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Inhibitory effects of leachates from Scots pine wood on germination of some wood rotting fungi
1986 - IRG/WP 1282
Leachates from sapwood of Pinus sylvestris inhibited or reduced the germination of basidiospores of the wood decay fungi tested. The fungi were selected among those preferentially colonizing hardwood or softwood, representatives for brown rot and white rot fungi, early basidiomycete colonizers and late basidiomycete colonizers in above-ground parts of pine as well as fungi found in high frequencies in window frames. In contrast, leachates from the heartwood were less inhibitory to germination of the majority of the tested fungi. Wood materials for the tests were selected to reveal differences in inhibitory effect of pine heartwood and sapwood according to: 1. Trees cut in the summer or in the winter 2. Latitude at which the trees had grown 3. Method of drying kiln-dried or air-seasoned wood No differences in inhibitory effect against the test fungi in relation to these different wood materials were revealed.
Health aspects concerning the use of bifluorides in wood
1981 - IRG/WP 3173
An attempt has been made to find a correlation between the quantities F¯ and HF present among other ions in an 'Improsol' solution consisting of NH4F.HF and KF.HF, the quantity absorbed by the wood from this after immersion and the toxicological effects of this treated wood when it is used in rooms destined for the residence of people or animals or for the storage of foodstuffs.
H F M Nijman
Checking of sodium pentachlorophenate fixation in wood
1990 - IRG/WP 3620
In order to estimate the volatilization of sodium pentachlorophenate from treated wood, wood samples treated with pentachlorophenate were analysed after various durations of an EN 73 weathering The results giving no clear evidence of volatilization, treated wood samples were put in a test chamber with precise climatic conditions, the air used in the experiment being analysed. The pentachlorophenate content in air was quantified: 1.8 µg/m³
M Lamour, H Sageot
Measurement of VOC emissions from curative treated wood: A new emission test chamber
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-13
A poor indoor air quality (IAQ) is now recognized as a potential factor affecting occupants health. There are three basic strategies to improve IAQ: source control, improvement of the ventilation and use of air cleaners. Usually, the most efficient way to improve IAQ is to eliminate the different pollutant sources or to reduce their emissions. In order to precisely measure emissions from building products and estimate the potential heath impact of emitted pollutants, standardised analytical methods are needed. The aim of this paper is to present the new standards prepared by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for the measurement of indoor air pollutants and their application to the characterization of emissions from wood products. The prestandard ENV 13419, subdivided in three parts, has been prepared by the CEN technical committee 264 : ??ENV 13419-1 : Building products - Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds - Part 1 : Emission test chamber method, ??ENV 13419-2 : Building products - Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds - Part 2 : Emission test cell method, ??ENV 13419-3 : Building products - Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds - Part 3 : Procedure for sampling, storage of samples and preparation of test specimens. The two first parts of the prestandard ENV 13419 specify a general laboratory test method for the determination of the area specific emission rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from newly produced building products under defined climate conditions in a test chamber (Part 1) or cell (Part 2). The third part specifies for solid, liquid or combined products, the sampling procedure, transport and storage conditions and preparation of test specimens. In France, those European prestandards have been translated by the French Normalisation Association (AFNOR) in three experimental standards : XP ENV 13419-1, XP ENV 13419-2 and XP ENV 13419-3 [1-3]. In parallel to the ongoing work at CEN, the technical committee 146 of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has prepared the draft international standard ISO/DIS 16000 related to indoor air. Part 6 of this standard specifies a method for the determination of the emission of single volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) from building materials using test chambers and cells : ??ISO/DIS 16000-6 : Indoor air - Part 6 : Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and chamber air by active sampling on TENAX TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas chromatography using MS/FID. It is intended that, after the final voting stage, the CEN prestandards (Parts 1-3) will be taken over by ISO and that Part 6 of the ISO standard will be taken over by CEN as the fourth part of the ENV 13419 prestandard. As an example, the volatile organic compounds emissions from preservative treated wood samples were characterised according to the CEN ENV 13419-1 prestandard describing the emission test chamber method and to the ISO/DIS 16000-6 prestandard for the analytical method. Two representative wood preservatives (hydrodispersable and petroleum solvent formulation) were tested for this purpose. The VOCs concentrations in the test chamber were monitored during 6 days following a simulated curative wood treatment.
