Your search resulted in 100 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Proposed degradation pathway for quaternary ammonium compounds by mould fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10166
One group of chemicals that has attracted considerable attention as potential wood preservatives are the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Based upon results of previous research this study confirmed the degradation pathway employed in QAC-tolerant fungi. For this experiment the two dialkylammonium compounds didecyldimethylammonnium chloride and dioctyldimethylammonium chloride were used. QAC-...
J L Bürgel, J Dubois, J N R Ruddick
Interaction mechanisms of F/Cr/As/B type preservative and wood
1981 - IRG/WP 3183
The paper reports results of investigations on the fixation of the components of a F/Cr/As/B preservative in wood and its lignin and cellulosic components....
N Ermush, I Andersone
Investigation of the fixation in wood of chromated zinc chloride and copperised chromated zinc chloride preservatives
1976 - IRG/WP 372
A biological method of evaluating the extent to which CZC and CCZC preparations are retained in wood in terms of the potential protection which they afford against destruction by Merulius lacrymans (dry rot) is given. CCZC is recommended for protection of wood under moderate leaching conditions, while the use of CZC under such conditions is not recommended....
V N Sozonova, D A Belenkov
Tests on preservation of wood against marine borers
1976 - IRG/WP 417
The Instituto del Legno has carried out for some years a series of trials about the biodeterioration of wood in the sea. The investigations included the settlement and activity of marine borers, the natural durability of indigenous and tropical woods and the preservation of wood for marine use. This paper reports the trials on the effectiveness of some preservatives in protecting wood against mari...
A Gambetta, E Orlandi
Variation in Canadian bluestain fungi: Tolerance to DDAC and DOT
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10303
Bluestain in Canadian wood products results in significant and unpredictable losses each year. In order to develop rational methods to eliminate or reduce the sapstain problem, a more complete knowledge of the causal organisms must be gained. This includes a knowledge of the variability in tolerance of different fungal species and strains to commercially used chemicals. In British Columbia, the ma...
J Dubois, A Byrne, J E Clark, A Uzunovic
The preliminary evaluation of selected sulfonium salts for use in wood preservation
1984 - IRG/WP 3278
Five sulfonium compounds, including two sulfonium methosulfates, one sulfonium bromide and two amphoteric sulfonium propanesulfonates, were prepared in crude form and subjected to various biocidal screening tests. A rapid screening test in which treated Pinus radiata pulp pellets were exposed to one of three wood-decaying fungi growing on malt agar revealed that dodecyl dimethyl sulfonium methosul...
D V Plackett
The Chemical and Biological Properties of Polymeric Betaine
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30512
Didecyl polyoxyethyl ammonium borate (DPAB), also known as Polymeric Betaine, was developed as a co-biocide for chromium-free copper based wood preservatives in Europe in the 1980’s. DPAB as a wood preservative has been reported previously. This paper summarizes the chemical, physical, and biological properties of DPAB. ...
H Härtner, S Schmitt, Futong Cui, H M Barnes
Antifungal properties of new quaternary ammonium and imidazolium salts against wood decay, staining and mould fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30347
The biological activity of twenty-four potential wood preservatives – imidazolium and quaternary ammonium salts with a modified anion structure was determined employing screening agar-plate and agar-block methods. Experiments were carried out on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood. The aim of the performed studies was to investigate the effect of structure modification of IC and QAC with organ...
J Zabielska-Matejuk, W Wieczorek
Remedial treatment of joinery. Comparison of distribution of organic solvent preservative and ammonium bifluoride
1978 - IRG/WP 3115
It is some years since it was recognised in the United Kingdom that there was a problem of premature decay in untreated external joinery. Consequently, recommendations for preservative treatment were made by the Building Research Establishment, Princes Risborough Laboratory. In addition, the National House-Building Council has also included the preservative treatment of external joinery in its req...
J M Taylor
A potential anti-sapstain chemical for sawmills
1984 - IRG/WP 3300
Several biocidal formulations were tested under laboratory conditions in order to discover an alternative antisapstain chemical to chlorophenoxides. The formulations tested were experimental water solutions containing a quaternary ammonium chloride, a commercial fungicide and/or a sodium salt of some carboxylic acids. The effect of sodium carbonate and borax decahydrate in mixture with a quaternar...
I A Linderborg
Photo-discoloration and Degradation of Wood and its Stabilisation by Modification with Benzoyl Chloride
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40274
Photo degradation of Pinus roxburghii (chir pine) and Hevea brasiliensis (rubber wood) was studied under artificial accelerated weathering conditions in a Xenon test chamber. The irradiated samples were analyzed for color changes and chemical changes. Analysis of colour changes in wood surfaces by UV-Vis. irradiation was carried out using a colour measuring (CIELAB) system and chemical changes ...
K K Pandey
An investigation of organotin compounds in treated wood using Mössbauer spectroscopy
1983 - IRG/WP 3249
The influence of sample preparation on the 119mSn Mössbauer spectrum of tributyltin chloride in ponderosa pine was investigated. Initial studies with sawdust and compressed discs concluded that the latter were clearly superior. Further studies showed that compressed discs prepared from 0.4 g of treated wood and 0.1 g of cellulose were robust and gave excellent Mössbauer spectra. The possibility ...
J N R Ruddick, J K Ingram
Low-toxicity DNBP wood preservatives
1987 - IRG/WP 3408
Low and very low toxicity single compound preservatives of both excellent insecticidal and fungicidal activity for interior, extrior and ground-contact applications are presented. These are ester derivatives of alkyl dinitrophenols, in particular of 2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol (DNBP) and 2-sec-octyl-4,6-dinitrophenol. These esters, of much lower toxicity than DNBP impart to the treated timber co...
