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The effect of treatment method on CCA efficacy in Corsican pine
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3723
As part of a study into the influence of application method on preservative efficacy Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) samples (50 x 50 x 400 mm³) were treated with a CCA formulation using Bethel, Steam/Bethel or Lowry processes. Full penetration of the preservative at a gross level was confirmed using a copper disclosing reagent. The preservative was allowed to fix and then samples were converted into...
P R Newman, R J Murphy


Quantitative determination of Chromium: A comparison of three instruments
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50053
A comparison is made between three instruments for measuring levels of chromium in the leachate of copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) treated timber. These include an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, an inductively coupled plasma spectrometer and the RQflexâ. The RQflexâ is a new hand-held instrument which measures chromium by dipping a ReflectoquantÒ strip into the leachate and inserting the stri...
S Walley, P R S Cobham, P Vinden


Use of biossay to determine CCF and CCB preservative retentions in treated Pinus sylvestris
1984 - IRG/WP 2216
The retention of each a copper/chromium/boron and copper/chromium/fluoride preservative in pressure treated pinepoles was tested by bioassay using Aspergillus niger as test fungus. Small samples of 5 mm³ were taken from various depth of the poles and placed on potato-dextrose agar plates. The inhibition of fungal growth depends on the preservative retention in the cubes and corresponds closely to...
J C Moreschi, H Willeitner


The leaching of copper, chrome and arsenate from CCA-impregnated poles stored for ten years in running water
1978 - IRG/WP 3122
There is no evidence to indicate that the chromium and copper components are leached from the outermost 5 mm of sapwood in poles impregnated with Boliden K33 and Tanalith C and stored in running water for ten years. The arsenic component, however, seems to be leached out during the first few months to an extent of about 20% of the initial amount. The leaching time is dependent on the preservative ...
F G Evans


An interim report on studies of the tolerance by Sphaeroma (Crustacea: Isopoda) of CCA-treated timber
1982 - IRG/WP 491
In Papua New Guinea any untreated timber exposed to seawater close to mangrove stands is liable to be attacked in the intertidal zone by the crustaceans Sphaeroma terebrans or Sphaeroma triste. Even CCA-treated timber is sometimes vulnerable. The mouth-parts of these animals are adapted for boring, but whether wood particles are ingested remains to be resolved. Some limbs of Sphaeroma terebrans ap...
S M Cragg, J D Icely


CCA fixation experiments. Part 2
1989 - IRG/WP 3505
CCA fixation in wood was measured by both squeezing solution from treated wood that had not been dried and analyzing the solution for copper, chromium and arsenic, as well as using a chromotropic acid test to detect the presence of chromium VI. Both methods provide useful information on the CCA fixation process and illustrate that chromium VI disappears as CCA becomes fixed within wood....
W S McNamara


Assessment of contamination of soil and water at a CCA treatment plant: A demonstration project
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50067
Soil, sludge, dust and water samples were collected at a copper/chromium/arsenic wood preservation plant. Contamination of soil, sludge, dust and surface water with copper, chromium and arsenic was detected. Levels of contamination were sufficiently high to require remediation. Contamination originated from preservative solution dripping from recently treated wood. Migration of contaminants was vi...
P N Durrant, D C R Sinclair, G M Smith


Chemical analysis for TBTN in LOSP-treated wood and preservative fluids
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20027
Tributyltin napthenate (TBTN) is being substituted for tributyltin oxide (TBTO) in LOSP preservative formulations because its lower reactivity/better stability allows co-formulation with synthetic pyrethroids. Better stability may reduce molecular degradation both in-service and during analysis. It was considered necessary to check whether TBTO analysis methods were suitable for use on TBTN treate...
D P Wraight, M J Kennedy


