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Proposal for co-operative work. Testing the ability of accidentally introduced tropical insects to survive the cold season in Europe
1976 - IRG/WP 155
By hibernation-experiments in the past it was found that not only the low temperatures may become fatal by freezing. In some experiments we found indications that larvae died by starvation. For example Lyctus africanus-larvae did so in some years with a cold winter (mean above 0°C). If you like to take starvation as a reason for death into account it may be useful to withdraw pieces of infested wood after different times of hibernation or to add new material later.
S Cymorek


Modélisation sur maquette du rejet accidentel d'un gaz toxique et inflammable dans l'atmosphere - Emission de type "bouffée d'oxyde d'éthyléne [Water model simulation of toxic and flammable gases in the environment on industrial sites - Puff of ethylen oxide]
1990 - IRG/WP 3576
M Milhe


Introduction to a field demonstration of various instruments and methods for the detection of defects in poles
1984 - IRG/WP 2228
H Friis-Hansen


IRG Cannes 93 Introduction
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001 Intro
IRG Secretariat


Draft Business Plan of CEN/TC 38 - Durability of wood and wood-based products - Introduction
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20207
CEN Technical Committees and Business Planning. The extension of formal business planning to CEN Technical Committees (CEN/TCs) is an important measure which forms part of a major review of business processes (known as 'Optimization'). The aim is to align the CEN work programme with expressed market needs and to ensure the adequate resourcing of projects through their development stages in the CEN/TCs. Your role in the implementation of the Business Planning concept will contribute significantly to the overall effectiveness of European standardization. We express our sincere appreciation and thanks for your time in reviewing this Business Plan.
R Hüe


An introduction to environmental aspects of groundwater arsenic and CCA treated wood poles in Bangladesh
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50081
The environment comprises biosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. Therefore, environmental science is a multi-disciplinary study, includes life sciences, physical sciences, chemical sciences, geology, geography, meteorology, forestry, agriculture, soil science, hydrology, ecology, public health, engineering etc. Tremendous industrial and mining activities, deforestation and population explosion are threatening the very existence of life on earth.Groundwater is used for irrigation, drinking and other domestic purposes where other sources of water are not plenty. Groundwater contain different metals resulting from soluble minerals, deposited in ground during its origin. Thus concentration of metals in surface soils and water are increased day by day by lifting of groundwater. Surface soils and water also receive metals from industries and mines and as a result of multipurpose use of products from those. Deforestation is controlled by plantation and preservation of forest products by different wood preservatives. Recently groundwater in some underground rocks of Tertiary and Quarternary age in Bangladesh is very often known to contain arsenic (As) above permissible limits . On the other hand chromated copper arsenate (CCA) impregnated wooden poles has been used for rural electrification in Bangladesh since 1979. It is an attempt to find out through research and review of literatures that whether the groundwater As is contaminatable from As used in wood poles and whether the components of CCA cause environmental problems. Possible way of purification of arsenic containing groundwater for drinking have been suggested.
A K Lahiry


IRG Cannes 98 Introduction
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101 Intro
IRG Secretariat


IRG Cannes 01 Introduction
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166 Intro
IRG Secretariat


IRG Cannes 90 Introduction
1990 - IRG/WP 3600 Intro
IRG Secretariat


IRG Cannes 95 Introduction
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040 Intro
IRG Secretariat


Chapter 1 - Introduction to bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-01
In this introductory chapter the botanical position, distribution, utilization, outlooks, production, research, importance, propagation, natural durability, preservative treatment, importance of preservative treatment, treating principles, research on preservative treatment of bamboos and the objectives of this book have been described briefly under individual caption.
A K Lahiry


Chapter 2 - Introduction to world bamboo
2007 - IRG 07-10635-02
In this chapter the bamboo species of the whole world along with local name, bamboo type, flowering type, locality and uses have been presented in 20 different Tables.
A K Lahiry


