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Blue stain in timber in service. Results of co-operative tests to compare different artificial weathering systems 1981-82
1983 - IRG/WP 2193
The paper describes results of the third phase of co-operative laboratory experiments comparing the effects of different artificial weathering systems on chemicals to control blue-stain in service. Atlas, Xenotest and Marr equipments are shown to give essentially the same results for 5 of the 6 chemicals tested....
A F Bravery, D J Dickinson


A comparison between methods for evaluating the water repellency of wood
1989 - IRG/WP 2328
Wood specimens treated with a number of water repellent formulations have been tested for their water repellency according to four laboratory test methods, based on weight increase, swelling and contact angle measurements, in order to assess the degree of agreement between the different methods. Treatments representing formulations with a wide range of water repellent efficiency were tested both i...
R Nussbaum


Effects of artificial UV weathering and soft rot decay on heat treated wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40302
Oil and inert gas oven heat treated pine wood strips 100 µm thick were mildly heat treated (200°C, 30 mins linseed oil, 120 mins oven). Following treatment, specimens were exposed to UV weathering (300 hours) and decay by the soft rot fungus, Chaetomium globosum. The effects of each treatment were assessed by zero span tensile testing, microscopy and by FTIR. Tensile testing of heat treated s...
M D C Hale, S C Ghosh, M J Spear


A summary of work carried out to compare natural and artificial weathering for preconditioning test specimens in testing anti-stain chemicals for wood in service
1976 - IRG/WP 266
Since 1972 work has been in progress within CEN to establish a European standard for the testing of wood preservatives designed to prevent blue-staining of wood in service. The method is based on the Butin test and involves pre-weathering of the samples prior to biological testing. The weathering regime employed is 6 months outside exposure from March to October. This imposes severe limitations on...
D J Dickinson, A F Bravery


Xenon simulation of natural weathering of external joinery preserving - Finishing systems
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2412
Semitransparent wood stains ('lazures') for external joinery have developed by means of product combination towards complete wood finishing systems that are easy to applicate, have a good weathering resistance and low maintenance cost. The search for enhanced formulations and the possibilities to standardize these products or treatment systems are always facing long periods of we...
J Van Acker, M Stevens, M Nys


Resolution from IRG Working Group II Sub-group 4 'Stain in timber in service'
1984 - IRG/WP 2230
Sub-group 4 of IRG Working Group II has completed a series of studies of artificial weathering as an alternative to natural weathering in relation to testing the efficacy of chemicals in preventing blue stain in service. The Sub-group reports that within the limits of the equipments studied and described in its report Document No: IRG/WP/2215 the extent of blue stain varied little as a direct cons...
D J Dickinson


Laboratory tests on light organic solvent preservatives for use in Australia. - Part 6: Soft rot resistance of three fully formulated preservatives on different timber substrates
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30245
The above-ground soft rot resistance of substrates treated with three fully formulated light organic solvent preservatives (Cuprivac Green WR, Impresol WR 205 and Vacsol) was studied using a modified vermiculite burial method. The substrates were sapwood of Pinus elliottii and P. radiata and heartwood of Eucalyptus regnans, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Shorea sp. (a lower and a higher density source) an...
G C Johnson, M A Tighe, J D Thornton


Laboratory tests on artificial weathering of Quercus rubra crossties
1986 - IRG/WP 2252
Clear red oak (Quercus rubra) blocks were used to evaluate various types of accelerated aging tests including boil, steaming, and cyclic weathering. It was found that the repeated vacuum and pressure treatment of wood in water, steaming, oven-dry, and freezing appeared to be most effective in reducing the MOE in compression and hardness modules of wood specimens. Red oak crossties which were press...
P Chow, A J Reinschmidt, E J Barenberg, S L Lewis


Fixation of copper-chrome-arsenic treated timber: A comparison of leaching methodologies
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50075
Five packs of kiln dried radiata pine heartwood were treated with copper-chrome-arsenic preservative treated, utilising a modified Bethell treatment schedule. Two methods of determining the level of preservative fixation were compared. These included the diphenylcarbazide method and simulated rainfall testing. The fixation levels were generally higher for tests involving simulated rain leaching. F...
S Walley, P R S Cobham, P Vinden