F Maupetit, O Ramalho, C Yrieix
Volumes and weights of different CCA-C treated wood poles, anchor logs and crossarms of REB at air dry condition
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40073
Researches revealed the unit volumes and weights at air-dry condition (12% MC) of different poles, anchor logs and crossarms species of REB from this world. The softwood products are lighter than hardwood products. Inversely the unit volumes of softwood poles are higher than those of hardwood poles. Red pine (Pinus resinosa), radiata pine (Pinus radiata), blue pine (Pinus wallichiana), fir (Abies densa) and spruce (Picea spineelosa) are the lightest poles and anchor logs with higher unit volumes (Poles). Sundri (Heritiera minor) is the heaviest timber species out of all listed timber species and raintree (Samanea saman) is the lightest timber species among hardwood species.
A K Lahiry
Remedial treatment of wood attacked by insects
1981 - IRG/WP 3175
A review is presented of remedial treatments against wood-boring insects in wood in service. Preconditions and fundamental principles of insect control are compared with the control of fungal attack and reasons are given for the fact that remedial treatments against insects are more commonly applied than against fungi. With regard to insect control measures with a simultaneous preventive effectiveness, information is given on preservatives, control measures as well as on testing the effectiveness of preservatives with eradicant action. An evaluation of 40 tests according to EN 22 or DIN 52164 revealed that a mean depth of effectiveness of 15 mm is obtained at mortality rates of 80-84% of Hylotrupes larvae. At a mortality rate of below 75% the mean depth of effectiveness was about 10 mm and above 90% it was about 27 mm. Among the control measures without any preventive effectiveness fumigation and hot-air treatments are referred to. With regard to biological control measures, practical results are not yet available.
Dynamics of pressure changes in wood during impregnation
1990 - IRG/WP 3615
Conventional methods of impregnation have to be improved for achieving better penetration of refractory wood species. Basic requirements for an adjustment of treatment schedules are, amoung others, a profound knowledge of the course of pressure changes in the wood during treatment. A new method of pressure measurement was developed which supplies exact and reproducible data. The results show that air pressure spreads more rapidly in wood than water pressure. In pine, water pressure is built up in radial direction within hours an declines slowly after pressure release. In spruce, air and water pressure spread more rapidly in green wood than in dry wood. Water pressure of 5 bar applied in radial direction is not achieved within 8 hours time. 5 minutes successions of pressure and pressure release have no effects at 10 mm depth. These findings call into question the conventional OPM technique of rapid successions of pressure and vacuum, and possibly allow easier treating techniques.
R D Peek, S Goetsch
Improvement of some technological and biological properties of poplar wood by impregnation with aqueous macromolecular compounds
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3721
Poplars (Populus spp) belong to the most important tree species in afforestation programs of the Netherlands. Due to their rapid growth, the wood quality is usually low. Therefore, studies were performed to elucidate whether some technological properties and the resistance against fungal attack could be improved by impregnation with water-soluble resins. The results showed that swelling and shrinkage of poplar wood may considerably be reduced by a treatment with certain resins. The anti-shrink efficiency (ASE) strongly depends upon the resin type. An air-curing alkydresin based on polybutadiene and an air-curing acrylate modified alkydresin emulsion caused the best effects. Additions of wood preservatives to the resins further improved the ASE. Some disadvatages of the tested resins may be seen in their leachability with consequent loss of the dimension-stabilizing effects. The resins by themselves don't reveal fungistatic properties but an impregnation of poplar wood with these materials led in all cases to a better durability against Coniophora puteana and Coriolus versicolor. Leaching procedures influenced the durability in various ways. With resin/fungicide combinations, a good resistance against Coriolus versicolor could be reached even after leaching. SEM and EDXA methods were used to localize the resins in the cell walls and lumina and to detect the growth of mycelium in the specimens.
R D Peek, H Militz, J J Kettenis
Risk of pulmonary damage as a result of an evaporation of ca. 50 ppb = 42 mg HF, evaporated from wood treated by difluorides
1987 - IRG/WP 3401
In this review of the literature the effects of fluorides and fluorine on man are described, especially the low level effects of inhaled HF on human beings. The term "fluoride" is used as a general term everywhere, where exact differentiation between ionic and moluecular forms or between gaseous and particulate forms is uncertain or unnecessary. The term covers all combined forms of the element, regardless of chemical form, unless there is a specific reason to stress the gaseous elemental form F2, in which case the term "fluorine" is used.
