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Preliminary pole treatment trials with chlorothalonil in hydrocarbon solvent
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40027
A series of 460-mm long, end-sealed southern pine pole stubs were treated with chlorothalonil in hydrocarbon solvent. Over sixty sections were treated using various combinations of initial seasoning (kiln-drying, steam-conditioning), treating temperature (ambient, 200°F), initial air pressure, and final conditioning (steam flash + vacuum, expansion bath + vacuum, steam distillation + vacuum). Disks removed from the treated sections were analyzed for preservative gradient. Results are discussed in terms of treatability and the impact of treating variables on preservative retention, penetration, and gradient shape.
H M Barnes

Assaying Pentachlorophenol-treated Wood Using XRF
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20362
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oil type on the performance of test posts treated with oil-penta and exposed in DeQueen, AR for forty years in ground contact. The original assays for the poles were done by lime ignition, a practice used sparingly today in treating plants or by independent inspectors, in part due to the complicated analysis procedure and chances for error. XRF instruments for chlorine analysis have become commonplace. The question put forward by many inspectors, agencies, and treaters is ‘Will XRF accurately predict lime ignition results?’. This study encompassed seven different oil systems. Regression analysis yielded an R2 value over 97% when using XRF to predict lime ignition values. The only caveat was that a proper calibration standard was required for the XRF analysis. Users should be confident that properly derived XRF values will match lime ignition values within 5%.
H M Barnes, C R McIntyre, D W Bullock , M H Freeman, G B Lindsey

Solvent drying and preservation of timber
1977 - IRG/WP 381
Processes which combine drying and preservation are first reviewed. Some preliminary experiments are then described in which blocks of green Sitka spruce sapwood were immersed, in a solution of tributyltin oxide (TBTO) in methanol at 60°C. Satisfactory penetration of the preservative and exchange of methanol and water occurred in a few hours. The methanol was removed rapidly from the wood by evaporation. Satisfactory penetration of TBTO into initially methanol-saturated samples occurred in a similar period. The factors influencing. such treatments are discussed. High initial moisture content of the wood and a high operating temperature are particularly desirable. Some aspects of the possible commercial operation of the process are discussed.
J A Petty

Organic solvent preservatives. Essays on the ecotoxicology of new formulations
1991 - IRG/WP 3642
The knowledge on the ecotoxicological profile of wood preservatives become more and more important. The acute toxicity against aquatic organisms was examined for oil-borne preservatives, based on combinations of new fungicides (Tebuconazole, Propiconazole, Dichlofluanid) and insecticides (Permethrin, Cyfluthrin). These tests were conducted with fish, daphnia and algae. In principle the different formulations showed similar effects. The results of active ingredients and solvents confirmed the high sensitiveness of daphnia as test organisms. Criteria for hazards for the environment are presented and discussed.
H-W Wegen

Leaching of components from water-borne paints and fungitoxic effects
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20062
Water-borne model paints, acrylics and alkyd emulsion paints, of known composition were leached according to a procedure modified in accordance with ASTM 6271.1. The effectiveness of fungicidal compounds in the painted specimens before and after leaching was evaluated with a biotest in which Penicillium brevicompactum was used as a test fungus. The leaching of the fungicide Troysan Polyphase according to the biotest varied to a high extent depending on differences in paint composition. Fungicide efficiency in relation to paint formulation and fungicide mobility in a paint film is briefly discussed.
J Bjurman

Problem of the treatment of dried sawn spruce building timbers with water-borne preservatives. Interim reports for discussion at the 4th Annual Meeting in West Berlin on 27 October 1972
1972 - IRG/WP 311
One of the most difficult technical problems facing the preservation industry is how to improve the treatment of refractory species of timber such as spruce. Its resistance to penetration, even under pressure' precludes its use for more hazardous service situations, and even in less severe conditions a higher level of treatment would be desirable. The importance of this subject led us to look once again at possible ways of improving treatment.
W Liese, J W W Morgan, T Hof, R O Ullevålseter

