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Durability of Furfurylated Wood – Results from Laboratory and Field Tests in the Ecobinders project
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40602
Within the EU project Ecobinders, laboratory tests were performed with furfurylated wood produced in semi-industrial scale in the factory of Kebony ASA. Field trials in Horizontal double layer decks and in-ground of transmission poles were also started. Four wood species, Southern yellow pine (SYP), maple, beech and aspen were treated to two treatment levels by using two impregnating liquids with different furfuryl alcohol content. Full length Scots pine poles were only treated with the higher furfuryl alcohol concentration treating liquid. SYP and beech samples were tested according to EN113 and maple and aspen samples according to the corresponding American test, AWPA E10. All wood species except Scots pine, at two treatment levels were installed in a HDL deck and the poles in ground with a creosoted pole as reference. The laboratory tests with three test fungi showed very consistent results. The low FA-content treating liquid (FA40) resulted in durability class 2-3 and the higher FA-content treating liquid (FA70) resulted in Durability class 1. After these tests Kebony ASA decided to switch from FA40 treating liquid to FA70 treating liquid in all of their production and is still using this mix in the production. The field trials were started in 2006 and after 5 years all 6 furfurylated poles (WPG=40 in the sapwood zone) were sound, which is, however, also the case for the creosoted pole reference. In the HDL test all furfurylated test stakes are more or less sound, whereas the controls are moderately to severely decayed.
M Westin


A critical view on early indicators for above ground field performance of wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20509
Above ground field tests are quite often a balancing act between the provision of realistic test conditions, reliable statistics, and acceptable long test durations. Within this study we therefore reviewed 543 data sets from above ground field tests performed at 36 different test sites in 8 countries in Australia and Europe. The main objective was to investigate possible correlations between early stages of decay and the actual service life of the specimens. Therefore native soft- and hardwoods were considered as well as modified and preservative treated timber. It was shown that the average service life of test specimens can be predicted by using the median time till failure. By this the overall test duration can be significantly reduced. The use of ‘earlier’ predictors turned out to be problematic due to high variation of field test results, which are mainly related to the wide range of moisture regimes within above ground exposure. For in ground situations, rating 4, ‘failure’, is probably a relevant level for end of service, but in particular above ground exposures the decay acceptance level might be lower e.g. in decking. Therefore lower thresholds might be considerable and will allow for further time saving when testing wood above ground, but still providing realistic exposure conditions.
C Brischke, L Meyer, G Alfredsen, P-O Flæte, L Francis, M Hansson, P Larsson Brelid, J Jermer


The natural durability of wood in different use classes
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10457
The natural durability of important European wood species has been tested on 3970 specimen in field trials. The wood was exposed at five test fields in Germany with different climates at each site in European hazard class 4 and 3 (with and without soil contact). Within EHC 3 it was distinguished between tree different expositions (end grain sheltered, unsheltered and with water trap). The test is now running for 3 years. The results have shown that the type of exposition (EHC 3 or EHC 4) has a strong influence on both: the decay activity and the durability determined as the quotient of decay of tested species and of decay of Scots pine sapwood. The test site had a strong effect on decay activity and time to failure, whereas the effect on durability was minor. Up to now it is not yet possible to calculate the final durability classification, but so far the field tests in soil confirmed the natural durability given in EN 350 (with the exceptions of Quercus robur and Robinia pseudoacacia, both were less durable than said in the standard). Whereas so far the above ground tests revealed a higher durability for all softwood species with coloured heartwood (heartwood of Larix, Pseudotsuga and Pinus) than classified in the standard EN 350. It is obvious that the current classification of natural durability is only valid for use in soil contact. Future amendments of the standard EN 350 seem to be reasonable. It is proposed to list durability class separately for in ground and for above ground use in the future.
U Augusta, A O Rapp


The full guideline for the “double layer test method” - A field test method for determining the durability of wood out of ground
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20290
This guideline describes a test method for wood to be exposed to the weather out of ground contact. The main objective of the method is to evaluate the durability of wood in above ground exposure as shifted overlaid stakes, which form the so called double layer. The method is applicable to the testing of untreated, treated and modified wood. Initially it was developed and found to be most useful for testing of natural durability. As a simple and effective test method, it spread quite fast. Up to now more than 30 double layer tests are running in different countries of the world. The inventors of the double layer test were asked to come up with a full and precise guideline for this test methodology to enable interested scientist making use of this test method. Therefore this IRG- document was written as an instruction for those who would like to perform this test.
A O Rapp, U Augusta


