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High-energy multiple impact (HEMI)-test – Part 2: A mechanical test for the detection of fungal decay
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20339
The suitability of the high-energy multiple impact (HEMI)-test for detection of early fungal decay was examined. The HEMI – test characterizes the treatment quality of thermally modified wood by stressing the treated material by thousands of impacts of pounding steel balls. This method differentiates between heat treatment intensities, which are expressed by structural changes of the wood. Simil...
C R Welzbacher, C Brischke, A O Rapp


High-energy multiple impact (HEMI)-test – Part 1: A new tool for quality control of thermally modified timber
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20346
Thermal modification processes improve durability and dimensional stability of wood, but the strength properties, especially the dynamic ones, are compromised and need to be considered with respect to industrial quality control. Results from standard dynamic strength testing, such as impact bending tests, suffer from high variability, and therefore require a high number of replicates. To overcome ...
C Brischke, A O Rapp, C R Welzbacher


Mechanical strength of wood from the Vasa shipwreck
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20381
Samples from three ancient ship wrecks (Vasa, Elefanten, and Gröne Jägaren) and recent oak samples as reference were examined with regard to mechanical strength using the high-energy multiple impact (HEMI) - test method, which delivers the resistance to impact milling (RIM) of a material. Adoption and optimisation of the test method for the particular sample size of the wooden drilling cores was...
A O Rapp, C Brischke, C R Welzbacher, T Nilsson, C Björdal


The effect of gamma radiation on selected wood properties
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40394
As an easy, fast, and effective sterilisation method, gamma irradiation changes molecular structures not only in pest’s living cells, but also in wooden cell walls. Radiation-induced depolymerisation causes significant changes in some properties of wood crucial for restoration and for laboratory testing of wood-preservative effectiveness. The influence of gamma radiation concerning total amount ...
R Despot, M Hasan, A O Rapp, C Brischke, C R Welzbacher


Estimating the heat treatment intensity through various properties of thermally modified timber (TMT)
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40459
The suitability of different measures for prediction of the heat treatment intensity was investigated. Therefore, the resistance to impact milling (RIM), the lightness L*, the equilibrium moisture content (EMC), the anti swelling efficiency (ASE) and the total amount of soluble carbohydrates (TSC) of heat treated specimens were correlated with corresponding fungal resistance achieved by heat treat...
C R Welzbacher, C Brischke, A O Rapp


Influence of heat treatment intensity on the structural integrity of 14 timber species
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40586
Thermally modified timber (TMT) is characterized by improved durability and dimensionally stability, but strength properties, especially the dynamic ones, are compromised at the same time. Because dynamic standard tests require high efforts and time, the high-energy multiple impact (HEMI) –test was developed for the fast and reliable characterisation of the structural integrity of TMT, showing a...
C R Welzbacher, C Brischke, G Maier


Changes in mechanical and chemical properties of wood exposed outdoors
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20550
The aim of this study was to investigate differences in certain mechanical and chemical properties of three different wood species (common beach (Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and copper-ethanolamine (CuE) impregnated Norway spruce (Picea abies)) that were exposed in use class 3 (CEN, 2006) for periods between 4 and 30 months. The results show, that changes in the investigated me...
N Thaler, C Brischke, D Žlindra, V Vek, M Humar


The effect of preservative treatment on mechanical strength and structural integrity of wood
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30667
The use of wood for demanding construction applications is increasing in Europe. Wooden constructions are frequently designed of susceptible conifer wood, which is endangered by wood decay fungi in wet applications. Therefore in many cases treating wood with preservatives is unavoidable to ensure the desired service life. However, chemical treatment of wood can result in changes of its mechanical ...
M Humar, D Kržišnik, C Brischke


Impact of decay and blue stain causing fungi on the structural integrity of wood
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10699
The potential influence of diverse decay patterns caused by different brown rot provoking basidiomycetes on the structural integrity of wood was investigated. Additionally the potential impact of blue stain on the structural integrity was examined. Therefore decayed Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) specimens representing a wide range of mass loss, caused by four different brown-rot fungi and one...
C Brischke, C Welzbacher, T Huckfeldt, F Schuh


New developments in wood preservation
1974 - IRG/WP 335
Most of the developments in wood preservation in recent years have been stimulated by changing circumstances, particularly the increasing interest in reducing hazards and environmental, pollution but also the serious difficulties that are now being encountered in obtaining economic supplies of established preservatives. There is perhaps a danger that new controls to reduce pollution dangers may be...
B A Richardson


Sequential exposure of borate treated Douglas-fir to multiple Formosan subterranean termite colonies in a 40-week field test
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10006
Douglas-fir boards (ca. 74.5 g) pressure-treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) retentions of 0 (controls), 0.88, 1.23, 1.60, or 2.10% (weight/weight) DOT were sequentially exposed to four active field colonies of Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), in an above-ground field test. Samples were placed in contact with each colony fo...
J K Grace, R T Yamamoto


Experiences from a Danish large scale test by means of a new method of treatment by attack of true dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans) in buildings
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10064
Experiences from a new and epoch-making method of treatment in connection with the repair of attack of the true dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans (Fr.) S.F. Gray, are described. The paper presents the background of a large scale test comprising repair of more than 150 Danish buildings over a period of approximate 5 years. The method being both gentle to the building and presenting savings of at le...
O Munck, H Sundberg