Results of stake tests on wood preservatives (Progress report to 1974)
1975 - IRG/WP 361
A number of field stake trials on preservative-treated wood have been carried out at Princes Risborough Laboratory from 1928 to the present day, and many of the tests still continue. This paper presents in detail the results obtained to date, covering about 15 000 individual test stakes exposed over the period.
D F Purslow

Studies of the distribution and degradation of tributyltin naphthenate in double-vacuum treated wood
1983 - IRG/WP 3230
The effects of forced solvent evaporation by kilning redwood (Pinus sylvestris) that has been double-vacuum treated with tributyltin naphthenate (TBTN) have been investigated. Contrary to previous studies reported, it has been shown that forced evaporation can have a considerable influence on the losses of the fungicide. It has been found that, whether the solvent is allowed to evaporate slowly or the evaporation is forced by kilning, the TBTN breaks down considerably in freshly treated wood. In view of the implications of this work for the long-term effectiveness of TBTN further studies are called for.
J Jermer, M-L Edlund, W Hintze, S V Ohlsson

Light organic solvent preservative treatment schedules for New Zealand-grown radiata pine
1986 - IRG/WP 3379
The influence of pressure differential and treatment time on preservative uptake and distribution in radiata pine heartwood and sapwood is investigated. Treatment schedules are defined which minimise solvent usage but ensure complete sapwood penetration and optimise heartwood penetration.
P Vinden

Light organic solvent preservative treatment of glue-laminated radiata pine
1986 - IRG/WP 3380
The high permeability of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) is associated with ray-tissue and in particular the cross-field pits linking ray-tissue to tracheids. This pathway is absent in the tangential grain direction, leading to poor preservative penetration when treatment is restricted to the radial face - for example, timber fabricated into glue-laminated beams.
P Vinden

A bibliography of organic solvent-based wood preservatives
1973 - IRG/WP 322
H Alliot

Scientific development for prolonging the service life of timbers by impregnating with creosote or organic solvent type preservatives in which additive has been incorporated
1977 - IRG/WP 382
Chemically impregnated wood has played a prominent part in the Telephone and Electricity Distribution Industry during the past century and there is no doubt that it will play an equally prominent part in the future. The reasons why wood poles and wooden, structures predominate, are that when adequately chemically impregnated with a recognised timber preservative to ensure the expected service life for the purpose envisaged, the timber is then fully protected against the ravages of wood destructive organisms. Furthermore, wood is endowed with many natural characteristics that make it a favourite pole and structural material. Its high strength, light weight, ability to absorb impact or shock from loads suddenly applied and ability to resist overloading for brief periods plus its well-known insulating qualities - all are important basic reasons for its predominance in pole line structure. The use of chemically impregnated timber often makes it possible to carry out a given construction programme at less cost, or to erect more structures for a given sum of money, than when more expensive construction materials are employed.
P R B D De Bruin

Collaborative tests on the influence of solvent and drying method on the toxic limit of wood preservatives against Basidiomycetes
1974 - IRG/WP 248
Seven institutes from five countries, Austria, England, France, Germany and the Netherlands have collaborated in a study on the influences of solvent and drying method on the toxic limits of wood preservatives against Basidiomycetes tested according to the agar-block method. Two preservatives, a 25% pentachlorophenol-concentrate and tributyltinoxide were applied to pine sapwood and beech and tested against Coniophora puteana. The preservatives were diluted with either acetone. benzene, chloroform or xylene. Slow drying in vapour of the solvent was used for all solvents. In addition quick drying was used for benzene and chloroform and freeze drying for benzene. The results were not conclusive regarding any influence of the solvent and drying method on the toxic limit. There was a trend that the toxic limit of the pentachlorophenol concentrate is decreased by the use of acetone as solvent. An influence of acetone on the toxic limit of tributyltinoxide could not be stated. The results regarding an influence of the drying method on the toxic limit of the preservatives were variable. There is some evidence that the toxic limits are lowered by freeze drying. As this effect is not present in all cases, the differences in the established toxic limits are probably due to normal variation in results and not associated with the drying method.
T Hof