Natural durability of Norwegian wood species for above ground applications – Project presentation and preliminary results
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10594
In Norway exterior wood structures have traditionally nearly exclusively been made of treated and untreated Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). In recent years there has been a tendency that other tree species, like various domestic hardwoods and imported species have been used in exterior above ground applications, often unfinished. For several wood species, especially hardwoods, information regarding the durability in use class 3 is lacking. The test procedures prescribed in the European standards, both laboratory and field tests, have some weaknesses regarding to natural durability testing. Hence, some new methods for accelerated above ground testing have been put forward. The main objectives of this project are to evaluate natural durability of Norwegian wood species for above ground applications, and to study various methods for assessing decay in wood. This paper presents the material and methods used in the project, and report the results from double layer tests after one year of exposure. No decay was detected, but almost all wood species were considerably discoloured. Thuja (Norw.), Thuja (Am.), Intsia and Tectona had the least amount of discolouration. The Norwegian softwood species had generally less discolouration than the Norwegian hardwood species. CCA and Cu preservative impregnated and FA modified Pinus sylvestris sapwood had more cracks than most of the untreated wood species. Moreover, some of the Picea abies qualities and Pinus sylvestris sapwood samples had substantial amounts of cracks.
P O Flæte, G Alfredsen, F G Evans


Moisture content and other tested values in. Double layer tests of different size in Lithuania and Germany
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20299
The paper presents measurement results of moisture content and the analysis of durability trial of double layer wood in variants of varying size, conducted in Girionys, Kaunas distr., Lithuania and in Hamburg, Germany. In this trial 3 sample sets of varying size, containing 25, 50 and 100 specimens, are used. The aim of this trial is to ascertain an optimal number of test specimens. The dynamics of wood moisture content and its defectiveness are estimated. The results showed, that maximum moisture content of Lithuanian trials was increasing with increasing number of specimens in one test set up. Lowest moisture content was recorded in single layer tests. The specimen remained mostly sound after half a year of outdoor exposure. Slight damage caused by basidiomycetes has been ascertained only in 5 out of 187 specimens. However mycelium growth was found on 64% of specimens. The mycelium was growing on 75-85% of lower layer samples and on 42-54% of upper layer samples in the double layer test. During the trials a newly developed stroke test proved to be promising for objective assessment of degree of decay. It will be further developed.
J Saladis, A O Rapp


The natural durability of wood in different use classes - PART II
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10598
The natural durability of important European wood species has been tested on 3970 speci¬mens in field trials. The wood was exposed at five test sites in Germany with different climates, at each site in European use class 4 and 3 (with and without soil contact). Within European use class 3 three different expositions were tested: vertical with sheltered end grain, vertical unsheltered and horizontal double layer (with water trap). The test has now been running for 6 years. The results have shown that the type of exposition (use class 3 or use class 4) has a strong influence on both: the decay activity and the durability determined as the quotient of decay of tested species and Scots pine sapwood. The test site had a strong effect on decay activity and time to failure, whereas the effect on durability was lower. Up to now it has not yet been possible to calculate the final durability classification, but so far the field tests in soil have confirmed the natural durability given in EN 350 (with the exceptions of Quercus robur and Robinia pseudoacacia, both being less durable than said in the standard). Whereas so far the above ground tests have revealed a higher durability than classified in the standard EN 350 for the tested soft¬wood species with coloured heartwood (heartwood of Larix, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Pinus sylvestris). It became obvious that the current classi¬fication of natural durability is not valid for wood in different use classes. Future amend¬ments of the standard EN 350 seem to be reasonable. It is proposed that durability class shall be listed separately for in ground and for above ground use in the future.
A O Rapp, U Augusta, K Brandt