Quality of timber impregnated with preservatives of class AB after three years in service
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20241
Quality of impregnated timber is most often expressed by penetration and retention of the preservative used. Relatively less information is available about the performance of the final product, e.g. decks, panels etc. regarding product’s surface checks, deformations and overall appearance. Together with the timber durability, the above mention features are of esthetical importance in the above g...
N Terziev


Tropical In-Ground Durability of Structural Sarawak Hardwoods Impregnated to High Retention with CCA-salts, CCA-oxide and FCAP after 20 Years Exposure
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30384
Statistical analysis (ANOVA) was conducted on durability (termite and decay combined) rating data collected over 20 years exposure period of over 140 species of Sarawak timbers with altogether 30,000 stake specimens, at the Forest Department’s Sibu “graveyard” stake test sites from 1977. About 20 replicated stakes were pressure-treated to refusal with 10% g/ml concentration of up to 3 CCA-sa...
Wang Choon Ling, A H H Wong


Social and economocal impact of an extension of service life resulting of an adequate preventive treatment. Application to wooden components used in urban areas with a high density of population
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-15
Le document évalue les problèmes rencontrés en zone urbaine pour le sauvetage des constructions: coordination de la lutte, délimination des chantieres et des périmètres d'investigation, nuisances causées par les interventions, risques pour la santé, risques pour l'environnement. Coûts. Comparaison socio-économique du traitement préventif et des interventions à posteri...
A T De Lelis, G A C Lopez


Impact of climate change on wood deterioration - Challenges and solutions for cultural heritage
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20441
Deterioration of wood in cultural assets follows the same physiological mechanisms as in modern structures. Therefore rules and data for prediction of service life derived from old wooden structures can be used to model the service life of recent wooden structures and vice versa. The latter is done in this paper: From experimental test set ups in the field spread over Europe, climatic data, wood t...
C Brischke, A O Rapp, M Hasan, R Despot


Performance of Wood Protection Systems at Multiple Field Test Sites Using the Ground Proximity Test Method
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20499
A series of preservative systems were used to treat southern pine ground proximity test samples which were then exposed at a range of test sites located throughout the world. The sites were chosen on the basis of having vastly different Scheffer Climate decay indices. After almost 14 years exposure, distinct differences are apparent in how different preservative systems perform at the different ...
A Zahora, A Preston, L Jin


Impact of water holding capacity and moisture content of soil substrates on the moisture content of wood in terrestrial microcosms
2019 - IRG/WP 19-20662
Terrestrial microcosms (TMC) are frequently used for testing the durability of wood and wood-based materials as well as the protective effectiveness of wood preservatives. In contrary to experiments in soil ecology sciences, the experimental set-up is usually rather simple. However, for service life prediction of wood exposed in ground, it is of immanent interest to better understand the different...
C Brischke, F L Wegener


Impact of fungal decay on the bending properties of wood
2020 - IRG/WP 20-20671
Wood used outdoors is generally prone to fungal degradation, and its impact on the structural integrity of wood is an immanent factor for service life planning with timber. Wood decayed to very small mass losses can suffer from a significant reduction in mechanical strength and elastic properties. Hence, the latter are preferred indicators to detect decay in wood durability studies. Numerous previ...
S Bollmus, P B van Niekerk, C Brischke


Durability against fungal decay of sorbitol and citric acid (SorCA) modified wood
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40928
Most European-grown wood species are susceptible to biological degradation, specifically, they suffer from a poor resistance against wood-destroying fungi. Therefore, prior to outdoor exposure, wood has to be treated either by applying a protective coating on its surface or by full-volume impregnation with antifungal chemicals. However, due to environmental and health concerns, the most frequently...
K Kurkowiak, L Emmerich, H Militz


Biological assessment of bio-based phase change materials in wood for construction applications
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40935
Solid wood can serve multi-functionality for energy savings in buildings. The study reveals the results of bio-deterioration and degradation of solid Scots pine wood used to incorporate single or multicomponent fatty acid mixtures as bio-based phase change materials (BPCMs). The sapwood samples were impregnated with capric acid (CA), methyl palmitate (MP), lauryl alcohol (LA) and a mixture of coco...
S Palanti, A Temiz, G Köse Demirel, G Hekimoğlu, A Sari, M Nazari, J Gao, M Jebrane, T Schnabel, N Terziev


Programme section 2, Test methodology and assessment
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20126
IRG Secretariat


Progress report on co-operative research project on L-joint testing
1983 - IRG/WP 2192
A F Bravery, D J Dickinson, M Fougerousse


A comparison of soft rot, white rot and brown rot in CCA, CCP, CCF, CCB, TCMTB and benzalkonium chloride treated Pinus radiata IUFRO stakes, after 9-15 years exposure at five test sites in New Zealand
1991 - IRG/WP 1485
The aim of this study was to determine if decay type varies significantly between five field trial test sites of different soil type, aspect and climate in 9-15 year old, replicate CCA, CCF, CCP. CCB, TCMTB and AAC treated IUFRO stakes. A visual on-site assessment of decay type on every test stake was made and observations confirmed by microscopical examination. Regression analyses were used to de...
R N Wakeling


Wood preservatives: Field tests out of ground contact. Brief survey of principles and methodology
1976 - IRG/WP 269
This paper contains the following spots: 1.: The general need for field tests. 2.: Interests and limits of field tests in ground contact. 3.: Various methods in use for out-of-ground contact field tests. 4.: Fungal cellar tests are they an alternative to above-ground decay exposure tests? 5.: Conclusions....
M Fougerousse


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