Chemical analyses of IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST (to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water) samples
1987 - IRG/WP 4114
Chemical analysis of CCA and CCB treated timber was carried out after exposure at tropical and temperate marine sites. Results indicated that losses of all elements had occurred. In particular, losses of boron were severe. Arsenic and copper were also lost. The chromium components in both formulations was the most dominant metal remaining. The results suggest that chromium modification was importa...
L E Leightley


The volatilization of arsenic on burning copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) treated wood
1978 - IRG/WP 3111
Small scale burning experiments are described involving copper-chrome-arsenic treated wood. Approximately 20 per cent of the arsenic was volatilised when the wood was burned in air but 60 per cent when burned in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere, this increase is attributed to an increase in combustion temperature. Although a small increase in arsenic evolution was found with an increased concentratio...
A-J Dobbs, C Grant


Sampling variation in a copper chrome arsenic treated power transmission pole
1990 - IRG/WP 2351
The Queensland Forest Service routinely samples poles treated at all treatment plants throughout the State. Each treatment plant is issued with a Certificate of Registration and the accompanying documents list the different levels of preservative retention required for performance in various service conditions. The posted levels represent the.minimum permissible, and it is to these concentrations ...
J Norton


Leaching and fixation characteristics of chrome-copper-fluoride-zinc (CCFZ) treated wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30096
The leaching characteristics of radiata pine sapwood blocks treated with CCFZ were evaluated by the AWPA standard leaching test. The rate of fixation of the preservative components in CCFZ treated radiata pine were also evaluated by quantitative analysis of solution expressed from the treated wood. Both leaching and fixation characteristics of CCFZ were compared with CCA-Type C treated wood sample...
Gyu-Hyeok Kim, Jong-Bum Ra


Fixation and leaching of selected Malaysian tropical hardwood after treated with CCA
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40207
The objective of this study is to investigate the fixation and leaching properties of selected Malaysian tropical hardwood (sentang wood (sapwood and heartwood) and rubberwood) after being treated with copper chrome arsenate (CCA) type-C preservative. The samples were treated with retention level of 0.5%, 2.0% and 5.0%. The samples were leached and the leachate were analyzed by AAS and the amount ...
R Hashim, O Sulaiman, Tan Siew Ching, K Yamamoto


Possibilities of improving the oscillating pressure method
1991 - IRG/WP 3668
Studies on the dynamics of pressure changes in wood during impregnation revealed no significant effect of fast pressure changes for green spruce as used by OPM (IRG/WP/3615). The following experiments were carried out on several hundreds of spruce palisades to examine the modification of single procedure parameters of common use OPM and to record the effects on the impregnation result with the aim...
S Goetsch, R-D Peek


Comparative studies on the species effects of wood preservatives
1989 - IRG/WP 3521
For the examination of the resistance against fungal attack, wood blocks of 3 softwood species were treated with CCA (type 3), CFK, AAC and IF-1000 independently. The wood blocks were exposed to the fungal decay with Tyromyces palustris. The degradation of the wood blocks treated with these preservatives was quite widely different among wood species examined in this study. Hem-fir treated with CCA...
K Yamamoto, S Matsuoka


A laboratory study on effect of coating materials on leaching of copper from CCA treated wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50176
Components of CCA preservatives can leach into surrounding soil and water and have some effect on germination and growth of some plants. In this report, the effect of coating materials in reducing chemical concentration in the leachate were evaluated. Rubber wood blocks (Hevea brasiliensis) treated with CCA were fixed at room temperature at high humidity. After air dried, they were painted with co...
A Veenin, T Veenin


Surface accumulation of copper on CCA-impregnated Pinus patula stakes during marine preservative trials in the southern hemisphere
1992 - IRG/WP 92-4181
Pinus patula stakes treated with CCA to target retentions of 30 kg/m³ salts were exposed to sea water in marine and estuarine ecosystems off the coast of Southern Africa for two years. Samples were then analysed for copper and arsenic. Analysis of samples from the marine ecosystem showed (IRG/WP/4167) that arsenic was longitudinally and transversely leached from the wood, whereas the copper was r...
G D Shelver, C D McQuaid, M Tarin, A A W Baecker