Service life prediction of wooden components – Part 1: Determination of dose-response functions for above ground decay
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20439
Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Douglas fir heartwood (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) specimens were exposed in double layer field trials at 24 different European test sites under different exposure conditions (in total 28 test sets). The material climate in terms of wood moisture content (MC) and wood temperature was automatically recorded over a period of up to eight years and compared with the progress of decay. The final results of the study are presented within this paper. Significant differences among the test sites were observed regarding the time lag between the start of exposure and the onset of decay as well as the progress of decay. The overall aim of this study was to establish dose-response relationships between climate factors and decay as a basis for service life prediction of wooden components. The use of the combined material climatic parameters MC and wood temperature led to a feasible dose-response function and turned out to be a useful basis for service life prediction. How to apply this approach for estimating the expected lifetime of wooden components under various exposure conditions will be shown in part 2 of this series.
C Brischke, A O Rapp


Impact of climate change on wood deterioration - Challenges and solutions for cultural heritage
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20441
Deterioration of wood in cultural assets follows the same physiological mechanisms as in modern structures. Therefore rules and data for prediction of service life derived from old wooden structures can be used to model the service life of recent wooden structures and vice versa. The latter is done in this paper: From experimental test set ups in the field spread over Europe, climatic data, wood temperature, wood moisture content, and decay rates recorded for several years were correlated and used for mathematic modelling of decay. On that data basis a first attempt is made to quantify the influence of global warming on wood decay rates for different regions and scenarios, valid for both: wood in modern and historic structures. Against this background conservation of cultural heritage is increasingly challenging and methods are sought to allow historic structures to survive without severe modifications in design, but also with limited use of preservatives. How moisture monitoring can contribute to this purpose is shown on the example of the Echo pavilion in Maksimir Park, Zagreb, Croatia.
C Brischke, A O Rapp, M Hasan, R Despot


Natural durability of wood tested in different environments in Northern Europe
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10747
Moisture is often recognised as a key factor regarding the long time performance of wooden products, and one of the main challenges for timber products is to predict accurate service life in use class 3 (not covered above ground) and use class 4 (in soil or fresh water contact). A range of durability classification studies have been performed both in field and laboratory. But for several wood species information regarding the durability in use class 3 is lacking. Also, there is still a lack of studies comparing replicate wood products in different field exposure situations. This study evaluates the natural durability of different North European wood species in two different climates and in two different use classes. The wood species were compared with imported species and two preservative treatments. The overall picture shows a higher decay rating for wood species tested in ground contact compared with the results from the above ground “Double layer tests”. Moreover, the woods tested in Western Norway are more decayed than those tested in Eastern Norway. These findings can be explained by higher decay risk in use class 4 than in use class 3, and higher decay risk in a humid climate (Western Norway) than in a dry climate (Eastern Norway). The results indicate similar ranking of the durability of the wood species regardless of the environment they have been exposed to. The results from a linear regression show that MOE-loss of the mini-stakes after three years describes 70 % of the variation in decay rating of the “Double layer” stakes after six years exposure in Western Norway. This result strongly indicates that MOE-loss can be a prospective tool for rapid field testing of natural durability of wood.
P O Flæte, G Alfredsen, F G Evans


Moisture performance based wood durability testing
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20495
In the frame of a scientific cooperation within the Swedish research program ‘WoodBuild’ comparative field and laboratory durability studies have been carried out by the Technical Research Institute of Sweden SP and Leibniz University Hannover. One objective was to improve test methods as well as evaluation systems in order to facilitate the use of (field) testing for service life prediction. Therefore field trials containing long-term moisture and temperature recordings were set up to verify the suitability of different test methods for estimating the durability of wood under different exposure conditions. In this paper the test set up as well as preliminary results of the comparative studies on moisture performance of different materials in standardized and non-standardized field tests are presented. The field trials include graveyard, double layer, sandwich as well as lap-joint tests, which were performed with natural durable, modified and preservative treated timber. To consider the aspect that different climate conditions affect wood degrading processes the tests were carried out at three different test sites: Borås (Sweden), Hilo (Hawaii, USA) and Hannover (Germany). In addition, different laboratory decay and moisture uptake tests were conducted on samples matched to the field specimens. Preliminary results of the continuous moisture content (MC) measurements pointed on differences in moisture load between test methods, materials, and test sites. A more detailed understanding of the respective moisture regime can be expected when using different above ground test methods. Compared to traditional durability field testing the moisture performance based testing allows for reducing exposure intervals and more use-class related assessment. Due to this it seems worthwhile to quantify further test methods related to their severity and consequently to different exposure situations. The results for the different modified and preservative treated timber products pointed on the need for determination of material-dependent critical MC.
L Meyer, C Brischke, A Pilgård