Bibliography of organic solvent based wood preservatives
1971 - IRG/WP 38 E
This publication has as its objective the collection of the more important and more recent references dealing with solvent-based timber preservatives; these are often termed - sometimes wrongly - oil-borne preservatives or even organic wood preservatives. It is hoped that this review will stimulate more fundamental studies in the future in this field or on some of its aspects.
H Alliot

Resin bleed after light organic solvent preservative treatment - the effect of drying method and process type
1986 - IRG/WP 3378
The effects of drying method and treatment process type on resin bleed were investigated. High-temperature drying of resinous radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) heartwood resulted in improved wood permeability, higher preservative uptake, and greater resin bleed when treated by the Rueping process. Resin bleed was reduced substantially when timber was treated by the Lowry process, and totally eliminated when Bethell-treated. The incorporation of 2% wax into the preservative formulation may control resin bleed after Rueping treatment.
P Vinden

Field trials on preserved timber out of ground contact
1978 - IRG/WP 3154
This report describes two different field trials studying the performance of preservative treatments on timber exposed to the weather, but above the ground. Results are presented on the protection afforded against decay, and on the efficiency of water-repellent preservative treatments in controlling the uptake of moisture by the timber. Proposals for a standard field test system are briefly discussed.
D F Purslow, N A Williams

Environmentally more acceptable solvents
1979 - IRG/WP 3131
The subject of this paper is hydrocarbon solvents with particular reference to the cyclo-aliphatic or naphthene-rich, grades which are now available. The specialised low aromatic high boiling petroleum fractions are also discussed.
A M Cumbers

A bibliography of organic solvent-based wood preservatives
1973 - IRG/WP 313 E
H Alliot

The resistance of wood coated with different solvent-borne paints against colonisation by decay fungi
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40468
This paper examines different solvent-borne paints characteristics and their decay resistance when applied on pine wood surface. It was determined by the standard ENV 839 procedure. The part of samples were subjected to accelerated ageing according to the EN 84 standard. The discussed commercial paint systems were typical stains or penetrating oil-based products, with or without biocides.
B Mazela, P Hochmańska

Chemical analysis for TBTN in LOSP-treated wood and preservative fluids
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20027
Tributyltin napthenate (TBTN) is being substituted for tributyltin oxide (TBTO) in LOSP preservative formulations because its lower reactivity/better stability allows co-formulation with synthetic pyrethroids. Better stability may reduce molecular degradation both in-service and during analysis. It was considered necessary to check whether TBTO analysis methods were suitable for use on TBTN treated wood. Five analytical methods for TBTO in wood were applied to TBTN-treated pine sapwood, and evaluated for recovery, accuracy and precision. It was found that treated wood could be oven-dried before analysis, eliminating the need to run parallel moisture content determinations. The best performing method involved extraction of TBTN from oven-dry treated wood with acidified ethanol followed by AAS determination of tin. Performance was checked on freshly-treated and aged material.
D P Wraight, M J Kennedy

Remedial treatment of joinery. Comparison of distribution of organic solvent preservative and ammonium bifluoride
1978 - IRG/WP 3115
It is some years since it was recognised in the United Kingdom that there was a problem of premature decay in untreated external joinery. Consequently, recommendations for preservative treatment were made by the Building Research Establishment, Princes Risborough Laboratory. In addition, the National House-Building Council has also included the preservative treatment of external joinery in its requirements. Thus, a large proportion of external joinery manufactured in the U.K. is now preservative treated, mainly in double vacuum impregnation plants. There still remain, however, relatively new buildings where preservative treatment has not been specified and where fungal decay is a problem. Decay occurs most frequently in the lower horizontal members such as cills, and the lower rails of opening lights. The damage is often most severe at the joints, where entry of water is facilitated by exposure of end grain. In some circumstances such as in Local Authority buildings where some of the more exposed joinery has already decayed, it has been considered economic to treat the remaining sound or near-sound joinery in situ in order to prevent future attack and to arrest any slight decay that may already be present. This treatment is normally applied by injecting organic solvent preservative under pressure in the region of the joints and where considered necessary along the lower horizontal member. As an alternative method of treatment, we have investigated the possible use of ammonium bifluoride, since diffusion of gaseous hydrogen fluoride may be expected to penetrate more extensively into wet timber than organic solvent preservative. The work described below was carried out in order to assess the comparative penetration of fluoride and organic solvent preservative in redwood (Pinus sylvestris).
J M Taylor