Safe application of copper-chrome-arsenate preservatives
1975 - IRG/WP 377
All wood preservatives contain biologically active substances and must, by design, be in some measure toxic to man. There is nothing fundamentally difficult, however, about using a wood preservative with complete safety. It depends on knowing the risks to health and/or the environment, which the preservative may present, and planning application accordingly. In this paper we examine these and other factors for copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) preservatives applied in vacuum/pressure plants. We review briefly the toxicological properties of the components and their joint action; the contribution which design and the operation of plant make to safe treatment; also the training of plant operators, to ensure that the potential risks in applying CCAs are fully understood. We shall consider the functions of product labelling; to advisc others - concerned with transport - of the nature of preservatives, especially concentrates. The importance is emphasised of being able, by prior planning, to act swiftly and effectively to deal with any unforeseen emergencies, however infrequent these may be. This paper is not concerned with any risks to man and other animals arising from use of CCA-treated wood. After treatment, fixation leaves the preservative components less readily available as contaminants of the environment.
I N Stalker, P B Cornwell


Introduction to keynote: Perspective in urban termite biology and management in Southeast Asia
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10786
This keynote lecture will provide a perspective on the pest status of termites in Southeast Asia, the damages they cause to the urban structures, important biological and behavioural characteristics, detection methods and the various management strategies available.
Chow-Yang Lee


Introduction of plank-built catamarans along the north coast of Andhra Pradesh, India – A development of recent origin
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10483
Hitherto, the most versatile fishing craft of the poor traditional Indian fishermen - the catamaran is made of solid timber logs of a few selected species of broad-leaved softwoods. Of late, the fishermen find it difficult to get these conventional varieties of timber chiefly because of three reasons, a) scarcity of commodity, b) prohibitive costs and c) competition from match and veneer industries. As the state of affairs is turning more and more indocile, the poor traditional fisherman is compelled to look for alternative ways to sustain his dear occupation and trade. As an outcome of such fervent desire, the fishermen in the north east coast of Andhra Pradesh initiated building up catamarans purely from the wooden planks without sacrificing much of the original shape, convenience and carrying capacity. This paper is intended to bring to light the design of such plank-built catamarans and their advantages.
M V Rao, K S Rao, M Balaji, V Kuppusamy


The dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans) in nature and its history of introduction into buildings
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10300
For many years the True dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans (Wulf.: Fr.)Schroet.) has exclusively been found in buildings. That is why it is called the True dry rot fungus. The origin of the fungus has always been a mystery, but a wild ancestor must have occured. In the literature there is some information about finds of Serpula lacrymans in nature, however it is difficult to distinguish it from the closely related Serpula himantioides, so the identity of these finds are somewhat dubious. For example a specimen from 1896 kept in alcohol at the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University in Copenhagen and identified as Serpula lacrymans by the famous Danish mycologist Emil Rostrup proved to be Serpula himantioides on closer examination. A paper by Bagchee from 1954 reported finds of Serpula lacrymans in nature from the Himalayas in Northern India, and Cooke (1955) showed its occurrence on Mount Shasta in California, USA. Later Kotlaba (1992) revised 12 finds from nature of Serpula lacrymans from Bohemia and Moravia in the Czech Republic. We have visited all of these areas and either found Serpula lacrymans ourselves in nature or examined and confirmed dried herbarium specimens. During the last fifty years less than 20 collections have been made from these areas. The natural occurrence is believed to be limited by competeting species of fungi. Soil samples from the investigated areas have been analysed for their mineral content. Calcium was found in varying amounts but much less than in mortar infected by dry rot mycelium. Our theory concerning introduction of Serpula lacrymans into houses is that it did not occur until the 16th century. The explanation for this is that Danish and European houses prior to that period had been built entirely of wood, the so-called 'stavhus' and 'bulhus' (engl. transl. 'stave house' and 'bole house') and on stone foundations without mortar. Due to lack of timber a royal order prohibited the building of wooden houses. Instead studwork, bricks and mortar were introduced. About this time reports of severe dry rot attacks in houses began to occur in literature. So this is expected to be the period when the dry rot fungus first invaded the houses. It soon propagated strongly in the houses and spread from one house to another. Since then it has caused problems in houses whenever wood, mortar and moisture were combined.
J Bech-Andersen, S A Elborne