Field evaluation of CCA movement in sap-displaced copper chrome arsenic treated softwood poles
1989 - IRG/WP 3539
Commercial sap-displaced UK grown Scots and Corsican pine, and Sitka and Norway spruce poles were exposed in a field site at Dundee, Scotland and radial distribution profiles of CCA monitored prior to implantation and after subsequent field exposure. Results show that groundline levels of all preservative elements were higher after 1 and 2 years field exposure compared with those recorded prior to...
S D Hainey, G M Smith, A Bruce, P D Evans, B King, H J Staines


Determination of boron levels in solution and in treated wood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20041
Four methods of measuring boron levels in solutions were investigated. The methods compared included the azomethine-H method which is commonly used in soils and plant tissues, the methods outlined in the Australian Standard AS 1605 (1974) and in Wilson (1958), and the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Defect-free radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood and wood flakes were treated to...
F J Romero, P Vinden, P Kho


Premature failure of CCA treated vineyard posts from brown rot
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10016
A survey of CCA (AWPA Type C) treated posts used as grape vine trellis supports, to determine the extent and type of decay was carried out at a terraced vineyard in the Hawkes Bay region of the North Island of New Zealand. Of 357 posts examined out of a total of 970 in the vineyard, 47% had moderate to severe decay or had failed, 20% had established decay, 10% had a trace of decay and 23% had no s...
R N Wakeling, A P Singh


Susceptibility of antisapstain fungicides to rain wash-off
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30046
Results of trials using miniature timber packets and simulated rain wash-off are described. Six fungicidal actives in five commercial antisapstain formulations were involved, and a clear influence of rainfall timing after antisapstain treatment was demonstrated. Differences between actives and formulations were most marked where water-spray was applied in the first hour after treatment, though eve...
R N Wakeling, D J Cross, D R Eden, P N Maynard


Leaching from CCA-treated wood submerged in seawater: Effect of high loadings, and a comparison between laboratory and marine conditions
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50080
This study of leaching examined the following variables: CCA loading; marine versus laboratory exposure and length of submergence. Blocks of Pinus sylvestris were treated to a range of nominal retentions from 15 to 50 kg/m³. Each block was then divided into three cubes and all transverse faces were sealed. All cubes were allowed to fix at ambient temperature for a minimum of one week. One set of ...
R M Albuquerque, S M Cragg, J D Icely


Fouling organisms as indicators of the environmental impact of marine preservative-treated wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50063
This study evaluates the use of fouling organisms (epibiota) to assess the environmental impact of preservative treated wood. This paper presents initial findings from treated panels exposed for 6 months at Sagres, Algarve, Portugal. Panels were treated with CCA, two copper-containing quaternary ammonium (ACQ) formulations and creosote, with nominal retentions from 10 to 40 kg/m³ (creosote 25 pcf...
R M Albuquerque, S M Cragg


Estimation of the impregnation degree of pine wood by the distribution analysis of active ions concentration in the cross-section
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20174
Samples in the form of pine wood rollers of diversified moisture content of ca. 50, 28 and 12% were impregnated with a water solution of the mixture type CCB with the use of the full-cell process. Moisture content was determined in individual layers from the girth to the pith. In the same way the concentrations of copper and chromium ions with the use of the spectrophotometric method and recalcula...
K Lutomski, B Mazela


A technical note on the limitations of atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis of copper/chrome/arsenic solutions according to BS 4072 (1974) and BS 5666: Part 3 (1979)
1988 - IRG/WP 2320
British Standards BS 4072 (1974) and BS 5666: Part 3 (1979) detail an atomic absorption spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of copper, chrome and arsenic in both preservative solutions and treated timber. Use of this technique during a research programme at Aberdeen has highlighted some potential inaccuracies with this method if these standard specifications are adhered to...
A J Pendlebury, J A Petty


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