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Investigations of the treatability of various commercially significant Turkish timbers
1976 - IRG/WP 370 E
Timbers which naturally deteriorate quickly can only be used commercially when their life is increased by the use of chemical treatments. The treatment of the timber can only be planned on a regular basis when the treatability of the wood is known. The purpose of the experiments was therefore to determine to what extent the various types of wood could be sufficiently impregnated. The question of the resistant to treatment of Turkish timbers arose in the context of the currently running program of development in Turkey, in order to be able to judge their usefulness more accurately. The experiments were carried out on small test pieces of sapwood and inner and outer heartwood; and on poles and sleepers of the following species of wood: Abies bornmülleriana Mattf. (Bornmueller fir); Picea orientalis L. Carr. (Oriental spruce); Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine); Pinus nigra var. pallasiana (Austrian pine); Fagus orientalis L. (Turkish beech); Quercus dschorochensis K. Koch (Dschorochensis oak). The species of wood mentioned were chosen as experimental material; coal tar creosote and an aqueous solution of Wolmanit-CB were chosen as preservatives, and the techniques used were the vacuum/pressure method and a newly developed method of replacing the sap under atmospheric pressure. The technique of impregnation was such that the results are relevant to a great extent to practical situations. The analysis of the extensive data was carried out by electronic computer. The analysis used the following statistical methods: Anaylsis of variance - Correlation - Simple linear regression with graphical representation of the regression line - Multiple linear regression. The experiments were an attempt to evaluate the treatability of the various species of wood by a statistical analysis of the amount of preservative taken up and its depth of penetration. In this work a series of correlations between the amount of preservative taken up and the depth of penetration, and their dependence on the properties (of the wood) are explained.
R Ilhan


Marine wood-borer test with preservatives on the coasts of Turkey
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10091
Marine wood-borer tests were carried out on the coasts of Turkey (Marmara, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea). Sapwood blocks of 8 x 15 x 30 cm³ in size from Scots pine, Bornmüller's fir oriental beech and sessile oak were used. The test blocks were treated with CCB-salts by full cell process and coal tar creosote by empty cell process. The test blocks were installed on exposure sites before first growth season and usually controlled every second month. At the end of test period, treated-test blocks were still sound while all the control blocks except for oak samples were completely destroyed by wood-borers. The wood borers were not seen in both control and treated blocks in the Marmara Sea because of excessive pollution of exposure site. In the Mediterranean Sea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Teredo utriculus and Bankia carinata were identified in the control blocks, but in Black Sea only Teredo navalis.
A Bobat


Studies on the determination of the durability of wooden poles and fence posts
1982 - IRG/WP 3195
This study was carried out by the Forestry Research Institute. 5 Turkish main tree species, Oak (Quercus), pine (Pinus sylvestris), beech (Fagus orientalis) and Fir (Abies bornmülleriana) wooden poles and fence posts, were treated with Tanalith-U and creosote applying pressure process. Tanalith-U was applied by full-cell process and creosote was applied by empty cell process. Treated and untreated wooden poles and fence post were installed in Bolu and Ankara plot areas. The study was started in 1958 and finished in 1976. At the beginning of the study, experiment period was 30 years but droped down to 18 years. In this research, durability of the treated and untreated wooden poles and fence posts were compared.
R Ilhan, O Taskin, A P Erten


Changes in some important mechanical and physical properties of untreated and treated mining timber after exposure to the conditions of a colliery
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20082
Each of salt treated and untreated mining timber (wedge) pairs with 5x15 cm² cross-section and 155 cm length prepared from Scots pine, Bornmüller's fir and oriental beech was cut in the small standard test specimens to determine changes in some important mechanical and physical properties, 13 month after exposure to the conditions of Kozlu Hard Coal Mines in the depth of 52 m. Thus, the method for determining the effects of decay on structural timber in service were described. Losses in impact bending, static bending and modulus of elasticity, and specific gravity were calculated as a percentage of the values for controls. Furthermore, relations between residual strength values and losses in specific gravity were statistically evaluated. Decreases in impact bending strength of all controls were ranged from 70% to 88%, in static bending strength from 71% to 73%, in modulus of elasticity from 50% to 56% while losses in specific gravity were ranged from 9% to 11%. The strength losses of wedge blocks treated with CCB salts were found between 3% and 6%, and changes in specific gravity were lower than 1%. Brown and white rot decay were determined on softwood and hardwood samples respectively.
A Bobat


Problem of the treatment of dried sawn spruce building timbers with water-borne preservatives. Interim reports for discussion at the 4th Annual Meeting in West Berlin on 27 October 1972
1972 - IRG/WP 311
One of the most difficult technical problems facing the preservation industry is how to improve the treatment of refractory species of timber such as spruce. Its resistance to penetration, even under pressure' precludes its use for more hazardous service situations, and even in less severe conditions a higher level of treatment would be desirable. The importance of this subject led us to look once again at possible ways of improving treatment.
W Liese, J W W Morgan, T Hof, R O Ullevålseter