Accidental mold/termite testing of high density fiberboard (HDF) treated with borates and N’N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA)
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10462
High density fibreboard (HDF) was made from beech and pine furnish (50:50) and treated with boric acid (0.1-3%), borax (0.1-3%) or N'-N-(1,8-naphthalyl) hydroxylamine (NHA) (0.1-1%) prior to gluing with urea formaldehyde (UF) resin in order to determine resistance to Eastern subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar), the most economically important termite species in North America. HDF and southern yellow pine (SYP) sapwood specimens were tested in a modified no-choice soil-block test normally used for fungal decay tests for 5 weeks. Within the first week of incubation, all HDF specimens were heavily overgrown with a variety of mold fungi. This same contamination was not seen in regular SYP specimens tested under the same conditions. Mold contamination did not appear to inhibit termite attack in any measurable way. Weight loss in control HDF specimens was 28% after 5 weeks while weight loss in control SYP was 12% under similar test conditions. Selected treatments with boric acid, borax, didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) and NHA reduced termite attack in HDF and SYP specimens below 5% weight loss. Synergy was not observed for boron containing compounds and NHA. We conclude that i) soil contact accelerates HDF mold contamination and termite damage in the absence of termidicides ii) HDF made with UF is more susceptible to moisture acquisition and mold contamination than SYP iii) NHA does not act as a mildewcide iv) 3% borates retard both mold and termite damage; and v) HDF is less durable, and requires more preservative to protect, than SYP.
S N Kartal, H H Burdsall Jr, F Green III


Preventing the introduction of Xylosandrus crassiusculus by dipping green lumber in insecticides prior to shipment
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40370
Xylosandrus crassiusculus, an ambrosia beetle native to Asia and Africa, was introduced into the southeastern United States in 1974. Since that time, this species has substantially expanded its range, causing damage to native ecosystems and healthy nursery stock. This species was found in The Dalles, Oregon in 2004, indicating that it is not limited to sub-tropical environments. This introduction has resulted in a ban on the importation of green wood products from the southeastern United States into Oregon, especially hardwood railroad ties. This research investigated the ability of water and alcohol based dip treatments to penetrate existing galleries and to prevent the infestation of green hardwood products. The results indicated that even a 9 minute dip failed to penetrate the galleries. Dipping samples for 30 seconds in creosote prevented the establishment of new galleries. In addition, cinnamon leaf oil and diesel fuel reduced the degree of insect attack and merit further study. Preventing X. crassiusculus infestation has proven difficult and further studies are planned.
C F Schauwecker, R F Mizell III, J J Morrell


Brief introduction of a research project on the wood materials from an ancient Byzantine port unearthed during drilling for underground rail tunnel in Istanbul
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10641
A research project has been recently started to evaluate some properties of wooden materials from the biggest port of ancient times called Port of Theodosius I in Istanbul, Turkey. The ruins of the ancient Byzantine port during the excavations were recently uncovered in the Yenikapi site where an underground rail tunnel construction has been in progress in Istanbul. The wooden objects unearthed from the port are being subjected to anatomical examinations under light and photomicroscopes, chemical properties of the objects will be determined in comparison with recent wood samples, physical and mechanical tests will be performed and finally microbial properties will be investigated to show any possible decay zones in the samples. Preliminary investigations revealed that Quercus spp. and Cupressus spp. samples excavated at the site showed no distinctive decay zones; however, some soft zones were clear in the sapwood portions of the samples. Detailed examinations are in progress to evaluate microbial and anatomical properties of the samples in comparison with recent wood samples.
A D Dogu, C Köse, S N Kartal, N Erdin


Moisture distribution in glulam beams with natural cracks observed with CT Scanning before and after rain
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20534
The way cracks in outdoor wooden constructions affect durability is an interesting topic, since a certain amount of cracks can always be found naturally in wood and glued laminated wood. The question in this was, can cracks lead water into the wood and thereby increase the risk for decay and reduce strength and service life. Moisture balance, i.e., water absorption and water distribution were studied in two 2-meter-long glulam beams after exposure to rain. For the experiment, computer tomography and image processing were used. The beams were X-ray scanned on four occasions during one year: August (CT1), September (CT2), June (CT3) and the following August (CT4). One red-painted spruce beam 215 x 315 mm and one oiled pressure-treated pine beam 140 x 315 mm were studied. The study shows that water can enter a crack for many millimeters by capillary forces, but that this does not necessarily occur. How and to what extent water enters into a crack or delamination depends on material, surface treatment, position and size of the crack or delamination and the quantity of rain and wind. The sizes of the cracks depend on the climate, that is, moisture and temperature variation over time. Some of the cracks become invisible during this movement, and the variation can be as much as 2.5 mm over a 36-hour period. Under certain conditions, small cracks disappear as the woods swells.
K Sandberg


