 20 years the samples were only slightly attacked by soft rot and the glue bonds were still intact.
R S Johnstone


An effective preservative treatment of borak bamboo (Bambusa balcoona Roxb.)
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40070
Adequate penetration and retention of CCA and CCB has been obtained in predried Borak Bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.), aboundantly grown in Bangladesh, with Full Cell Pressure Process. The treated bamboo can be used as building materials, the sufficient treatability ensured its long term best utilization at ground contact and indoors. Which will keep the environmental & socio economical conditions of Bangladesh more viable and normal.
A K Lahiry, S Begum, G N M Ilias, M A Matin Sheikh, M A B Fakir, M I Hossain


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