H F M Nijman
Risk assessment of energetic valorization of treated wood - wooden recycling
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50072
The most useful method for the valorization of wood wastes and wooden wastes is energetic valorization. In France the percentage of wood treated by antisaptain products is around 30%. Currently with the growing regulation, there is a need for cleaner methods and technology to allow sustainable valorization. The preservatives concerned are common organochlorine compounds (NaPCP) less used nowadays in France and another product used at large scale now composed of quaternary ammonium and boron compounds. Results concerning air emissions during the combustion process, chemical analysis of process residues, toxicological evaluation of combustion exhaust gas in rats and ecotoxicological evaluation of residues is presented to assess the risk of recycling processes.
G Deroubaix, P Marchal, G Labat
A field test with anti-sapstain chemicals on sawn pine timber stored and seasoned under different conditions
1984 - IRG/WP 3245
Newly sawn timber of European redwood (Pinus sylvestris L.) was dip treated in four different anti-sapstain chemicals. The protectife effect against sapstain, mould and decay was examined after 10 weeks' and 10 months' storage in open and closed stacks. The results showed that the performance of individual chemicals was different in open and close stacks, although the wood as well as the other storage and handling conditions were identical. This makes it possible explain some of the reported differences in performance of chemicals in different locations.
D J Dickinson, B Henningsson
The wood-attacking insects in wooden houses of an old open air museum in southern Finland
1989 - IRG/WP 1409
Harmful insects of wood in a open-air museum were investigated in 1985-1988 by order of the National Board of Antiquities and Historical Monuments of Finland in nine old log houses. Many thousands of insects and altogether 1073 anobiids (Coleoptera, Anobidae) were obtained by window and light traps. The most common Anobiidae-species were Hadrobregmus confusus (Kraatz) 60.3%, Hadrobregmus pertinax (L.) 30.6% and Ernobius mollis (L.) 8.9%. The amounts of trapped insects varied in different houses and the flight time of anobiids varied greatly according to yearly weather conditions.
H Viitanen, M Pulkkinen
Tributyltin compounds in wood preservation: Health and safety aspects
1986 - IRG/WP 3396
The toxicity of organotin compounds of the general formula RnSnX(4-n) depends strongly on the type of organic substituent R and on the degree of substitution n. The residues X, not bound through a tin-carbon bond, are however of much smaller influence. Furthermore, there is evidence that hydrolysis of tributyltin esters will occur under environmental as well as under physiological conditions to TBTO or its corresponding derivatives. Thus TBTO can be considered a model substance in the risk evaluation for tributyltin compounds TBTX. Along with industrial hygiene considerations of TBTO and tributyltin esters, the strong local irritation and high toxicity in aerosol form when testing undiluted material must be noted. However, the tolerance of model wood preservatives containing 1% w/w TBTO, 2% W/W TBTN and 2% w/w TBTL on the skin of human volunteers after single exposure was not different from that of the vehicle alone. Vapours of TBTO, tributyltin naphthenate and benzoate proved to be practically non-toxic in single exposure studies with rats. After repeated administration of TBTO to rats in the feed (4 and 13 weeks) and in aerosol form (4-5 weeks) toxicity to lymphatic organs predominated. After aerosol exposure additionally severe irritation of the respiratory tract occurred. No adverse reactions were observed in rats exposed for 4-5 weeks to vapour practically saturated with TBTO. With both application routes (oral and inhalation) no indications were found of damage to the nervous system, as is the case for lower homologues of the trialkyltin series. Our results of testing for genotoxic potential in micro-organisms, human lymphocytes and in the micronucleus test in mice do not indicate a mutagenic or carcinogenic potential. Further mutagenicity data from a WHO/IARC multi-centre study are in part contradictory. They do, however, not indicate a definite mutagenic hazard. Moreover in teratogenicity studies in mice and rats TBTO did not show embryotoxic including teratogenic properties at dose levels that were not toxic to the dams. From the no-effect level in the 4-5 week inhalation study a 24 hour exposure limit value for humans can be derived. This acceptable room air concentration can be compared with results of a model study, in which the concentration over wood blocks treated with preservants containing 1.5 and 3.0% tributyltin naphthenate was measured. Based on this evaluation there are no objections to a large surface application of wood preservatives of the tested composition in room interiors. Nevertheless the general rule should be observed, that formulations containing biocides should be used only where there is a definite necessity for them.