Report on COST E37 Round Robin Tests – Comparison of results from laboratory and field tests
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20535
A round robin involving 15 European participants was set up in 2006. The round robin consists of both a field test according to the double layer test method and a laboratory test with two different preconditioning methods. When comparing EN 84 preconditioning (two weeks water leaching) with natural preconditioning (1 year in field, above ground) according to CEN/TS 15397, no significant difference could be noted for untreated controls, thermally modified wood or CCA impregnated wood. However, for wood treated with a metal-free organic preservative, a clear difference could be seen where much of the efficacy seen after EN 84 preconditioning is lost when natural preconditioning is used instead. In the field tests, the control pine performs similar in all fields whereas both thermally modified and preservative treated wood performs much better in the Nordic fields than in the Mid- and Southern European fields. The thermally modified wood performs almost as poor as the controls in the Southern European fields, whereas the organic preservative treated wood performs well in these fields. In the six Mid-European fields, the organic preservative treated and thermally modified wood performs equally poor but much better than the controls. The best compliance between field performance and laboratory test results is obtained when comparing the average results from the field tests with results from EN 113 tests with Postia placenta after natural preconditioning according to CEN/TS 15397.
M Westin, E Conti, J Creemers, P-O Flæte, A Gellerich, I Irbe, M Klamer, B Mazela, E Melcher, R Möller, L Nunes, S Palanti, L Reinprecht, E Suttie, H Viitanen


10 year Report on COST E37 Round Robin Tests – Comparison of results from laboratory and field tests
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30718
A round robin involving 15 European participants was set up in 2006. The round robin consisted of both a field test according to the double layer test method and a laboratory test with two different preconditioning methods. The laboratory test results were reported in an earlier IRG paper (IRG/WP13-20535) but are included also in this paper in order to facilitate the comparison with the field test results. As expected, the decay generally developed more rapidly at the southern European compared to the northern European field sites. However, the rank order of the different test groups concerning average decay ratings were the same for most field sites – Untreated pine sapwood controls had the highest decay ratings followed by TMT-UC2 (Thermally Modified Timber treated for use class 2 application), TMT-UC3, metal-free organic preservative in low retention, metal-free organic preservative in high retention, CCA in medium retention, and finally CCA in high retention that had very low decay ratings. The best compliance between field performance and laboratory test results is obtained when comparing the average results from the field tests with results from EN 113 tests with Postia placenta after natural preconditioning according to CEN/TS 15397. When evaluating the test methods it was clear that CEN/TS 15397 before the EN 113 test in laboratory seems to give far more relevant results than EN 113 after preconditioning according to EN 84 (water leaching for 2 weeks). The double layer field test does not function the way it was meant after failure ratings were reached for one or more stakes within a test group leading to collapse of the deck. This has occurred not only at the Southern European field sites but also in some cases for mid-European and Nordic test sites. After this type of collapse has been reached it is doubtful whether there is any point with continuing the test and therefore the test has now been terminated in some fields.
M Westin, E Conti, J Creemers, P-O Flæte, A Gellerich, I Irbe, M Klamer, E Melcher, R Moeller, L Nunes, S Palanti, L Reinprecht, E Suttie, H Viitanen


Above-ground testing methods – review of Rotorua, New Zealand test site results after ten years
2018 - RG/WP 18-20642
A series of seven different types of above ground durability tests were initially conducted over four years to determine which type of tests would give the fastest, most consistent results. Five types of test; ground proximity, two types of decking, flat panels and double layer, were reassessed after ten years. Exposure conditions varied between tests with ground proximity producing close to ground-contact conditions, double layer test very wet conditions while raised decking and flat panel tests were relatively dry. The results indicated that the ground proximity tests gave the fastest results and rankings for different preservatives were similar to those for ground-level decking tests. Flat panels were the next most effective, followed by ground-level decking, double layer and raised decking. Results from the flat panel test appeared to be influenced by decay that was previously established in old CCA treated support framing. When resistance to decay was compared between preservatives, CCA was similar to spotted gum and better than any of the preservatives.
D Page, T Singh


