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Water-borne preservative marine trials in Western Canada
1981 - IRG/WP 470
Red pine boards treated with chromated copper arsenate, ammoniacal copper arsenate, copper zinc arsenic additive, a modified ammoniacal copper arsenate, and zinc arsenic additive, have been installed in a marine field test at West Vancouver, British Columbia. After two and a quarter years exposure, all the test samples are in excellent condition with the exception of those treated with the zinc arsenic additive. All the zinc arsenic additive treated boards at the lowest preservative retention and two thirds of those at the second lowest retention in test have failed. A performance index calculated for the zinc arsenic additive indicates an added service life of 3% at the standard retention level.
J N R Ruddick


Water-borne wood preservatives against marine borers. Results from NWPC marine trials started in 1972 and 1976
1990 - IRG/WP 4162
The paper presents the results from NWPC (Nordic Wood Preservation Council) marine trials started in 1972 and 1976. The trials are carried out according to the NWPC Standard No. 1.4.2.2./73 "Marine test - a test against marine wood boring organisms in sea water". The test site is Kristineberg Marine Biology Station on the west coast of Sweden. The wood blocks used in the trials were made from sapwood of European redwood (Pinus sylvestris L.). European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), European birch (Betula spp.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) were also used to a minor extent. In all, 19 water-borne wood preservatives were tested. The preservatives consisting of copper-chrome, copper-chrome-arsenic, copperchrome-boron, copper-chrome-phosphorus and tributyltin oxide gave best performance. The ammoniacal copper preservatives failed to protect the wood against marine borers.
Ö Bergman, C Lundberg


Comparative performance of several ammoniacal copper preservative systems
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30151
The efficacy of several ammoniacal copper-based wood preservative systems was evaluated in this study. The selection of potential co-biocides was based on the results of an agar plate test. Following this, the most promising systems were evaluated in a standard field stake test. Good correlation was found between the agar plate and field stake test results. Of the preservative systems tested, copper/tribromophenol, copper/naphthenic acid, copper/DDAC, and copper/propiconizole were found to be superior against copper tolerant fungi in comparison to the other systems tested after three years of field ground-contact exposure. The performance of copper/benzoic acid was mediocre. Copper/citric acid was ineffective against copper-tolerant fungi, with its performance being no better than copper alone.
D D Nicholas, T Schultz


A marine borer test with water-borne preservatives
1980 - IRG/WP 452
The use of preservative treated timber in sea-water where marine borers are active is of great economic importance, since untreated wood immediately will be damaged. Vacuum/pressure treated timber has been tested in several marine exposure trials on the Swedish west coast since the 1930s (Hager 1941, Hultman 1949, Sandstrom 1951, Nylinder-Norman et al. 1974). Since new interesting materials or preservative formulations are manufactured all the time, it is important to investigate their effect against the borers before they can be recommended and used in marine wood constructions. A Nordic standard method for testing wood preservatives in the sea was therefore worked out at the beginning of the 1970s (NWPC Standard No. 1.4.2.2./73). In principle following this standard an extensive test was started in 1972 to evaluate the effectiveness of various preservatives against wood borers. The test was located at the Kristineberg Marine Biology Station on the Swedish west coast. Results after the first 2.5 years (three growth seasons) were reported in 1975 (Norman and Henningsson). The present paper deals with the results after an exposure period of 6.5 years (seven growth seasons).
B Henningsson, E Norman


Tests with ammoniacal copper and alkyl ammonium compounds as wood preservatives
1984 - IRG/WP 3299
Formulations based on copper and alkyl ammonium compounds in ammonia solution have been tested in a fungus cellar on Pinus radiata and Fagus sylvatica. This type of products gives promising results as wood preservatives, especially on hardwood and are safe to destroy by e.g. combustion. The best results were achieved with a dialkyl ammonium compound, Cu/octyldecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (NH3). The optimal weight ratio of Cu/AAC is for Pinus radiata = 0.2-0.4 and Fagus sylvatica = 1.0 based on cost-effectiveness. Fixation and leaching of coppertetrammine are discussed in detail. The leaching of active components from the Cu/AAC/NH3-systems is very low.
C-E Sundman


