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Which fungi cause sapstain in Canadian softwoods?
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10285
The Canadian forest products industry suffers considerable losses in revenue due to fungal stains. There is an increased awareness that more complete knowledge about the causal organisms might help solve the problem. A first step was to initiate a thorough survey of bluestain fungi in Canada. Systematic sampling was done at seven selected sawmills in six Canadian provinces. In summer 1997 fresh lo...
A Uzunovic, Dian-Qing Yang, P Gagné, C Breuil, L Bernier, A Byrne


Laboratory decay test of Burmese in and kanyin treated with three wood preservatives
1982 - IRG/WP 3210
Laboratory decay tests were performed on samples of In (Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb.) and Kanyin (Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. and Dipterocarpus turbinatus Gaertn f.) pressure treated with three wood preservatives - copper arsenic additive (CAA - a variation of ammoniacal copper arsenate), Arquad C-33 (a waterborne quaternary ammonium formulation), and tributyltin acetate (TBTA) dissolved in eth...
J N R Ruddick, R S Smith, A Byrne


A laboratory method for assessing the effectiveness of fungicides in preventing the spread of decay fungi within packages of unseasoned lumber
1983 - IRG/WP 2202
To study the deterioration caused by decay fungi in the laboratory, a method for testing fungicides for their effectiveness in preventing spread of decay was devised. Some experiments using this method are reported here....
A J Cserjesi, E L Johnson, A Byrne


Targeting fungal proteinases to prevent sapstain on wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10097
Discoloration of wood, caused by a variety of sapstaining fungi, leads to periodic losses in the Canadian lumber export industry. Proteolytic enzymes are thought to be necessary for retrieval of nitrogen during fungal growth on wood. The major extracellular proteinase of Ophiostoma piceae, a representative sapstaining fungus, was purified to homogeneity and its inhibition pattern characterised. Cl...
L D Abraham, D E Bradshaw, A Byrne, P I Morris, C Breuil


A laboratory soil-block decay evaluation of plywoods edge-treated with preservatives
1982 - IRG/WP 2174
Preservative-treated plywood used under conditions or severe decay hazard frequently has its original, or cut edges, protected by the application of a field-cut preservative. This study uses a laboratory test method to compare the efficacy of four commercial preservative treatments against two commonly occurring brown-rot fungi. The results are not meant to indicate the service life of such treate...
R S Smith, A Byrne


Characterisation of growth and stain of different groups of sapstain fungi on lodgepole pine
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10326
Canada is the world's largest exporter of softwood lumber. These softwood shipments are susceptible to a variety of wood-inhabiting fungi that can lead to sapstain discolouration, which in turn decrease the product value. Furthermore, the presence of these microorganisms may be unacceptable to the importing countries. The objective of this work is to assess the sapstaining capability and ...
C Fleet, C Breuil, A Uzunovic, A Byrne


Variation in Canadian bluestain fungi: Tolerance to DDAC and DOT
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10303
Bluestain in Canadian wood products results in significant and unpredictable losses each year. In order to develop rational methods to eliminate or reduce the sapstain problem, a more complete knowledge of the causal organisms must be gained. This includes a knowledge of the variability in tolerance of different fungal species and strains to commercially used chemicals. In British Columbia, the ma...
J Dubois, A Byrne, J E Clark, A Uzunovic


Long-term protection of stored lumber against mould, stain, and specifically decay: A comparative field test of fungicidal formulations
1984 - IRG/WP 3281
The problem of decay in packaged, unseasoned lumber stored for many months has become of major importance in recent years. Large financial claims have resulted from decay in Canadian lumber stored at length in seaports and storage yards of distributors. For decades acceptable protection from moulds and sapstain was readily achieved with chlorinated phenols applied at appropriate treating levels. H...
A J Cserjesi, A Byrne, E L Johnson


Review of Mold Issues in North America and Mold Research at Forintek
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10458
Over the last decade, air quality in homes and workplaces has become a high profile issue especially in relation to mold, receiving considerable media, public and legal attention. Forintek Canada Corp. and the wood industry in general have experienced large increases in inquiries regarding mold and the suitability of wood as substrate for its growth. Because wet wood supports growth of fungi the ...
A Uzunovic, A Byrne, Dian-Qing Yang, P I Morris


Performance of borate-treated sill plates (dodai) in a protected, above-ground field test in Japan
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30278
This document is supplemental to the previous IRG document (IRG/WP 2000-30239). An experiment to simulate the dodai (sill plate) of the Japanese houses was conducted at the termite field test site of the Wood Research Institute in Kagoshima, Japan where two economically important subterranean termite species [Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe)] are established. DOT...
K Tsunoda, A Adachi, A Byrne, P I Morris, J K Grace


Resistance of borate-treated lumber to subterranean termites in the field
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10255
Borate-treated wood samples were tested for their resistance against subterranean termites in the field. Wood samples (10.5x10.5x40cm3) of western hemlock were pressure impregnated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), and assigned into two groups on the basis of boron contents:high retention (1.5-2.2%BAE) and low retention(O.7~1.3%BAE). Eight rep...
K Tsunoda, A Adachi, T Yoshimura, A Byrne, P I Morris, J K Grace