Treatability of plywood containing intermountain Douglas fir veneers
1982 - IRG/WP 3203
Eighteen sheets of plywood were obtained which contained intermountain Douglas-fir veneers from two regions of British Columbia. Following pressure treatment with chromated copper arsenate (CCA type C) and ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA) the preservative penetration and retention in individual veneers was assessed. It was concluded from the study that the intermountain Douglas-fir veneer could not be adequately penetrated by either CCA or ACA, although the degree of penetration achieved with ACA was better than that recorded for CCA. The preservative retentions measured were generally in excess of that required for plywood to be used in the preserved wood foundation system.
J N R Ruddick, A Walsh


Water-based wood preservatives for curative treatement of insect-infested spruce constructions
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30171
On laying down sanitation measures for wooden constructions infested by wood boring insects, we must take into account static risks for the construction - and, thus, for the security of the user - as well as risks for humans and environment due to the chemical preservative compounds of the treated wood. Analyses on many roof constructions made with spruce (Picea abies L.) have revealed that Hylotrupes bajulus L. and Anobium punctatum De Geer have not the significance given to them for decennies. That often allows to replace solvant-based with water-based wood preservatives in old buildings, for the protection of humans and environment. Therefore, a method has been developed in Switzerland for testing wood preservatives with delayed curative efficacy against the house longhorn beetle. Like the European Anobium Standard EN 370 this method intends to prevent the emergence of Hylotrupes beetles. Laboratory tests with diverse water-based wood preservatives available on the market in Switzerland have shown that particularly boron and benzoylphenylurea derivatives containing products get a sufficient penetration in the wood and prevent the emergence of the beetles.
E Graf, P Manser, B Lanz


Field tests out of ground contact in France: Definition of the test procedure and preliminary results after 18 months
1981 - IRG/WP 2161
M Fougerousse


The utilisation and preservation of Eucalyptus globulus agricultural stakes from Portugal
1989 - IRG/WP 3520
This paper reviews the development and utilisation of Tanalith C treated Eucalyptus globulus stakes: particular reference is made to their use in vineyards. The treatment characteristics of commercially available stakes will be described and penetration patterns evaluated.
A Milne e Carmo, D A Lewis, A Lyman


Detection of brown rot decay in wood by ion mobility spectrometry
1991 - IRG/WP 2377
A test method for the detection of brown rot decay in wood is described and involves a two-step procedure: thermal release of vapours from wood samples followed by analysis using Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), with results being obtained in 5-10 seconds. The advantages, limitations as well as the detection limit of the technique are presented.
A H Lawrence, T Nilsson


X-ray analysis of selected anatomical structures in copper/chrome/arsenic treated wood
1973 - IRG/WP 320
Application of analytical electron microscopy to problems in wood preservation has been very limited. Indeed, less than ten workers appear to have published their results using the technique, and of these' only two papers deal with energy dispersion procedures in the scanning electron microscope; the others employ the more familiar wavelength dispersive methods of the electron probe.
H Greaves


300 years water-logged wood: Treatability with CCA-C
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40103
The treatability of 300 years water-logged and recent wood (Abies bornmülleriana M.) was assessed by dip treatment and vacuum and pressure cycling with CCA-C. Treatment runs were evaluated on the basis of weight gain retention and radial and tangential penetration measurements. The preservative penetration and retention levels in the 300 years water-logged wood were higher than in the recent wood due to water-logging.
S N Kartal, N Yilgör


The influence of formulation on the behaviour of LOSP's during industrial impregnation of spruce
1986 - IRG/WP 3387
Evidence is presented that the comparative behaviour of two LOSP formulations during impregnation treatment of spruce cannot be predicted purely on the basis of their physical characteristics (viscosity, surface tension and contact angle) nor on the extent of their 'passive' penetration into pine sapwood.
L D A Saunders, D M Zuvencko


Anti-stain field trials in British Columbia
1981 - IRG/WP 3174
Four alternative anti-sap stain chemicals were subjected to a four month field evaluation during the summer of 1980. The test, established at a Vancouver Island sawmill, was designed to evaluate the potential long-term effectiveness of sodium tribromophenate (Velsicol Ltd.), Biocom XX (Bramco Industries) containing methylene bis-thiocyanate, Woodbrite NTX (Van Waters & Rogers Ltd.) containing 3-iodo-2-propynyl-butyl carbamate and Mitrol 48 (Kenogard) containing guazatine acetate and quaternary ammonium chlorides, on hemfir and Douglas fir. Sodium tribromophenate was found to give surface protection equivalent to that of chlorophenate treated controls. Biocom XX was also effective, although the active ingredient came out of solution at the required treating solution concentration. Woodbrite NTX and Mitrol 48 were found to be ineffective on either species group under the test conditions.
D V Plackett