Diffusion and interaction of components of water-borne preservatives in the wood cell wall
1988 - IRG/WP 3474
This study investigates the rates of diffusion and ultimate distributions of copper and arsenate components of wood preservatives in wood cell walls following vacuum treatment. Adsorption studies of copper on red pine (Pinus resinosa) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) wood confirm the importance of cation exchange reactions on the ultimate distribution of copper in the wood substance and its strong dependence on pH of the treating solution. Formulations containing both copper and zinc preferentially adsorb or exchange copper relative to zinc. Under high pH conditions, the arsenate anion is significantly adsorbed into the cell wall. The combined adsorption and fixation of low pH CCA solutions is much slower than adsorption of high pH ACA and CZA formulations, but the reaction with wood is more complete. Diffusion coefficients were estimated for the movement of copper and arsenate components of ACA in cell wall material of both aspen and pine sapwood using a simple membrane model for non-steady state diffusion. The longer diffusion paths inherent in the diffuse porous hardwood (aspen) resulted in much slower equalization of the solute in the cell wall matrix than in red pine. However, in both species, equalization was achieved in a relative short time compared to accepted fixation times for conventional waterborne wood preservatives.
P A Cooper


Stake test with ammoniacal copper in combination with different agents started in 1962
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30130
In 1962 a stake test was started with ammoniacal copper in combination with chromium, arsenic, pentachlorophenol, boron, salicylic acid, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, pyridine and tannin. Different concentrations of the copper component were used as well as the added agents. For each concentration and test site, ten stakes of Pinus sylvestris L. sapwood were treated. The stakes were set out at two test fields in Sweden, Simlångsdalen and Bogesund and also in a greenhouse. Today all stakes except five at Bogesund have been rejected. The prevailing type of decay in Bogesund is soft rot and in Simlångsdalen brown rot and soft rot. Ammoniacal copper alone at a copper retention of 1.9 kg/m3 gave an average service life of 23 years in Bogesund and 14 years in Simlångsdalen. When the copper retention was doubled to 3.8 kg/m3 the service lives were prolonged by 2-3 years in Bogesund and 8-9 years in Simlångsdalen. Most of the agents added to copper prolonged the service lives substantially in Simlångsdalen but only marginally, or not at all in Bogesund. The added agents which gave the longest service lives at both test fields were chromium plus arsenic and pentachlorophenol.
B Häger, Ö Bergman


Influence of water-borne preservatives on water repellency and the impact of addition of water repellent additives
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3704
The primary goal of a desirable wood preservative system is to effectively control decay fungi and other biodeteriogens in service. The water repellent nature of a given system may play an important role in the protection of wood. In this study, the water repellency of several water-borne preservative systems has been evaluated by measurements of tangential swelling during immersion. The systems include cuprammonium formulations, such as ammoniacal copper carbonate (AC) and ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA), ammoniacal copper quat systems (ACQ) and chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The influence of addition of water repellent emulsions into the above systems has also been examined.
L Jin, D M Roberts, A F Preston


Marine testing of selected waterborne preservatives
1987 - IRG/WP 4137
In 1978 a marine test was established at West Vancouver, B C. to determine the performance of selected waterborne preservatives. The preservatives in test were chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA-C), ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA), a modified formulation of ACA which contained a higher copper content (modified ACA), ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) and ammoniacal zinc arsenate (AZA). The wood species used for the test was red pine. After eight years in test the CCA is providing excellent performance at all retentions, while the modified ACA is showing significant deterioration only at the lowest level. The ACA is performing quite well although it shows signs of surface deterioration at all retention levels. The performance of the ACZA is rated as unsatisfactory at retentions below 32 kg/m³ while AZA was considered to be unsuitable for use in the marine environment.
J N R Ruddick


Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of commercially important copper-based wood preservatives were used as model formulations, namely copper/copper-HDO, ammoniacal copper/quat and CCA. The most important factors determining the extent of copper leaching in the different lab trials were the sample size (volume/surface ratio) and the fixation conditions prior to leaching. On the other hand, the wood species and the leaching protocol itself were found to have only minor influence on the copper leaching rate in the test methods included in this study.
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner


International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Third update and first report
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10174
At the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists was initiated. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives, copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and copper naphthenate (Cu-Na) against the subterranean termites used as test termites in Australia, France, Japan, Thailand, United Kingdom and the Unites States of America. Solutions of these two wood preservatives were prepared and impregnated into Pinus radiata wood blocks to obtain loading of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kg/m³ respectively. All preservative treatments were carried out at the Division of Forestry and Forest Products in Melbourne. The treated specimens were dispatched to the participating researchers who subjected these specimens to attack by their test termite species, and have now returned the specimens to Melbourne. This paper reports the amount of wood consumed and the mean mass loss (%) on both treated and untreated wood blocks by the termites in the various laboratory bioassays.
J R J French