Performance of Borate-treated lumber in a four-year, above-ground termite field test in Hawaii
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30265
We report the fourth year of field study results from a protected above-ground field test in Hawaii simulating the sill plate (dodai) used in conventional Japanese housing construction. Field tests were established in both Hawaii and Japan to examine the efficacy of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT, 2% and 3% shell and through) wood treatments. In Hawaii, chromated copper arsenate (CCA, 4 kg/...
J K Grace, R J Oshiro, A Byrne, P I Morris, K Tsunoda


Effect of moisture and cellulosic substrate on decay of hardwoods by soft-rot fungi
1982 - IRG/WP 2173
The development by Forintek Canada Corp. of standard test procedures for laboratory preservative evaluations using soft-rot fungi was requested by the American Wood Preservers' Association. In Europe, through cooperative studies in the International Research Group on Wood Preservation, several attempts have been made to produce a standard procedure, but variability in results obtained bet...
A Byrne, R S Smith


Six-year Report on the Performance of Borate-treated Lumber in an Above-ground Termite Field Test in Hawaii
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30343
We report the fifth and sixth years of field study results from a protected above-ground field test in Hawaii simulating the sill plate (dodai) used in conventional Japanese housing construction. Field tests were established in both Hawaii and Japan to examine the efficacy of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT, 2% and 3% BAE shell and through) wood treatments. In Hawaii, chromated copper arsen...
J K Grace, A Byrne, P I Morris, K Tsunoda


Resistance of borate-treated lumber to subterranean termites under protected, above-ground conditions
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30239
An experiment to simulate the dodai (sill plate) of the Japanese houses was conducted at the termite field test site of Wood Research Institute in Kagoshima, Japan where two economically important subterranean termite species [Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe)] are established. DOT(disodium octaborate tetrahydrate)-treated hem-fir samples [Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.)...
K Tsunoda, A Adachi, T Yoshimura, A Byrne, P I Morris, J K Grace


Performance of Borate-Treated Wood Against Reticulitermes flavipes in Above-Ground Protected Conditions
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30309
Termites cause economically significant damage in Canada only in a few localized areas. However, one of those is in Canada’s largest city, Toronto, Ontario. In 1996, a test was set up of borate-treated lumber above ground, protected from rain but exposed to subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes) in Kincardine Ontario. The material included western hemlock and amabilis fir lumber trea...
P I Morris, J K Grace, K Tsunoda, A Byrne


A trial of "sour" felling to prevent bluestain by depletion of sapwood nutrients
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10404
Discoloration of conifer wood caused by bluestain causes large economic losses in Canada. Most deep stain develops in the log stage during storage or transport. In a search for control strategies that will not disrupt woodlands productivity we tested "sour" felling, termed "hagarashi" in Japan. The practice involves delaying the delimbing of freshly harvested trees. The tree continues to transpire...
A Byrne, A Uzunovic, D Minchin, C Breuil


Performance of borate-treated lumber in a protected, above-ground field test in Japan
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30344
This document is supplemental to the previous IRG document (Tsunoda et al., 2002). An experiment to simulate the sill plate (dodai) of the Japanese houses was conducted at the termite field test site of the Wood Research Institute in Kagoshima, Japan where two economically important subterranean termite species [Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe)] are established. ...
K Tsunoda, A Byrne, P I Morris, J K Grace


Biological Control of Bluestain - Log Field Trials in Canada
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10423
In the summer of 2000 we ran two field experiments (in Alberta and British Columbia) to test the feasibility of using an albino bluestain isolate (Cartapip97TM) to protect lodgepole pine logs from being stained by wild-type bluestain fungi. Results showed that Cartapip applied at the recommended concentration significantly reduced the amount of stain found in the Alberta trials. Cartapip applie...
A Uzunovic, D Minchin, A Byrne


Termite resistance of borate-treated lumber in a three-year above-ground field test in Hawaii
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30236
A protected above-ground field test simulating the sill plate (dodai) used in conventional Japanese housing construction was established in both Hawaii and Japan to examine the efficacy of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT, 2% and 3% shell and through) wood treatments. In Hawaii, chromated copper arsenate (CCA, 4 kg/m3) and ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA, 4 kg/m3) were included in the t...
J K Grace, R J Oshiro, A Byrne, P I Morris, K Tsunoda


Performance of borate-treated lumber after 8 years in an above-ground termite field test in Hawaii
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30390
We report eight years of field study results from a protected above-ground field test in Hawaii simulating the sill plate (dodai) used in conventional Japanese housing construction. Field tests were established in both Hawaii and Japan to examine the efficacy of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT, 2% and 3% BAE shell and through) wood treatments. In Hawaii, chromated copper arsenate (CCA, 4 kg...
J K Grace, A Byrne, P I Morris, K Tsunoda


Performance of borate-treated lumber in a protected, above-ground field test in Japan
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30395
This document is supplemental to the previous IRG document (Tsunoda et al. 2004). An experiment to simulate the sill plate (dodai) of the Japanese houses was conducted at the termite field test site of the Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere of Kyoto University in Kagoshima Pref., Japan where two economically important subterranean termite species [Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and R...
K Tsunoda, A Byrne, P I Morris, J K Grace


Developments in Borate Treatment of Canadian Species for Decay and Termite Resistance
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30443
The increased interest in boron treatment of wood over the past 20 years is mainly due to its environmental acceptability, potentially deep penetration in wood, and its efficacy against decay and termites. Based on Forintek’s research in the past two decades, the boron penetration and retention requirements for decay and termite protection in various national and international standards for Cana...
Jieying Wang, P Morris, S McFarling, T Byrne