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Your search resulted in 43 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.


Diagnosis of failures in wood beams from historical house in Banská Štiavnica – Relations between ultrasonic measurements and bending properties
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20437
Various degrees of rot and other damages in ceiling beams with dimensions of 6500-8800 x 160-200 x 240-310 mm (length x height x width) situated in one historical bourgeois house in the UNESCO town Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia were determined visually and by the PUNDIT-plus ultrasonic device. Subsequently, for seventeen of the most bio-damaged fir (Abies alba Mill.) beams chosen for exchange were ...
L Reinprecht, M Pánek


Effect of long-term immersion in fresh and salt water on mould growth on Scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) wood
2020 - IRG/WP 20-10962
Wood exposed outdoors will eventually be degraded by fungi, depending on exposure and material characteristics. Numerous wooden constructions in the Røros municipality have existed since the 17th century, but wood used in recent repairs have decayed faster than expected. Before 1970 timber was mainly transported by log driving or rafting, and the logs were immersed in water for longer or shorter ...
M Sand Austigard, J Mattsson


Electron microscopic detection and chemical analysis of three-lamellar structures in wood-destroying fungi
1984 - IRG/WP 1240
In the course of transmission electron microscopical investigations of pine wood decay by various brown- and white-rot fungi extracellular three-lamellar structures (TLS) formed by the fungi were found in specimens stained with ruthenium red. These structures occured in the lumen of the wood cell surrounding the hypha at the outermost layer of the fungal cell wall. In the course of the investigati...
R Foisner, K Messner, H Stachelberger, M Röhr


A survey to assess the current and future usage of timber in British port structures
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10247
Port engineers responsible for 30 British ports were surveyed by questionnaire or interview to establish current and prospective usage of timber in those ports. The ports surveyed account for about 25% of total cargo handled annually in Britain and being located all around the British mainland, were considered to form a representative sample. The survey identified the hardwoods and softwoods in us...
G S Sawyer, S E M Plaster


X-ray analysis of selected anatomical structures in copper/chrome/arsenic treated wood
1973 - IRG/WP 320
Application of analytical electron microscopy to problems in wood preservation has been very limited. Indeed, less than ten workers appear to have published their results using the technique, and of these' only two papers deal with energy dispersion procedures in the scanning electron microscope; the others employ the more familiar wavelength dispersive methods of the electron probe....
H Greaves


How to keep coated wood structures sufficiently dry to avoid damage caused by rot
1991 - IRG/WP 2376
During the last ten years, a new type of problems with wood rot has emerged in Scandinavia. Thousands of houses have been damaged by wood rot attaching to the exterior wood panel. This paper provides an overview of finished and ongoing work in order to identify the cause of these problems. In field tests, the moisture conditions were measured in panels coated with different paint systems. The infl...
S Hjort


Protecting wooden structures
1980 - IRG/WP 392
Chromium-containing chemicals that effectively retard weathering of wood improve performance of subsequently applied finishes. Current work is focusing on the performance of wood-derived products (plywood, hardboard, fiberboard, particle board) after surface treatment with inorganic chemicals. The overall objective of the continuing research is to investigate new environmentally safe procedures to...
W C Feist


Non Toxic Remedial Treatment of Bamboo Structures/Furniture
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40516
Molds and beetles often attack bamboo furniture and structures when used in untreated or inadequate preservative treatment. Remediation or eradication of infestation often involves expensive chemicals (fumigants) and specialized methods, which are not available in villages. Novel inexpensive methods using easily available chemicals were developed for controlling such infestations. Whereas applicat...
S Kumar


An Historical Roof Timber System in the Old Town of Berlin-Spandau
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10949
In Europe the “Charter of Venice” was enacted on the 31st of May 1964. It is the international directive for the preservation of historic buildings and monuments. All countries in Europe now involve professional wood scientists and engineers in maintaining and preserving historical buildings. Here we discuss a restoration project involving 17th century roof timbering. This project may be used ...
M Luke, W Unger, D Nellessen