Field Testing of Copper Carboxylate Preservatives
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30322
This paper details our ongoing experience with field testing of copper naphthenate and other copper carboxylate preservative systems. Results from field stake tests at an AWPA Hazard Zone 4 test site are presented. In general, copper carboxylates made with ‘synthetics’ yielded results equivalent to or only slightly lower than systems with straight nap acids or nap acids amended with synthetic neo acid bottoms.
H M Barnes, M G Sanders, T L Amburgey


Problems of fixation of CCA-preservatives in palm-wood
1985 - IRG/WP 3338
Palm-wood may be used for posts and poles where it needs proper treatment for long time use. Based on observations by W. Killmann on low CCA-fixation in palm-wood, samples of Jubaea-palm grown in a Greenhouse at Hamburg, have been treated in two different series with a 4% solution of CCA-type B. After 1-16 weeks of storage the blocks were split into sticks of 1-2 mm² and leached. In all series 50% of the chromium and copper content of the individual blocks was leached independent of the time of storage, whereas simultaneously treated pinewood samples showed complete fixation after 4 weeks of storage.
H Willeitner, K Brandt


A new concept of oxalic acid biosynthesis in physiology of copper-tolerant brown-rot fungi
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10394
Recently, a wide variety of roles of oxalic acid (oxalate) in wood decay systems have been receiving much attention. Copper tolerance of wood-rotting basidiomycetes has been believed to be due to the detoxification of copper wood preservatives by oxalate produced by these fungi. However, biochemical mechanism of oxalate biosynthesis in relation to physiology of wood-rotting fungi has not been elucidated although two oxalate-forming enzymes, oxaloacetase and glyoxylate dehydrogenase, have been studied in our laboratory. Recently, a new role of glyoxylate cycle in oxalate biosynthesis in wood- rotting fungi has been presented, and the cycle commonly occurred to varying extents among the fungi although they were grown on glucose. Enzymatic analyses showed that isocitrate was cleaved by isocitrate lyase in the glyoxylate cycle rather than oxidized by isocitrate dehydrogenase in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and the fungi were found to lack a normal TCA cycle due to the absence of - ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. It is noteworthy that glucose was efficiently converted to oxalate in a theoretical yield of about 80%, accumulating in the culture media of F. palustris. The results further indicate that acetyl-CoA derived from glucose was not completely oxidized to CO2 in TCA cycle but was mainly converted to oxalate with help of the other coupling metabolic cycles, including glyoxylate cycle. Formation of oxalate from several intermediary metabolites using cell-free extracts of F. palustris confirmed that oxalate is also the final product of the metabolic pathway in the in vitro system. Thus, it is proposed as a new concept that most of copper-tolerant brown-rot fungi may acquire the energy by oxidizing glucose to oxalate, i.e. oxalate fermentation expressed in the following equation; Glucose + 5O2 --> 2 Oxalate + 2CO2 + 4H2O.
E Munir, T Hattori, M Shimada


Copper naphthenate performance: A new way to look at old data
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30215
Although copper naphthenate has over a 50-year test history, it is still considered as a "new" preservative in the United States when it is used for utility poles. It has also been extensively used in remedial treatments for poles and has considerable retail or over-the-counter sales. The test history includes a number of different tests and a rationale for evaluating this data and comparing the performance of copper naphthenate to other common pole preservatives is presented. Thus, the efficacy of copper naphthenate can be easily summarized.
C R McIntyre


Spruce lumber treatments with ammoniacal solutions of inorganic preservatives
1977 - IRG/WP 391
As a part of our work in the Wood Preservation group at the Eastern Forest Products Laboratory in Ottawa to facilitate exploitation of spruce, which is a large timber resource in Canada, we have been studying the treatability of spruce roundwood. A report on this subject was presented to this group last year. More recently, another commodity - spruce timber - has been rapidly gaining the interest of wood treaters, mainly because of its potential use in permanent wooden foundations. We identified this trend and extended our research work to the treatability of spruce lumber.
R Rak


Effects of various preservative treatments on the mechanical and physical properties of plywood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40007
The technical properties of plywood are related to both the intrinsic characteristics of its composing wood species and the quality and performance of the glue bond which acts as an interface between veneer sheets. Consequently mechanical and physical testing and glue bond strength analysis offer an appropriate means for studying the effect of preservative treatments on the overall quality of plywood. A range of boards was treated with waterborne and oilborne preservatives. Changes in modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture and tensile strength were noted as well as variations in physical properties. Analysis of the glue bond strength was done by shear strength testing and determination of the amount of wood failure after different ageing procedures.
J Van Acker, M Stevens


