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A marine borer test with water-borne preservatives
1980 - IRG/WP 452
The use of preservative treated timber in sea-water where marine borers are active is of great economic importance, since untreated wood immediately will be damaged. Vacuum/pressure treated timber has been tested in several marine exposure trials on the Swedish west coast since the 1930s (Hager 1941, Hultman 1949, Sandstrom 1951, Nylinder-Norman et al. 1974). Since new interesting materials or pre...
B Henningsson, E Norman


Rapid leaching test
1991 - IRG/WP 2367
An accelerated test which is suitable for measuring the extent of metal fixation in both chromium and non chromium containing preservatives is described....
J A Cornfield, M Bacon, A Lyman, C Waldie, M R Gayles


The Effect of Heat on the Retention of Ammoniacal Copper Quat (ACQ-AB) onto Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40390
In this study, the sapwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were treated with ammonical copper quat type (ACQ-AB), which is one of the environmentally friendly wood preservatives, by using soaking method as a functions of various temperatures and time. The results indicated that the retention behaviour of ACQ onto the wood was considerably affected by temperature of ACQ solution and treatment t...
M Hakki Alma, A Mukremin Kara


Migration of Metals from Douglas-fir Lumber Treated with ACZA or Pentachlorophenol Using Best Management Practices: Preliminary Tests
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-4
The potential for migration of preservative components from ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) and pentachlorophenol treated Douglas-fir lumber in non-soil contact exposure was assessed in a simulated rainfall device. Metal levels from ACZA treated wood were elevated for the first 30 minutes of rainfall and then declined sharply. Repeated cycles of rainfall led to declines in initial metal l...
J J Morrell, Hua Chen, J Simonsen


EPR investigations of interactions between ammoniacal Cu(II) octanoate and wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30110
Ammoniacal solutions of copper(II) octanoate [ C u . h l f . 2 . r h l f.(O2CC7H15)4], interactions of these solutions with wood and wood components, and leaching of copper(II) octanoate from impregnated wood samples, have been studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method. It is still not clear if in the Cu(II) octanoate - water - ammonia system, Cu(II) remains in a (copper(II) octanoat...
F Dagarin, M Petric, F Pohleven, M Sentjurc


Water-borne preservative marine trials in Western Canada
1981 - IRG/WP 470
Red pine boards treated with chromated copper arsenate, ammoniacal copper arsenate, copper zinc arsenic additive, a modified ammoniacal copper arsenate, and zinc arsenic additive, have been installed in a marine field test at West Vancouver, British Columbia. After two and a quarter years exposure, all the test samples are in excellent condition with the exception of those treated with the zinc ar...
J N R Ruddick


Water-borne wood preservatives against marine borers. Results from NWPC marine trials started in 1972 and 1976
1990 - IRG/WP 4162
The paper presents the results from NWPC (Nordic Wood Preservation Council) marine trials started in 1972 and 1976. The trials are carried out according to the NWPC Standard No. 1.4.2.2./73 "Marine test - a test against marine wood boring organisms in sea water". The test site is Kristineberg Marine Biology Station on the west coast of Sweden. The wood blocks used in the trials were made from sapw...
Ö Bergman, C Lundberg


Comparative performance of several ammoniacal copper preservative systems
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30151
The efficacy of several ammoniacal copper-based wood preservative systems was evaluated in this study. The selection of potential co-biocides was based on the results of an agar plate test. Following this, the most promising systems were evaluated in a standard field stake test. Good correlation was found between the agar plate and field stake test results. Of the preservative systems tested, copp...
D D Nicholas, T Schultz


A comparison of the leaching resistance of diammine-copper complexes and copper carbonate precipitated in wood
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30158
Previous studies have shown that during treatment of wood with ammoniacal copper solutions, both simple copper precipitates and diammine-copper complexes are formed. The objective of the present study is to determine the relative importance of both forms of copper, on such aspects as preservative leachability and biological performance. In the current experiment, the leachability of copper carbona...
Xiao Jiang, J N R Ruddick


Tests with ammoniacal copper and alkyl ammonium compounds as wood preservatives
1984 - IRG/WP 3299
Formulations based on copper and alkyl ammonium compounds in ammonia solution have been tested in a fungus cellar on Pinus radiata and Fagus sylvatica. This type of products gives promising results as wood preservatives, especially on hardwood and are safe to destroy by e.g. combustion. The best results were achieved with a dialkyl ammonium compound, Cu/octyldecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (NH3)....
C-E Sundman


The effect of pretreatments on the impregnation of air-dried sawn Belgian spruce
1988 - IRG/WP 3490
In general the impregnation of airdried spruce results in a variable treatment and limited penetration. This is the result of pit aspiration that occurs during drying of the spruce sapwood and heartwood. Spruce timber is becoming of greater importance in Belgium and hence research for better treatment of this vulnerable wood species is needed. Squared airdried timber of different dimensions were e...
J Van Acker, M Stevens


Performance of Paraserianthus falcataria treated with ACZA, ACQ, CC or CCA and exposed in Krishnapatnam harbour, India
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30382
Paraserianthus falcataria (=Albizia falcataria) treated to two retentions with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA), ammoniacal copper quaternary (ACQ), ammoniacal copper citrate (CC) and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) was assessed over 34 months in a tropical marine waters at Krishnapatnam harbour on the east coast of India. ACZA treatment showed comparatively better resistance than CCA, ACQ a...
B Tarakanadha, K S Rao, J J Morrell


Diffusion and interaction of components of water-borne preservatives in the wood cell wall
1988 - IRG/WP 3474
This study investigates the rates of diffusion and ultimate distributions of copper and arsenate components of wood preservatives in wood cell walls following vacuum treatment. Adsorption studies of copper on red pine (Pinus resinosa) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) wood confirm the importance of cation exchange reactions on the ultimate distribution of copper in the wood substance and i...
P A Cooper


