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Physical properties of Pinus radiata veneers modified with hexamethoxymethyl melamine prepolymers
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40551
Prepolymers containing hexamethoxymethyl melamine and either sucrose (Suc-HMMM) or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-HMMM) were prepared by acid catalysis under reaction conditions optimised with respect to stiffening effect when introduced into Pinus radiata veneers by vacuum impregnation and cured by hot pressing at 150C. Maximum increases in MOE were 20% for Suc-HMMM (50% WPG), 22% for PVA-HMMM (...
C Molloy, W Rae, S Connor, T Henderson, A Siraa

Biological properties of Pinus radiata veneers modified with hexamethoxymethyl melamine
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40552
An investigation of the effects on decay and termite resistance of a wood modification process involving prepolymers of hexamethoxymethyl melamine (HMMM) was conducted using LVL as a model engineered wood product. Dry Pinus radiata veneers were vacuum-impregnated with a wood modification formulation containing a mixture (P-H:S-H) of two separate prepolymerisation reactions containing polyvinyl al...
A Siraa, S Millward, C Molloy

Time dependent over-uptake of etherificated melamine resins
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40109
Waterbased methanol-etherificated melamine-formaldehyde resins can increase the fungal resistance of the treated wood though they are known to be non-toxic. Therefore melamine-resins are at the present an object of research activities of European projects and of some companies. The paper highlights the importance of quoting the duration of the diffusion when immersed in the treating solution, as m...
D Lukowsky, R-D Peek

Oxygen index levels and thermal analysis of wood treated with melamine-formaldehyde-boron combinations
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30135
Melamine formaldehyde (MF) resin was impregnated into scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) specimens with aqueous solutions of 5, 10 and 20% concs. Boric acid (BA) and borax (BX) was added to MF resin at the concentration levels of 0.25, 1.00 and 4.70% to each level of resin concs. BA and BX mixture was prepared at the 5:1 (w/w) ratio considering resultant pH of solutions and better fire resistance. U...
M K Yalinkilic, W-Y Su, Z Demirci, E Baysal, M Takahashi, S Ishihara

Novel wood modification processes for window and cladding products
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40285
Because of the low natural durability and low dimensional stability of European wood species, the usage of wood for window frames has decreased dramatically during the last decade. In a joint project of several German research institutes and the window industry, following wood modification systems were compared. heat treatment (3 different materials from 2 companies) acetylation (pine sapwood an...
A Krause, C Hof, H Militz

EELS (Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy) - a technique for quantification of nitrogen and other light elements in the cell wall
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20163
A literature survey was performed to find progress in techniques for monitoring penetration of synthetic resins in wood cell walls. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was successfully applied for the high resolution examination of the distribution of a partly methylated hydroxymethyl melamine resin in Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst...
A O Rapp, H Bestgen, W Adam, R-D Peek

Curing conditions for a low formaldehyde etherificated melamine resin
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40108
Waterbased methanol etherificated melamine formaldehyde resins have the potential to increase the resistance of impregnated wood against wood destroying fungi. Previous studies indicated that the resin with the lowest formaldehyde content tested showed the best results regarding fungal resistance, dimensional stability and formaldehyde emissions after curing. In the present paper the influence of ...
D Lukowsky, R-D Peek, A O Rapp

The efficacy of preservatives into the glue-line of plywood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30002
This research is anti-termite/decay preservatives mixed with resin to produce the plywood. Thereafter, anti-decay/termite plywood were produced by the ordinary methods. To produce suitable plywood in the utilization and certified performance, the preservatives should be 0.3 to 0.4 kg/m³ of Chlorpyrifos; 0.88 and 1.10 kg/m³ of mix preservatives of Chlorpyrifos + IF-1000. Laboratories decay test (...
S Fushiki, T Saito, Y Katuzawa, Y Imamura, S Yusuf, B Subiyanto

In situ testing the influence of melamine resins on the enzymatic activity of basidiomycetes
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30194
Waterbased methanol etherificated melamine formaldehyde resins have the potential to increase the resistance of impregnated wood against wood destroying fungi. The mechanism of the increased wood durability is not clear yet. In the present paper the possible interference of melamine resins with wood degrading enzymes of Coniophora puteana and Trametes versicolor was investigated as a possible cont...
D Lukowsky, F Büschelberger, O Schmidt

Melamine resins as preservatives results of biological testing
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40061
Based on previous work of the authors on resins, the upgrading of wood with a true solution of a methanol etherificated melamine resin in low aqueous concentration was performed. For the relative assessment of the biological resistance against brown and white-rot fungi were used not only untreated controls of pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris L.), but also heartwood of European larch (Larix decidua M...
A O Rapp, R-D Peek