A Pizzi, W E Conradie, A Jansen, R Vosloo
Natural exposure weathering tests: Their role in the assessment of wood preservative efficacy
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20006
Previous work has demonstrated the potential and usefulness of natural ageing procedures in e evaluation of wood preservative efficacy. This results from the combination of physico-chemical influences and microbiological interactions with both substrate and wood preservative. In this paper, results are presented for a range of biocide types. Discussions are centred on the value of natural exposure...
G R Williams, J Brown
Field tests of preservative-treated radiata pine in Japan
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30083
Test stakes of radiata pine treated with various alkyl ammonium compound (AAC) formulations and with copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) as reference preservative were installed in 3 test sites in Japan in 1981-82. When inspected in 1995, CCA-treated stakes showed less decay at all three sites than stakes treated with other formulations. Ammoniacal copper quaternary (ACQ)- treatment was only slightly les...
M E Hedley, K Tsunoda, K Suzuki
Improvement of some technological and biological properties of poplar wood by impregnation with aqueous macromolecular compounds
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3721
Poplars (Populus spp) belong to the most important tree species in afforestation programs of the Netherlands. Due to their rapid growth, the wood quality is usually low. Therefore, studies were performed to elucidate whether some technological properties and the resistance against fungal attack could be improved by impregnation with water-soluble resins. The results showed that swelling and shrink...
R D Peek, H Militz, J J Kettenis
The fungal degradation of quaternary ammonium compounds in wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10263
This work focuses on the biodegradation of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) by the mould fungus Gliocladium roseum within a woody matrix. Three sawdust types, distinguished by their treatment and amount of DDAC retained, were inoculated with the fungus and their DDAC loss was measured over 11 weeks. The rates of degradation varied depending on the sawdust; however, a significant loss of DDA...
J W Dubois, J N R Ruddick
Adsorption of ACQ and CuMEA Wood Preservatives in Red pine
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30374
The rates of stabilization or fixation of ACQ subcomponents (CuO, DDAC and MEA) in red pine (Pinus resinosa) were compared for different solution concentrations (0.75%, 1.5%, 2.25% and 3% ACQ-D) and post treatment conditioning temperatures. Preservative solutions were impregnated into red pine sapwood by a full-cell treatment. Copper and MEA adsorptions from copper monoethanolamine solutions witho...
C Tascioglu, P A Cooper, Y T Ung
Fungitoxic effect of the quaternary ammonium compounds preservatives against Basidiomycetes by using agar-plate and agar-block methods
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30118
Results of investigations on the fungitoxic value of three versions of wood preservatives based on the quaternary ammonium compounds (lauryldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, lauryldimethyl-benzylammonium bromide and alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride) and borates in relation to the wood destroying fungi have been presented. The agar-plate (screening) and agar-block method were applied. A wide ran...
J Wazny, P Rudniewski
Toxic value estimation of wood preservatives by using the probit analysis
1990 - IRG/WP 2348
As it was assumed from previous experiments, the probit analysis appears to be the most suitable method of all used to estimate the toxic value of wood preservatives. With the help of the classical agar-block method the probit analysis was tested for its suitability in: 1) fungitoxic value estimation of the WR-3 preservative (quaternary ammonium compound + borate), as compared to different test fu...
J Wazny, K J Krajewski
Evaluating the potential of amine chemicals for use as wood protecting agents. Part 1: Investigation of cation components of quaternary ammonium compounds
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30049
Quaternary ammonium compounds (quats) have shown a great potential as more environmentally acceptable wood preservatives. In order to identify chemicals possessing the wood protecting potential, an evaluation was carried out of a range of commercially available 'quats', using a modified soil block test. Ponderosa pine sapwood blocks were treated with selected 'quat&a...
Hang Tang, J N R Ruddick
Marine trials with water-borne salts and organotin compound
1986 - IRG/WP 4128
Pinus sylvestris blocks treated with water-borne salts (CCA, CCB, CCF) and organotin compounds (TBTO, TBTCl) were submerged in the sea at Follonica station. The results obtained after 12 years of immersion are presented. The samples treated with CCA, CCB and CCF at the lowest concentration (2%) were destroyed after 7-9 years and the samples treated with CCB and CCF at the highest concentrations (4...
A Gambetta, E Orlandi
The effect of chemical treatment on the moisture distribution of Pinus radiata D.Don subjected to wick action
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40135
Radiata pine sapwood stakes were treated with a range of chemicals, including an ammoniacal copper quaternary ammonium compound (ACQ), a copper-chrome and arsenic (CCA) solution and a CCA-oil treatment, potassium linoleate copper linoleate, a paraffin wax and a proprietary alkyd resin. The effect of these treatments on the extent of water absorption and moisture movement through the stakes was inv...
J Hann, P Vinden
Aspects of the fungal degradation of quaternary ammonium compounds in liquid culture
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30160
Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) is a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) that has found use as an anti-sapstain preservative for the transportation of softwood lumber from Canada to overseas markets. However, its use is limited by the knowledge that certain mould fungi seem capable of degrading it. The aim of this research was to gain knowledge about the fungal degradation of DDAC. The effe...
J W Dubois, J N R Ruddick
Borate-treated food affects survival, vitamin B12 content, and digestive processes of subterranean termites
1990 - IRG/WP 1448
Toxicity of boron compounds was studied by analyzing survival rates and vitamin B12 contents in Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, that were exposed to dietary treatments for 10 days. The dietary treatments applied in moistened cellulose were (a) 0.05% boric acid equivalent (BAE) of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, (b) 0.05% BAE of anmonium pentaborate plus sodium sul...
L H Williams, S I Sallay, J A Breznak