Identification of terminal structures in cellulose degraded by the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta
1989 - IRG/WP 1389
To gain insight into the biochemical mechanism employed by brown-rot fungi to depolymerize cellulose, we identified the end-groups of chemically pure cellulose that had been depolymerized by the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta. The depolymerized cellulose was acid hydrolyzed and the anion fractions isolated by ion chromatography. Sugar acids were identified by gas chromatographic and mass spectr...
T K Kirk, T L Highley, R E Ibach, M D Mozuch


Proposed model for the penetration and decay of wood by the hyphal sheath of the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta
1989 - IRG/WP 1391
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of Pinus sp. decayed by the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta confirmed the existence of extracellular membranous structures previously described by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These structures appear to be an integral part of the hyphal sheath and assume a variety of forms including lamellar sheets, fibrils, and vesicles. These structures were observe...
F Green III, M J Larsen, L L Murmanis, T L Highley


Fungal colonisation of the keelson and associated structures of a nineteenth century wooden frigate: Concepts of community structure and development
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10072
The early stages of microbial colonization and succession of wooden surfaces exposed to the sea have been extensively studied as have the community structures of archaeological timbers subjected to submergence and then retrieval from the sea. The frigate UNICORN, a largely intact 19th century wooden ship based in Dundee, Scotland, provides the microbial ecologist with a unique opportunity to study...
N A White, J W Palfreyman, G M Smith


Protection of buildings, other structures and materials in ground contact from attack by subterranean termites with a physical barrier - a fine mesh of high grade stainless stee
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10014
A new type of physical barrier for the prevention of attack by subterranean termites on buildings, other structures and materials in ground contact - a fine mesh of highalloy (originally 304, now 316) stainless steel - has recently been developed and patented worldwide by industry in Australia. The termite resistance of the material was assessed by CSIRO in laboratory and field trials. In the labo...
M Lenz, S Runko


Subterranean termites of economic importance in suburban Melbourne: Wood structures most frequently attacked and damaged
1990 - IRG/WP 1430
An examination of wood structures in forty buildings actively being attacked by subterranean termites in Melbourne revealed that all buildings were being attacked and damaged by Coptotermes species. This indicates the economic importance of these species. Hardwoods were more frequently infested than softwood species. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to termite control, ...
J R J French


Effects of boron formulation on specific timber types used in ships of historical importance
1991 - IRG/WP 3676
This paper reports results of preservative treatment and leaching experiments, using borax, polybor and boracol 20, on small wood blocks of English oak and American pitch pine heartwood. Earlier experiments on the performance of various biocides as possible additives to bilgewater to prevent fungal decay of shipping timbers had suggested that some formulations of boron might be associated with phy...
B King, G M Smith, J W Palfreyman, S McCutcheon


Insectos xilofagos que dañan la madera de edificios historicos de Morelia, Michoacán, México
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10673
Pine lumber in buildings in the historic center of Morelia that exhibited signs of attack were collected between 1999 until 2007. Four species were identified from this material. Two species were in the order Isoptera: Incisitermes marginipennis Latreille (Kalotermitiidae), Reticulitermes serratus Mendez (Rhinotermitidae), while the others were from the order Coleoptera: Calymmaderus oblongus (Go...
C M A Jurado Vargas, J Cruz de Leon


Expected service life of outdoor wooden structures such as guard fences and noise barriers indicated by questionnaire survey
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20372
Forestry Agency, Japan has intended to expand the utilization of domestic wood in many areas such as not only housing constructions also outdoor structures. In order to respond the policy, actual durability and service life of these structures should be clarified, and the guide line for archiving planned service life also should be established. Japan Wood Preservers Industries Association carried ...
K Yamamoto, A Makita, A Yamaguchi, T Shiraishi, K Maeda, D Tezuka, S Katsumata, M Higaki