H Schweinfurth, P Günzel, H A B Landsiedel, R Lang, R Reimann, C Schöbel, F Siegmund
Evaluation of the biocide diffusion from treated wood in indoor air. Bibliographic study
1990 - IRG/WP 3584
Within the frame of the risk assessment of the wood preservation products for the Health, the treated wood risk particularly when it is installed in dwellings becomes most important. The European directive "Building materials" (89/106/CEE) mentions the basic requirements with the buildings must comply. Annexe l states in particular that "the building must be conceived and built in order not to become a threat to the Hygiene or the health of the inhabitants. Thus, the treated wood installed in dwellings is concerned. Due to the lack of the official standardized methods, it has appeared interesting to study through literature: -- the well-known methods concerning Formaldehyde diffusion from glue of particle boards, -- the existing works on biocides diffusion from treated wood, -- the parameter entering in the evaluation of quantities diffused in the air, -- the assessment of actual results. This study concludes that the evaluation of biocides diffusion in the indoor air is made by the following process: -- a definition of the experimental protocols adapted for the claims, -- an estimation of the concentrations in the indoor air, from the experimental results, -- an assessment of the human health risk. Some of the existing works already give a better understanding of the factors and parameters which must be taken account. They will make easier the approach of the various experts who will have to cooperate to set up the standard.
Effects of air-seasoning on fungal colonization and wood strength of Douglas fir poles
1987 - IRG/WP 1315
Air seasoning economically reduces the moisture content of Douglas fir poles before pressure treatment with preservatives. Advanced decay in poles in service has resulted when decay fungi (Basidiomycetes) colonized poles during air-seasoning and survived the treatment process. These problems have led to recommendations to severely limit this practice. To determine the role of these fungi in peeled and unpeeled Douglas fir poles during air-seasoning in the Pacific Northwest, we identified many of the fungi involved, measured their effect on wood strength, and studied methods for limiting fungal colonization. Over 90 percent of peeled poles air-dried for more than 1 year contained decay fungi, suggesting that air-seasoning in the Pacific Northwest might pose some hazard; however, no significant strength losses were noted in poles dried 1 to 2 years. Poles seasoned for 3 years began to show significant strength losses, but these strength values fell within suggested design parameters for Douglas fir poles. Although Douglas fir poles are colonized by decay fungi as they dry, our results indicate that these fungi do not cause serious damage for at least 2 years. On the basic of these results, we recommend that poles be air dried no longer than 3 years in the Pacific Northwest. We also emphasize the importance of heating air-seasoned wood adequately during the treatment process to kill any fungi present.
J J Morrell, M E Corden, R D Graham, B L Kropp, P Przybylowicz, S M Smith, C A Sexton
Co-operative tests concerning influence of solvent and drying method on the toxic limit of wood preservatives against Basidiomycetes. Preliminary report
1971 - IRG/WP 204
In the Working Group II of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development working group on wood preservation (now International Research Group on wood preservation) it was agreed that more knowledge was necessary concerning the influence of the solvent on the toxic limit of organic solvent types of wood preservatives against Basidiomycetes. A test program was drawn up and after discussion in the mentioned working group the final program was accepted by the co-operating institutes in 1969. In the test program two fungicides, a pentachlorophenol concentrate and tributyltinoxide, solved in four different solvents were enclosed. Considering that an influence of the kind of solvent could coincide with the rate of evaporation thereof from the test blocks, also different drying methods for some solvents were included.
The use of light organic solvents in industrial wood preservation - an environmental perspective
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-22
The paper examines the evolving regulatory environment concerning the use of hydrocarbon solvents in industry and, in particular, the European wood preserving sector. The implications of the proposed EU Directive on industrial solvent use are explained and possible responses to such regulation examined, including process modification, product changes and emission abatement, where necessary. The development of new solvent recovery technology for the wood preservation sector, as one response, is described in some detail.