Future development of durability assessment of wood, according to typical usage of preservative-treated wood and naturally durable wood in Japan
2020 - IRG/WP 20-20675
A market of preserved wood products in Japan has two unique histories. First is the market shift to residential ground sills from utility poles and sleepers; the other is the stop of CCA treatment caused by the new effluent standard. In 2018, around 85% of preserved wood products used for residential ground sills were treated with non-CCA such as Cu-based agents. Since the market of treated wood has been so low in Japan, various types of durability evaluation methods were not needed. The in-ground field test is the only standard test in Japan. On the other hand, the exterior use of wood above ground, such as decks and cladding, is expected as a new market of treated wood. As above-ground conditions are different from in-ground, a lot of field tests for the above-ground has been conducted throughout the world. A new field test is also needed in Japan to evaluate the durability of wood products. This paper reports on the current status of durability standards in Japan, and the recent studies and future developments of durability assessment for above-ground use in Japan.
T Osawa, W Ohmura, H Kurisaki


Performance of treated fence posts after 6 years in five test plots in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil
1976 - IRG/WP 376
Fence posts treated with creosote, pentachlorophenol and creosote/ pentachlorophenol mixtures showed good performance after 6 years of exposure in five test plots located in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. Good results were also achieved with copper sulphate/sodium arsenate and copper sulphate/potassium dichromate mixtures. Fungi and termites were the main destroying agents found attacking the posts.
M S Cavalcante


Ultra-structural observations on the degradation of wood surfaces during weathering
1987 - IRG/WP 2280
Radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood was converted into blocks with a transverse face about 5 mm square and measuring 8 mm longitudinally. Transverse (T.S.), Radial (R.L.S.) and Tangential (T.L.S.) surfaces were prepared and specimens exposed to the weather inclined at 45° facing equatorially for periods of between 20-60 days. After 30 days exposure erosion of the middle lamella was observed followed after 40 days exposure by extensive separation of individual fibres at the interface of the middle lamella and secondary wall. Degradation of the S2 layer of the cell wall revealed corrugations orientated parallel to the fibre axis suggesting preferential removal of cell wall components. Further degradation proceeded by progressive delamination and checking of the S2 and erosion of the S3 cell wall layer. In addition to the above changes preferential degradation of the rays was observed in radial (R.L.S.) and tangential (T.L.S.) longitudinal surfaces.
P D Evans, S Thein


Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts by the double-diffusion method
1982 - IRG/WP 3196
Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated by the double-diffusion method with two chemical combinations showed average lives of 11.2 years (copper sulphate and potassium dichromate at 10.5 kg/m³ retention)and of 14.3 years (copper sulphate and sodium mono-H arsenate at 7.1 kg/m³ retention), as determined in five test sites in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The exponential model was the best fit when expressing average life by the Decay Index (DI) as a function of time.
E S Lepage, A R De Freitas


Field tests out of ground contact in France: Definition of the test procedure and preliminary results after 18 months
1981 - IRG/WP 2161
M Fougerousse


Studies of the distribution and degradation of tributyltin naphthenate in double-vacuum treated wood
1983 - IRG/WP 3230
The effects of forced solvent evaporation by kilning redwood (Pinus sylvestris) that has been double-vacuum treated with tributyltin naphthenate (TBTN) have been investigated. Contrary to previous studies reported, it has been shown that forced evaporation can have a considerable influence on the losses of the fungicide. It has been found that, whether the solvent is allowed to evaporate slowly or the evaporation is forced by kilning, the TBTN breaks down considerably in freshly treated wood. In view of the implications of this work for the long-term effectiveness of TBTN further studies are called for.
J Jermer, M-L Edlund, W Hintze, S V Ohlsson