Improved PEC preservatives with added biocides
1985 - IRG/WP 3322
Biocidal chemicals have been incorporated into formulations within the broad framework of pigment emulsified creosote (PEC) to provide novel potential multi-purpose preservatives. Preparations of PEC plus TCMTB, Boracol 40, copper ethanolamine nonanoate, Quatramine 80, arsenic trioxide, Troysan Polyphase, and CCA have been formulated and assessed for preserving ability in soil-jar and Accelerated Field Simulator tests. In addition, a cationic oil-in-water emulsion preservative combination of PEC and CCA (PECCA), and an anionic formulation of TCMTB with PEC (PECBUS) have been manufactured in 400 L quantities to treat hardwood pole stubs and pine posts. The results indicate the potential of these improved second generation PEC-based preservatives to provide low-creosote containing treatments able to protect commodities against biodeterioration as well as provide dry, clean surfaces.
H Greaves, C-W Chin, J B Watkins


A laboratory soil-block decay evaluation of plywoods edge-treated with preservatives
1982 - IRG/WP 2174
Preservative-treated plywood used under conditions or severe decay hazard frequently has its original, or cut edges, protected by the application of a field-cut preservative. This study uses a laboratory test method to compare the efficacy of four commercial preservative treatments against two commonly occurring brown-rot fungi. The results are not meant to indicate the service life of such treated plywood.
R S Smith, A Byrne


A wood preservative for the future: Copper dimethyldithiocarbamate
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30045
The development of a new wood preservative, copper dimethyl-dithiocarbamate (CDDC) is reviewed in this paper. CDDC is formed in situ by dual pressure treatments. Laboratory and field efficacy trials, physical and chemical properties of the preservative solutions and treated wood, and plant handling characteristics of the system are examined.
D K Stokes, M H Freeman, T L Woods, R D Arsenault


Evaluation of wood treated with copper-based preservatives for Cu loss during exposure to heat and copper-tolerant Bacillus licheniformis
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20155
Copper-based wood preservatives need to be effective against exposure to all types of microorganisms. Wood treated with six copper-based preservatives was exposed to 121°C and 20 psi pressure for 15 minutes under standard autoclave conditions and the copper-tolerant bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis CC01, for 10 d at 28°C and 150 rpm. Sixteen to 37 percent of the copper was released from the wood during autoclaving, with copper citrate demonstrating the highest percent loss. Forty-four to 82 percent of the copper remaining in the samples following autoclaving was removed during exposure to the bacterium in liquid culture; copper naphthenate in oil and ACQ-D had losses of eighty percent or greater of the remaining copper. The bacterium removed as much or more total copper in 4 of 6 gas-sterilized samples (85-94%) than the cumulative effects of steam-sterilization and the bacterium on treated samples. Copper loss from in-service treated wood compromises the efficacy of copper-based wood preservatives.
D M Crawford, C A Clausen


Soil-bed studies (Part 3): A cause of failure of multisalt preservatives following soil-bed exposure
1983 - IRG/WP 3261
P Vinden, J F Levy, D J Dickinson


Rapid leaching test
1991 - IRG/WP 2367
An accelerated test which is suitable for measuring the extent of metal fixation in both chromium and non chromium containing preservatives is described.
J A Cornfield, M Bacon, A Lyman, C Waldie, M R Gayles


The influence of previous anti-blue-stain preservative treatments on the fixation of CC in spruce
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30134
Freshly cut and kiln dried spruce boards were treated with 4 different anti-blue stain preservatives (ABP). After a period of 10 days allowing the samples to dry and fixate, the samples were treated with CC (chromium, copper formulation) using a vacuum pressure cycle. After impregnation the wood was steam fixed. A submersion leaching test showed differences in the leachable quantity of copper and chromium. When related to the retention of both salts after impregnation, no differences could be found between samples previously treated with anti-blue-stain preservatives and untreated samples. However, the retention of CC diminished significantly by application of quaternary ammonium compounds.
M Van der Zee, W J Homan


Copper based water-borne preservatives: The biological performance of wood treated with various formulations
1987 - IRG/WP 3451
Wood samples treated with the various components of CCA preservative singly and in combination were tested against a soft rot organism, a copper tolerant brown rot organism and in soil burial both unleached and after leaching. The results suggest that, of the elements tested, fixed copper is essential for preventing soft rot attack and fixed arsenic is essential for preventing attack by a copper tolerant brown rot organism in leaching environments.
S M Gray, D J Dickinson


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