Wood boring species present in the Tagus Estuary and the severity of their attack on wooden piles exposed in the area: a case study
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10664
Wood exposed in the marine environment is subject to degradation by wood boring organisms. This is probably one of the reasons why wood has been substituted by concrete and steel in maritime structures in many European coastal areas. Wooden piles obtained from a wharf exposed in the Tagus Estuary, Porto Brandão (Almada, Portugal) provided an opportunity to understand the main agents of biodeter...
L M S Borges, L Nunes, A A Valente, P Palma


Penetration Depth of Borates in Historic Wooden Structures in Virginia City Montana
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30475
Virginia City, Montana contains some of the best preserved examples of gold boom construction in the United States. Unfortunately, even the dry climate and fortuitous lack of fire have not prevented decay from claiming parts of the historic fabric. This project aims to determine if borates should be integrated into the preservation plan of the Montana Heritage Commission. Solutions of disodium ...
A A Turner


Termites y otros insectos xiliofagos en bienes arquitectonicos monumentos nacionalos de Colombia
2009 - IRG/WP 08-10679
The incidence of termites and other wood destroying insects was surveyed in ten historical buildings in Colombia. The most common insects were termites (Kalotermes, Cryptotermes, Heterotermes), although numerous decay organisms were also detected, including beetles (Anobium, Lyctus, Cerambycids) and various wood decaying fungi. Structural wood elements were classified according to the degree of a...
M G Ramírez


Building with termites: The challenge of biomimetic design for carbon neutral buildings.
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20405
The main aim of this paper is to present humanity and termites as design partners in the creation of a new dimension of ecosystem understanding. “Beyond biomimicry: What termites can tell us about realizing the living building”, Turner and Soar (2008) opens up a new era in how we think of human habitations, not only on earth, but maybe on other planets, and using the termite model as the corne...
J R J French, B M Ahmed (Shiday)


Qualitative - Quantitative Analysis of Wood-Inhabiting Fungi in External Wooden Structures of the Latvian Cultural Heritage
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10728
The frequency and diversity of wood inhabiting fungi in the exterior wood were established in the Araishi lake fortress, the Lielvarde wooden castle, the Latvian Ethnographic Open-Air Museum, Riga, and twelve wooden heritage objects in the Eastern part of Latvia (Latgale). The inspected wooden structures of the external woodwork included windows, stairs, walls, floorings, roofs, fences, and benche...
I Irbe, M Karadelev, B Andersons


Chemical protection of historic timber structures: Results and future needs
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40487
The paper concentrates on the analysis of the effectiveness of chemical protection for timber structures in the Russian State Museums “Kizhi” (Karelia) and “Vitoslavlitsy” (Novgorod). The condition of historic timber was tested at the monuments treated with PCP, borax, potassium carbonate, boric acid, Pinotex chemicals in the 1970-80. Long-term analysis revealed that in many cases the...
M Kisternaya, V Kozlov


Repairing of wooden elements by beta-method using carbon, steel or beech rods
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40488
Presented paper is focused on repairing of wooden elements by Beta joints reinforced with carbon, steel or beech rods, and on comparing the efficiency of these joints with traditional carpentry joints. In model laboratory experiments have been determined the bending strength (fm) and the modulus of elasticity (E) of control or original elements (fm-Control; Eo) from Norway spruce (Picea abies Kars...
L Reinprecht


The decontamination of a historical xylotheque with liquid carbon dioxide
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10757
The pharmacist Johann Heinrich Linck senior (1674-1734) created the xylotheque (collection of wood species) in Leipzig, Saxony (Germany). His son, Johann Heinrich Linck junior (1734-1807), continued the valuable and unique collection, which now belongs to the Museum Waldenburg near Dresden, Germany. In the past the cupboard, including the wood specimens, was impregnated with a wood preservative co...
S Zoppke, A Unger, J Mankiewicz, M Eisbein


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