Evaluation of the leach resistance and preservative efficacy of novel biocides as surface treatments applied by brush to spruce (Picea abies)
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30170
The comparative leach resistance and preservative efficacy of a number of alternative organic preservatives (available from Zeneca Specialties) and selected commercially available biocides as surface coatings to wood in Hazard Class 3 have been assessed. Two concentrations of test preservatives were applied by brush to Spruce (Picea abies), including formulation and untreated controls. A leaching program was carried out involving the immersion of the treated blocks in water for a scheduled period of time. Blocks were then subjected to biological tests to determine preservative efficacy using the basidiomycetes Coniophora puteana and Gloeophyllum trabeum in a modified EN 113 system; sapstain and mould tests were separately undertaken according to a modified EN 152 test using mixtures of Aureobasidium pullulans and Sclerophoma pithyophila, and Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma saturnisporium. Of the four alternative actives tested, one Zeneca development product based on Hexaconazole compared very favourably against the selected commercial biocides tested. An aqueous system based on a Zeneca penetrating aqueous polymer coupled with the Zeneca development active demonstrated favourable performance in relation to an existing solvent based product.
I M Tierney, A Bruce, D C R Sinclair, T Yeates


Practical testing of wood preservatives to prevent weathering damage and infection by micro-organisms on spruce and pine
1989 - IRG/WP 3530
Brush application, is generally used to prevent wooden window frames from decay caused by influence of weathering and fungi. Accordingly 10 boards of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies) were treated with 10 commercially used wood preservatives. The efficiency of fungicides by using chiptest and blue stain test (EN 152), the effectiveness against weathering as well as the course of colonization of microfungi were measured on boards, that had been hurted by sawing. Results after one year's exposure showed that neither the normally required amount of 250 ml/m² nor the effective depth of penetration of the fungizidal equipment had been realized by using brush application. The smaller the permeability of the coating system, the more likely ideal conditions for the growth of fungi (e.g. basidiomycetes) are provided, answering hurtings of the coating and moisture contents of more than 30%. The variety of fungi (on pine 32 and on spruce 17 species) can be a result of anatomical differences and distinguished compounds of the wood species. After 24, respectively 36 weeks of exposure the frequent occurrance of basidiomycetous yeasts (Cryptococcus albidus, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa), blue stain fungi (Aureobasidium pullulans, Hormonema dematioides), Epicoccum nigrum, Alternaria alternata and Phoma species was noted.
R Gründlinger, O Janotta, H Melzer, K Messner


Influence of variable lignin content on brown rot decay of wood
1987 - IRG/WP 1320
Compilation of published data and new experiments with brown-rotting fungi on different timber species suggest that their decay activity, in contrast to soft rot and white rot fungi, is not greatly influenced by the type or amount of lignin present.
T Nilsson, G F Daniel


A behaviour of CCA penetration of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp times and constant vacuum/pressure applications
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40346
A behaviour of CCA penetration of Bornmulleriana fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp times and constant vacuum/pressure applications was illustrated for the main flow directions by the experimental pictures.
I Usta, R Despot, M Hasan


Effect of double-vacuum and vacuum-pressure impregnation with water-borne preservatives on the dimensional characteristics of spruce
1990 - IRG/WP 3613
Air-dried planed spruce (Picea abies) samples were treated with a water-borne preservative (micro-emulsion) and one oil-borne type both containing azaconazole and deltamethrin. Each set of samples contained equal number of specimens with different growth ring orientation, heartwood content and density. In addition to the preservative retention and the penetration of a.i., the swelling of the samples was measured immediately after impregnation and further after 6, 24 and 48 hours. The growth ring figure induced different uptake levels when the impregnation process was intensified. Gradual increase of tangential surfaces reduced the retention. The effect of the wood properties on liquid absorption seemed to be greater for the oil-borne treatment. Volumetric swelling of the test samples treated with the water-borne solutions ranged from 0,5 to 0,6% immediately after double-vacuum impregnation increasing to a maximum of 0,8% 6 hours later. Subsequent air-drying of treated samples did not produce checking nor deformation. The oil-borne preservative gave rise to a swelling 3 to 4 times less. A swelling of 0,8% for spruce treated with a water-borne preservative may be considered acceptable taking into consideration volumetric movement figures of 1 to 1,5% for tropical hardwood species, classified as low movement timbers.
J Van Acker, M Stevens, G Rustenburg