G A Ewbank
Termite durability of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) heartwood kiln-dried under high-temperature process in relation to wood extractives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10547
Termite durability of sugi heartwood samples kiln-dried under a high-temperature process were evaluated by using Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe) as a test termite sp. The n-hexane extractives of these samples were analysed by a GC technique. The less termite durability was shown on the wood samples dried under the high-temperature process, in comparison with that of the air-dried samples. No GC-peak assigning to cubebol and epicubebol was shown in n-hexane extractives of kiln-dried samples.
S Shibutani, E Obataya, K Hanata, S Doi
Permeability measurements on surface layers for detecting wood with abnormally high permeability
1988 - IRG/WP 2298
Wet storage of timber during the warm period of the year may lead to an increased permeability of the wood, an undesirable phenomenon for several wood industries and also for many end-uses. Neither before nor after drying, such wood with "wet storage damage" can be visually distinguished from wood with a normal permeability. A non-destructive method for inspecting the permeability of surface layers has been tested and has proved to be useful for detection of damage to timber due to wet storage. The principle of the method is that air from a compressor is pressed into the wood via a nozzle and that the air flow and/or pressure decrease is recorded. A large air flow or a large pressure decrease indicates high permeability.
J B Boutelje, G Hägglund
Co-operative tests concerning the influence of solvent and drying method on the toxic limit of wood preservatives against Coniophora cerebella
1972 - IRG/WP 216
In the working group II of the IRG it was agreed that more knowledge was necessary concerning the influence of the solvent on the toxic limit of organic solvent types of wood preservatives against Basidiomycetes. A test program was drawn up and after discussion in the mentioned working group the final program was accepted by the co-operating institutes in 1969. In the test program two fungicides, a pentachlorophenol concentrate and tributyltinoxide, solved in four different solvents were enclosed. Considering that an influence of the kind of solvent could coincide with the rate of evaporation thereof from the test blocks, also different drying methods were included for some solvents. Preliminary results of these co-operative tests have been given in a report presented on the meeting of the IRG Working group II in November 1971 in Brussels. At that time the tests were not yet completed and the results then available were not worked out in details. The complete test program is now finished and the results are given in this report.
Assessment of decay risk of airborne wood-decay fungi
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10787
The decay risk of airborne wood-decay fungi was investigated by using an air sampler. Japanese cedar disks measuring about 8 cm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness with moisture content at about 100 % were placed in a “BIOSAMP” air sampler and exposed to 1000 liters of air. Air sampling was carried out from June to September at the same sampling site in Tsukuba, Japan. The exposed disks were then incubated for 16-week in a damp container kept at 26 ± 2°C. During the incubation period, wood mass loss ranged from -15 mg to 807 mg with a mean mass loss of 244 mg. Factors affecting mass loss were explored. Wood moisture content and ratio of heartwood area proved to be significant factors. In addition, five weather factors were found to influence mean mass loss. Disks that were sampled on a cloudy day showed significantly higher mean mass loss compared to those sampled on a shiny day. Filamentous fungi grown on the disks during 16-week incubation were subcultured to investigate the relationship between the taxa of airborne fungi and the decay risk. The subcultured fungi were isolated and DNA extracted from each isolate was amplified with the primers ITS4/ITS5. The DNA sequences of the amplified products were determined and compared to the sequence data of GenBank to determine the species or genus according to a BLAST search. This search revealed that the isolate consisted of 5 major taxa, namely Bjerkandera sp., Phanerochaete sp. (A), Phanerochaete sp. (B), Polyporales sp. Polyporus arcularius, and 6 minor ones. Statistical analysis revealed that the disks attached by Phanerochaete spp. or Polyporales sp. showed higher mean mass loss. It is concluded that, under these experimental conditions, related species of P. sordida play an important role in increasing the decay risk caused by airborne wood-decay fungi.