Introduction of the COST FP 1303 Cooperative Performance Test
2015 - IRG/WP 15-20567
COST Action FP 1303 “Performance of bio-based building materials” successfully started in October 2013 and an ambitious program was set up for the four year programme. COST Actions provide an excellent opportunity for collaborative research, e.g. in the frame of Round Robin tests. The idea of this respective test was to distribute a fairly simple test set up to as many places in Europe as possible in order to collect performance data reflecting the range of climatic exposure conditions. Furthermore we wanted to consider performance in its manifold meaning, i.e. optical, aesthetical, moisture and functional performance and durability. In contrast to traditional Round Robin tests aiming on comparative evaluation and validation of results from different test laboratories, this initiative aims on collecting performance data under climatically different exposure conditions. Therefore it was required to provide weather data from the respective test sites to allow establishing relationships between climate conditions and the following measured, which shall be evaluated regularly: decay, discolouration, development of mould and other staining fungi, corrosion, formation of cracks and moisture performance (if data logging device is included). Further details about the test and the first outcomes are presented in this paper.
M Humar, C Brischke, L Meyer, B Lesar, N Thaler, D Jones, S Bardage, C Belloncle, J Van den Bulcke, J M Abascal, G Alfredsen, D Baisch, B Brunnhuber, G Cofta, E Grodås, E Frühwald Hansson, M Irle, H Kallakas, J Kers, M Klamer, P Larsson Brelid, A B Maider, K C Mahnert, E Melcher, R Möller, M Noël, L Nunes, G A Ormondroyd, S Palanti, N Pfabigan, A Pilgård, A O Rapp, P Schumacher, E Suttie, T Teppand, M Touza, J Van Acker


Introduction to the project ‘Deterioration and decay of wooden cultural heritage in Arctic and Alpine environments’ (ArcticAlpineDecay)
2022 - IRG/WP 22-10997
The Arctic is already affected by climate change, and this is expected to accelerate over the coming decades. Alpine regions in Norway are projected to face similar challenges. Current knowledge on Norwegian wooden cultural heritage in Arctic and Alpine regions is scattered and contains significant knowledge gaps. Historically, - scientists, sectorial governance, tourist trade and commerce have mainly worked from their own expertise and experience regarding wooden cultural heritage in Arctic-Alpine regions. Hence, the challenges wooden cultural heritage in Arctic-Alpine regions are facing urgently need an integrated cross-disciplinary approach. This communication paper gives a short background and an introduction to the project ArcticAlpineDecay. The project ArcticAlpineDecay will use state-of-the-art methods within different areas of expertise, and the novelty of the newly started project is the expected synergy of combining information from different methodologies. We also expect synergy with two ongoing Norwegian projects, CULTCOAST and PCCH-Arctic, and these projects are therefore also briefly described.
G Alfredsen, L Ross, A W Hegnes, M S Austigard, J Mattsson, N B Pedersen, A Sinitsyn, V V Martens, A-C Flyen


Brief introduction to a research project on preparations of various paste formulations from boron, fluoride and copper for supplemental treatments
2022 - IRG/WP 22-30759
Wood preservatives to be used for supplemental purposes are present in various forms such as powders, liquids, rods, pastes, or gels. Boron compounds have been receiving a lot of attention in supplemental treatments since they have good mobility in wood. Application of boron compounds via internal treatments is vital to stop decay to be occurred inside the wood since large wood elements are too thick to treat well the inner parts of wood. Diffusible chemicals such as borates move through moisture in the wood but do not move in dry wood. This paper evaluates a recent research project on boron-based paste formulations prepared from boron mineral ulexite and some other actives such as fluoride and copper to be used in supplemental treatments in timber structures. In the project, six different paste formulations have been developed. The pastes have been introduced into the holes in Scots pine sapwood specimens conditioned at different moisture content levels. The study is in progress and boron diffusion is now being observed at three assay zones across the specimens after 7, 30, 60 and 90-day-incubation at room temperature.
E E Soytürk, D Bakır, E Terzi, C Köse, S N Kartal