Analysis of organotin fungicides in wood preservative solutions and double-vacuum treated wood
1983 - IRG/WP 3250
A new analytical method using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), for the assay of organotin compounds in preservative-treated wood, is presented. The organotin compounds are extracted from the ground wood sample with a mixture of hydrochloric acid and ethanol. After HPTLC-separation, exposure of the thin-layer plate to ultraviolet light, and dipping of the plate into a 0.1% pyrocatechol-violet solution, the different organotin compounds are quantitated using a scanning densitometer.
W Hintze, S V Ohlsson


Treatment of messmate (Eucalyptus obliqua L'Hérit) by double-diffusion: Preliminary report
1983 - IRG/WP 3234
Modified double-diffusion is suggested as a method of impregnation for mixed tropical hardwoods for certain types of ground contact use in less developed countries. Compared with vacuum/pressure impregnation, capital costs are low and little skill is needed for the operations involved. Treatment of messmate (Eucalyptus obliqua L'Herit) rounds involving pre-heating in water prior to their immersion in the first stage solutions is described. Preliminary indications are that (i) there is a deeper penetration of arsenic when a compound of this element is used in the first stage solution (ii) a more even and deeper penetration of chromium is obtained when sodium chromate, rather than sodium dichromate, is used in the second stage solution. It is concluded that quality control in double-diffusion may be a limiting factor in the adoption of the process for the treatment of wood unless a simple but effective method is found to control solution concentrations and elemental ratios.
F F K Ampong, C-W Chin


Effect of double-vacuum and vacuum-pressure impregnation with water-borne preservatives on the dimensional characteristics of spruce
1990 - IRG/WP 3613
Air-dried planed spruce (Picea abies) samples were treated with a water-borne preservative (micro-emulsion) and one oil-borne type both containing azaconazole and deltamethrin. Each set of samples contained equal number of specimens with different growth ring orientation, heartwood content and density. In addition to the preservative retention and the penetration of a.i., the swelling of the samples was measured immediately after impregnation and further after 6, 24 and 48 hours. The growth ring figure induced different uptake levels when the impregnation process was intensified. Gradual increase of tangential surfaces reduced the retention. The effect of the wood properties on liquid absorption seemed to be greater for the oil-borne treatment. Volumetric swelling of the test samples treated with the water-borne solutions ranged from 0,5 to 0,6% immediately after double-vacuum impregnation increasing to a maximum of 0,8% 6 hours later. Subsequent air-drying of treated samples did not produce checking nor deformation. The oil-borne preservative gave rise to a swelling 3 to 4 times less. A swelling of 0,8% for spruce treated with a water-borne preservative may be considered acceptable taking into consideration volumetric movement figures of 1 to 1,5% for tropical hardwood species, classified as low movement timbers.
J Van Acker, M Stevens, G Rustenburg


TBTO absorption and penetration in pine joinery treated by various processes
1989 - IRG/WP 3523
Matched sections of several White pine (Pinus strobus) and Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) mouldings were treated with TBTO by Double vacuum, modified empty-cell, 15 second dip and several preheating treatments followed by a 15 s dip treatments. As expected the double vacuum and empty-cell (batch) treatments resulted in much greater retentions and penetrations than the dip treatments. The absorptions by the 15 s dip treatments could be improved significantly by preheating the wood to 60-90C° by microwave, radio-frequency or infra-red techniques. Since this approach is amenable to a continuous treatment process, it is being evaluated for potential commercial application.
P A Cooper, Y T Ung


Preservative treatement of muli bamboo (Melocanna baccifera) by pressure process
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40194
This study was carried out in order to investigate the possibility of preservative treatment of split bamboo by pressure process. Whole bamboo is very difficult to treat by pressure process, which is the best and most dependable of all treating processes. Because it surface has a coat of impervious cutiular which make it very resistance to the penetration of liquid. Beside this it is prone to develop cracks under high pressure reducing strength to a greater extent. Split bamboo is used for different purposes. Generally muli bamboo (Melocanna baccifera) is used in splitting condition due to its strength and thickness. To find out the optimum schedule for the treatment of split bamboo, a number of schedule were carried out varying pressure and period. It was found that there was no significant variation with increasing pressure and period. It was observed that split bamboo can be satisfactorily treated by pressure process following a moderate treatment schedule with conventional water-borne preservatives.
K Akhter, M Younusuzzaman, M H Chowdhury


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