I Momohara, Y Ota, K Sotome, T Nishimura
Differential response of wood to dry air thermal treatment (DATT) and soy oil thermal treatment (SOTT)
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40446
Thermal treatment is an alternative to chemical modification method which has been used to some extent in improving timber quality. In order to get the maximum benefits possible without compromising the various end-use quality requirements of timber, several possibilities have been and are still being investigated in relation to this technique. Clear wood samples (19 x 19 x 150mm) of kiln-dried red pine (Pinus resinosa) were subjected to dry air thermal treatment (DATT) and soy oil thermal treatment (SOTT) separately over a time period of 2 hours and 4 hours. Hygroscopy and swelling were determined by soaking in water for 24 hours at room temperature while wettability was determined by the sessile drop contact angle measurement method. The mechanical properties were determined by 3-point bending test using Zwich testing machine model Z050. The dry air thermally treated wood were significantly higher in hygroscopy, swelling and modulus of elasticity but significantly lower in modulus of rupture and modulus of toughness than those treated in soy oil medium. No significant difference in wettability was observed between DATT and SOTT indicating that the treatment medium did not contribute significantly to the wettability changes in the wood.
Ecological methods and products for wood protection used for restoration and conservation of built heritage cultural assets to increase natural durability and duration of exposure in open air museums
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40506
Wood is a perishable material, hygroscopic and fuel, which cause attention to selecting the wood species that is going to be exhibited in relation to humidity and soil. With variable depending on its humidity and moisture from the atmosphere or soil, wood is a good living environment for fungi and insects, but suffer biodegradation processes and dimensional changes. Observations over time on wood building behavior determined limiting actions of biodegradation phenomena, with different products with antiseptic, waterproof and fireproof properties. The development of forestry research and of chemical industry in particular, have put on the market for wood protection treatment a number of solutions which subsequently proved toxic to humans and the environment. Now the latest generation methods and products available to conservators and restorers disposal for use in preserving the old wooden racks and the new one used in restoration. The National Institute Wood throughout over 75 years of existence, helped by laboratory and in situ tests, carried out by specialists, contributed to marketing the new products and ways to protect freshly shot down wood used in construction and in the conservation and restoration of cultural goods. Attempts are made by exposure to fungi, insects and moisture under laboratory conditions or by exposure to natural climate conditions in the polygon NIW. The preventive protection can extend about 3-5 times the duration of use and reduce downgrading quality with over 30% of the wood used.
M Pruna, D Purice, D Dumitru Copacean
Influence of Copper Preservative Type on Earlywood and Latewood Distribution of Copper in Treated Wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40507
Some of the new water based copper containing wood preservative systems use particulate “micronized” copper as the primary biocide instead of the more traditional soluble amine copper based systems. Studies were conducted to investigate how this difference in the type of copper system might impact both initial and post drying distribution of the preservatives in wood. Of specific interest was to determine the influence of the copper type on the distribution in earlywood and latewood portions of southern pine lumber, where significant differences in wood density might impact preservative loadings for the soluble and particulate systems. Our results support that the copper distributions were distinctly different between the two systems in air-dried boards, although amine copper treated boards had a similar copper distribution immediately after treatment to that observed in dry micronized copper treated boards. Both the air-dried boards treated with micronized copper and the freshly treated amine copper treated boards had distinctly higher copper concentrations in the early wood bands than in the latewood bands on a wood mass basis. After air-drying, this difference is dramatically reduced in all but the outermost growth rings in the amine copper treated boards, suggesting some copper redistribution on drying, as well as copper binding to the wood substance in direct ratio to the amount of wood substance present.
Extraction and analysis of DNA from green and seasoned timber as basic methods for determination of wood species and origin
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20523
Against the background of the European timber trade regulation EUTR, commenced to law by March 2013, the determination of wood species and tracing of its origin is getting a great importance. A promising approach for establishing fast and reliable tracking systems for wood products is DNA analysis. A critical point is the extraction of analysable DNA from the wood and its lignified cell walls. Thus, aim of the work was the analysis of DNA content in different areas of the cross section of green and dry, well-seasoned wood from pine, spruce and beech, using quantitative, real-time PCR analysis. DNA from green timber was successfully extracted and amplified with primer set ycf3hm at all three wood species and zones of cross-section. Whereas the results with pine and spruce confirmed the expectation, that the DNA content decreases from cambium to pith, this was not observed with beech. DNA detection with 20 year old well-seasoned wood was successful only with beech. Further systematic studies are necessary to get better information about the influence of wood processing and ageing on DNA quantity and quality.
K Jacobs, H Mende, W Scheiding