Washboard effect: A surface deformation of spruce resulting from vacuum-pressure impregnation with water-borne preservatives
1987 - IRG/WP 3450
The washboard effect has been observed in sawn spruce after both commercial and laboratory based preservative treatments and is of increasing economic importance. The effect is defined as a specific phenomenon at the wood surface. It is distinct from internal collapse in the wood, but it may occur in association with internal collapse damage. Experimental investigations on the causes of washboarding and preliminary results indicate that a combination of several factors induce the effect. At treating pressures below about 10 bar washboarding appears to develop with post treatment drying of the wood whereas with higher pressures it will occur during the impregnation cycle. Further research has been started to develop measures to minimise the problem.
H Willeitner, R J Murphy


Performance of treated and untreated sawn fence posts of Scots pine and Norway spruce
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30247
Sawn fence posts are a rather important product and the objective of this trial was to assess their durability. In 1985 a field trial with treated and untreated fence posts of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) was set out at the test field in Ultuna, Uppsala, Sweden. The posts had a dimension of 75 x 100 x 1400 mm3. The preservatives applied were a CCA, an ammoniacal copper and a creosote. In 1991 fence posts of the same species and size were set out at the test field in Simlångsdalen, Sweden and the preservatives used were a CCA and an ammoniacal copper quaternary compound. The assessment showed that all treated fence posts were attacked very little (mean rating 0 - 0.5) during the first 3 - 4 years at the two test sites. After 7 to 8 years the mean ratings were around 1.0 (slight decay). In Ultuna, after 13 years of exposure, the mean ratings are around 2.0 (moderate decay). The mean service life of untreated Scots pine was 10.2 years in Ultuna and 5.4 years in Simlångsdalen and for untreated Norway spruce 7.5 and 3.2 years, respectively.
Ö Bergman


Water-borne wood preservatives against marine borers. Results from NWPC marine trials started in 1972 and 1976
1990 - IRG/WP 4162
The paper presents the results from NWPC (Nordic Wood Preservation Council) marine trials started in 1972 and 1976. The trials are carried out according to the NWPC Standard No. 1.4.2.2./73 "Marine test - a test against marine wood boring organisms in sea water". The test site is Kristineberg Marine Biology Station on the west coast of Sweden. The wood blocks used in the trials were made from sapwood of European redwood (Pinus sylvestris L.). European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), European birch (Betula spp.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) were also used to a minor extent. In all, 19 water-borne wood preservatives were tested. The preservatives consisting of copper-chrome, copper-chrome-arsenic, copperchrome-boron, copper-chrome-phosphorus and tributyltin oxide gave best performance. The ammoniacal copper preservatives failed to protect the wood against marine borers.
Ö Bergman, C Lundberg


Acetylation of lignocellulosic materials
1989 - IRG/WP 3516
A simplified procedure for the acetylation of lignocellulosic materials has been developed. The acetylation is done with a limited amount of liquid acetic anhydride without the addition of a catalyst or an organic co-solvent. Dimensional stability and biological resistance are both much improved by the acetylation. Equilibrium moisture content in acetylated material is considerably lower than in unmodified material. No reduction of bending strength was found for acetylated solid wood samples. The process can be employed for both fibers, wood particles and solid wood. The process is applicable to hardwoods and softwoods, including solid spruce wood, and to non-wood fibers such as jute.
P Larsson, A-M Tillman


Testing method for the treatability of wood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40031
In order to test and classify the treatability of wood species in pressure treatment processes with water-based solutions, a laboratory method was developed which allows the testing of small samples and limited sections of a stem, e.g. sapwood. The penetration of different liquids was determined separately concerning the three anatomical directions of wood. The common parameters for pressure impregnation were used on sap- and heartwood of eight indigenous and tropical wood species. An elastic epoxy resin proved feasible for coating the samples on five sides. From the data of the testing method a measure for the treatability was calculated, allowing to classify wood species into four treatability classes analogous to prEN 350-2 (1993).
A O Rapp, R-D Peek


Fluoride woodpill
1987 - IRG/WP 3431
Decay problems of spruce joinery in the Netherlands in the 1960's and 1970's led to the introduction of preservative treatment. Because of the known penetration difficulties with Spruce, the results of the treatments were not always successful. The fact that the decay was found only in the joints led to development of the philosophy of "local preservation" of the joints in remedial and preventative treatments, like preservative injections or use of rods and capsules containing preservatives. However the diffusion of the preservatives used in most of these systems is often poor in spruce. Because Spruce joinery dip-treated with bifluorides showed good penetration and protection, a pill consisting of a hydrophylic polymer and bifluorides was developed by TNO. Various laboratory tests carried out with this pill have confirmed good penetration of the bifluorides in the wood and activity against decay fungi.
J W P T Van der Drift, K J M Bonsen


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