Termite resistance of some modified wood species
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40449
During the last few decades, researchers worldwide have investigated and developed new treatment techniques to improve intrinsic wood properties. Some of these techniques were introduced to the market recently and are gaining in importance.. Various wood properties of these new materials have been studied intensively. These include physical-mechanical properties (dimensional stability, moisture ...
H Militz, B C Peters, C J Fitzgerald

The Effects of Some Fire Retardant Chemicals on the Decay Resistance of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF)
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30536
The objective of this study was to determine the decay resistance of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) treated with 5% and 10% concentration of various fire retardant (FR) chemicals. Experimental panels were produced using by melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resins having 10%, 15% and 20% of melamine content. MDF specimens were subjected to decay resistance test performed according to modified EN 11...
D Ustaömer, M Usta, Ü C Yildiz, S Yildiz, E D Tomak

Preliminary laboratory bioassay to evaluate engineered Fibre-boards against subterranean termites C. acinaciformis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10768
In Australia, laboratory bioassays with subterranean termites typically contain groups of workers and soldiers in a substrate of moist mound material. This termite substrate may affect termite consumption, and the test materials create a favorable termite condition for the test. The main purpose of this test is to examine the effect of a melamine formaldehyde treatment of wood panels to evaluate t...
B M Ahmed (Shiday), H Militz, B Ozarska, I Ali, L Kloeser

Improving dimensional stability of thermally treated wood by secondary modification – potential and limitations
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40664
The potential of treating thermally modified wood with melamine resin to improve the dimensional stabilization is tested in this research. Two different boards of poplar (Populus ssp.) were cut into two halves. One half of each board was thermally modified (T1 and T2) in a commercial process, the other half was used as untreated reference material. The material was thermally modified using the vac...
G Behr, K-C Mahnert, S Bollmus, H Militz

Fabrication and characterization of MicroPCMs filled wood-plastic composites: Effects of polyethylene glycol on melamine–formaldehyde shell material
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40728
Microencapsulated phase change materials (MicroPCMs) containing dodecanol were fabricated using melamine-formaldehyde (MF) or polyethylene glycol 200 modified melamine-formaldehyde (PMF) resin as the shell materials by in situ polymerization. Wood flour/high-density polyethylene (WF/HDPE) composites with MF shell MicroPCMs (MF-MicroPCMs) or PMF shell MicroPCMs (PMF-MicroPCMs) were prepared, respec...
Xi Guo, Jinzhen Cao

Marine Borer Resistance of Acetylated and Furfurylated Wood – Results from up to 16 years of Field Exposure
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40756
Furfurylated and acetylated Scots pine sapwood has been tested since 1999 in a marine field with high marine borer activity. In 2004, two test groups with acetylated southern yellow pine (product later known as Perennial Wood™) were put out and over the whole test period differently furfurylated wood (later marketed as Kebony®) test groups have been started. Furthermore, some combinations of mo...
M Westin, P Larsson Brelid, T Nilsson, A O Rapp, J P Dickerson, S Lande, S Cragg

Weathering protection of European hardwoods through double modification
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30715
Beech and poplar were thermally modified, treated with melamine resin and both treatments were combined. The weathering performance (cracks and general appearance) of modified beech and poplar was assessed in natural weathering and correlated to material properties such as work in bending (WB) and Brinell hardness. In addition, the equilibrium moisture content after exposure of 12 months and subse...
G Behr, A Gellerich, S Bollmus, H Militz

Dimensional Stability of Melamine Formaldehyde-Treated Southern Pine
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40774
The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the influence of different levels of melamine formaldehyde (MF) and curing cycle on the dimensional properties of southern pine. Thirty samples for each combination of treatment and curing regimen plus untreated controls and controls subjected to the same curing regimen were tested. Shrinkage/swelling coefficients showed that up to 60% ASE c...
H M Barnes, L S Sites, T S F A França, M G Sanders, F J N França

The potential and the challenges of acetylated wood in timber bridges - experiences from an ongoing project
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40792
Acetylated wood is known to be a durable and dimensional stable alternative for high performance materials, and has high potential for exterior timber structures. Research has shown that acetylated wood can be effectively bonded by various adhesive types. However, one of the most common used adhesives for timber constructions, Melamine Urea Formaldehyde (MUF), shows a high degree of delamination o...
A Treu, R Bredesen, F Bongers