Stake test with ammoniacal copper in combination with different agents started in 1962
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30130
In 1962 a stake test was started with ammoniacal copper in combination with chromium, arsenic, pentachlorophenol, boron, salicylic acid, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, pyridine and tannin. Different concentrations of the copper component were used as well as the added agents. For each concentration and test site, ten stakes of Pinus sylvestris L. sapwood were treated. The stakes were set out at two te...
B Häger, Ö Bergman


Preservative treatment of green timber by soaking in ammoniacal copper borate
1984 - IRG/WP 3292
Freshly sawn boards of radiata pine sapwood were preservative treated by soaking in ammoniacal copper borate. Optimum schedules were obtained by partially seasoning the boards for one week prior to treatment. This aided the absorption of preservative and reduced the required soaking time to approximately 2 hours. Complete boron penetration was obtained after one week of block storage under cover a...
P Vinden, A J McQuire


Effect of test site location on in-ground preservative performance after 6 years
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20231
Pinus radiata test stakes were treated with 4.1 kg/m3 of CCA and Fagus sylvatica with 6.1 kg/m3 of CCA. Both wood species were also treated with a copper plus triazole preservative (3 kg/m3 of copper) and chlorothalonil plus chlorpyriphos in oil (4.8 kg/m3 chlorothalonil). Furthermore, P. radiata was treated with ammoniacal copper plus a quaternary ammonium compound (2.6 kg/m3 copper) and a 60/40 ...
R N Wakeling


Influence of water-borne preservatives on water repellency and the impact of addition of water repellent additives
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3704
The primary goal of a desirable wood preservative system is to effectively control decay fungi and other biodeteriogens in service. The water repellent nature of a given system may play an important role in the protection of wood. In this study, the water repellency of several water-borne preservative systems has been evaluated by measurements of tangential swelling during immersion. The systems i...
L Jin, D M Roberts, A F Preston


Amine copper reaction with wood components: acidity versus copper adsorption
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30161
The bonding sites for copper in wood from CCA, as well as ammoniacal/amine based systems, has long been a topic of investigation. Both phenolic and carboxylic functional groups have been discussed as potential bonding sites for copper. However, no consensus on the adsorption mechanism has been realized. Thus, the selective adsorption of copper in southern yellow pine from ethanolamine-copper solut...
S M Thomason, E A Pasek


Long term marine performance of ACZA treated Hem fir in Krishnapatnam harbour, east coast of India
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30409
The performance of Hem fir (Tsuga heterophylla) and Southern pine (Pinus sp.) treated with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) and copper dimethyldithio carbamate (CDDC) at two retention levels of each preservative was assessed in tropical marine waters at Krishnapatnam harbour on the east coast of India. Panels treated with ACZA of lower loadings (23.1 Kg/m3) had failed in 38 months while the ...
B Tarakanadha, K S Rao, J J Morrell


Metal Migration from Douglas-fir Poles Treated with Ammoniacal Copper Zinc Arsenate According to Best Management Practices
2010 - IRG/WP 10-50272
The potential for migration of metal components from ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate treated (ACZA) poles was examined using pole sections treated using Best Management Practices. Copper and zinc levels were highest in runoff collected following the first rainfall events, then declined. Copper and zinc levels in runoff averaged 20 ppm and 5 pm respectively. The metal levels were then used to pr...
J J Morrell, C S Love, C Freitag


Incidence of soft rot attack on preservative treated Douglas-fir poles: a preliminary survey
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10818
Occurrence of soft rot decay in Douglas-fir poles treated with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) or pentachlorophenol in oil was studied. Soft rot was less prevalent in poles treated with penta, but some soft rot was found in approximately 20 % of poles examined. Soft rot was more common in poles treated with ACZA, and, when present, was found in almost 20% of the cells examined. The potenti...
P Torres Andrade, J J Morrell


Ammoniacal Copper Zinc Arsenate Preservative Treated Wood Ties Their Performance in Testing and Track
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30636
While not a new preservative system, Ammoniacal Copper Zinc Arsenate (ACZA), had not previously been used to protect crossties. Its performance in treating difficult or refractory species of wood has been documented through its wide range of uses approved in AWPA. The establishment of appropriate testing for railroad material use was put in place and includes laboratory, field as well as commercia...
T Carey


Boron dual-treatments for Douglas-fir utility poles: Tracking boron migration over time
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30739
The potential for using boron pressure-treatment prior to over-treatment with conventional, heavy-duty wood preservatives to limit internal decay in-service was investigated in two field tests on Douglas-fir utility poles. Pole sections were pressure-treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) and then over-treated with either pentachlorophenol or copper naphthenate in oil. Alternatively, ...
J Cappellazzi, M J Konkler, J J Morrell


Effect of damage to polyurea coatings on metal losses from ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate treated Douglas-fir pile sections
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40867
Metal-based preservatives remain the most widely used treatments for protecting wood in soil or water contact. While these treatments are highly effective, one drawback is a tendency for small amounts of metal to migrate into the surrounding environment. The greatest risk in this regard is copper because many organisms are highly sensitive to this metal. While post treatment practices can reduce ...
M J Konkler, J J Morrell


Preliminary study of the fungicidal and structural variability in copper naphthenates and naphthenic acids
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30114
Copper naphthenates, an oil-borne wood preservative listed by the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA), is manufactured by complexing copper(II) with naphthenic acids. Prior to AWPA listing as a wood preservative, field experiments showed that copper naphthenates generally had good stability and were active against wood-destroying organisms. Recently, however, there have been reports ...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, L L Ingram Jr, T H Fisher


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