The treatment of sawn whitewood with organic solvent wood preservative
1982 - IRG/WP 3192
The impregnation schedules approved in the UK for the treatment of sawn European whitewood (Picea abies) with organic solvent borne preservatives result in comparitively high loadings relative to the limited depth of penetration they achieve. Results are presented, which show how substantial reduction in the overall loading may be achieved without concomitant reduction in penetration. A model for organic solvent behaviour is postulated as a basis to account for these findings.
L D A Saunders

Laboratory tests on light organic solvent preservatives for use in Australia. - Part 6: Soft rot resistance of three fully formulated preservatives on different timber substrates
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30245
The above-ground soft rot resistance of substrates treated with three fully formulated light organic solvent preservatives (Cuprivac Green WR, Impresol WR 205 and Vacsol) was studied using a modified vermiculite burial method. The substrates were sapwood of Pinus elliottii and P. radiata and heartwood of Eucalyptus regnans, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Shorea sp. (a lower and a higher density source) and Thuja plicata. Following artificial weathering, replicate test blocks were exposed to either Chaetomium globosum or Lecythophora mutabilis. C. globosum caused 3% or more mass loss of the water and solvent (white spirit) impregnated controls of all three hardwoods and two of the four softwoods, whereas L. mutabilis caused similar attack in only E. regnans and P. radiata. The P. menziesii and T. plicata heartwoods were naturally durable to both soft rot fungi and, hence, no further conclusions can be drawn. None of the preservatives, at the highest retention tested, protected E. regnans from attack by C. globosum, whereas the highest retentions of both the Cuprivac Green WR and Impresol WR 205 protected all other timbers from this fungus. At the highest retention, the latter preservative was the only one to protect E. regnans from L. mutabilis.
G C Johnson, M A Tighe, J D Thornton

Contradiction between uptake of preservative in practical situation and laboratory testing
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2392
By brush treatment water- and solvent-based products were applied on boards of Scots pine and Norway spruce to achieve an uptake of 100 and 200 g/ml. In addition the scope of work to achieve the required uptake of preservative was determined under practical conditions for both product groups. EN 113 (RAL-GZ 830) tests were carried out to test the biological efficacy of products. After 18 months exposure to outdoor weathering, physical tests were carried out to evaluate the properties of the paint-film. Results of physical tests show the influence of binder-type, binder-content and paint-system on the long term stability of products. The scope of work to achieve an uptake of 100 and 200 g/m² for solvent based products is approximately two times higher than for water based products. EN 113 (RAL-GZ 830) tests with solvent based products demonstrate that contrary to water based products, the amount of applied preservative has a considerable influence on the results. Weight loss measured in accordance to the RAL-GZ 830 regulations demonstrates that for nearly all solvent based products an uptake of 100 g/m², for water based products an uptake of 200 g/m² were sufficiant to protect the wood against Gloeophyllum trabeum. Except for three tested products with an uptake of 200 g/m² neither product protects the wood against Poria placenta.
R Gründlinger, O Janotta, M Melzer

In situ timber treatments by spraying. Distribution of preservative in wood
1991 - IRG/WP 3678
This study was carried out in order to make the Pest Control Operators able to achieve correct treatments and enhance their efficacy. It was carried out in two steps: 1) in laboratory, to learn the influence of various parameters like spraying pressure, use of repeated applications, distance from nozzle to wood; 2) in situ on roof timber of five buildings. In this case, the applications of the preservatives were carried out by different Pest Control Operators according to their usual habits. For the treatment application, several factors like the precise evaluation of the treated timber, the amount of preservatives actually applied, ambient temperature, spraying pressure, distance of the operator from wood were observed. Chemical analyses were made on different samples cut off at different places. It is possible to conclude that, if the application is carefully carried out, in both cases, whatever the preservatives used, and the conditions of application, the amount of preservatives found into the wood, is generally higher than 100 g/m².
C Defoin, G Dupont, M Lamour, H Sageot, M-M Serment

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