Blue stain in timber in service. Results of further IRG collaborative tests to compare different artificial weathering systems
1981 - IRG/WP 2146
The previous work described in Document No IRG/WP/286 examined 3 preservatives (1% phenyl mercury succinate - PMS, 5% pentachlorophenol - PCP and 1.5% Preventol A4 - PA4) subjected to 5 different artificial weathering systems (BAM Xenotest, Cuprinol Marr, EMPA Xenotest, Gori Atlas and PRL Marr) and after natural weathering at 5 sites (BAM, Cuprinol, EMPA, Gori and PRL). Results showed good correla...
A F Bravery, D J Dickinson


Water-based silicones on wood
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30144
Five waterbased silicones commonly used on masonry where tested as water repellents for wood. The Water Repellent Effectiveness was determined by swellometer-tests and by measuring the water uptake of samples after 24 hours complete immersion and by immersion in a water level of 4 mm for 24 hours. The different methods are compared and discussed. Artificial and natural weathering was performed to ...
D Lukowsky, R D Peek, A O Rapp


Assessing the importance of degradation mechanisms on the loss of effectiveness of wood preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20193
Accelerated ageing systems developed for application to samples in the laboratory prior to biological tests, should reflect those natural deterioration processes that are likely to occur in the hazard classes defined in EN 335-1. Losses through evaporation or the effects of leaching have been recognised, however their importance, relative to other mechanisms has not been quantified. Degradation me...
E D Suttie, R J Orsler, T Dearling


Artificial weathering as an aid to assessing the effectiveness of chemicals for preventing blue stain in service - a co-operative study
1984 - IRG/WP 2215
The paper reports co-operative studies carried out within Working Group II of the International Research Group on Wood Preservation to assess the effects of different artificial weathering systems on the performance of fungicides to control blue-stain in service. It has been shown that Atlas, Xenotest and Marr equipments operated according to particular standard schedules can give essentially the ...
A F Bravery, D J Dickinson


Artificial weathering exposure as an alternative for standard ageing according to EN 84 (leaching) and EN 73 (evaporation)
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20254
In order to verify potential weaknesses of wood preservatives fungal tests are carried out after ageing of wood preservative treated test blocks. The European standard EN 599 as a framework for efficacy assessment of wood preservatives includes the use of two ageing methods prior to fungal testing, namely a leaching method (EN 84) and an evaporation method (EN 73). The European research project "F...
J Van Acker, M Grinda, D J Dickinson


Decay evaluation of the effectiveness of a LOSP envelope treatment in eucalypt and meranti heartwoods for window joinery
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30099
The effectiveness and penetration in heartwood boards of an LOSP formulation containing TBTN was examined by determining decay resistance to the white-rot fungus Perenniporia tephropora. Boards, one metre long, of Eucalyptus regnans, Eucalyptus delegatensis, Eucalyptus obliqua and Eucalyptus sieberi were treated, along with boards of 'light' and 'dark' meranti. ...
L J Cookson, A Trajstman


Accelerated weathering test for the evaluation of wood preservative efficacy
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20262
Wood samples treated with ammonium copper quat (ACQ-1900 and ACQ-2200), Chromated copper arsenate (CCA), Tanalith E 3491 and Wolmanit CX-8 have been studied in accelerated weathering experiments. The weathering experiment was performed by cycles of 2 hours UV-light irradiation followed by water spray for 18 minutes. The changes on the surface of the weathered samples were characterized by FTIR Sp...
A Temiz, M Eikenes, Ü C Yildiz, F G Evans, B Jacobsen


Leaching of copper-chrome-arsenic treated timber: Simulated rainfall testing
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50074
Six kiln dried radiata pine sapwood packs of timber were preservative treated with copper-chrome-arsenic preservative using a modified Bethell treatment schedule. The packs were then subjected to simulated rain leaching at specified periods after treatment. Higher chromium leachate was obtained when higher volumes of simulated rainfall were applied. Lower chromium leachate was obtained for timber ...
S Walley, P R S Cobham, P Vinden


Blue stain in timber in service. Preliminary results of the IRG collaborative tests to compare natural and artificial weathering
1978 - IRG/WP 286
The collaborative programme was initiated at IRG Meetings in Wildhaus, 1976. The six collaborators were BAM (Berlin), Cuprinol Ltd (UK), EMPA (Switzerland), GORI (Denmark), PRL (UK) and Imperial College (UK). Experimental plans were finalised in December 1976 and panels treated by Cuprinol Ltd early in 1977. Natural weathering was carried out by BAM, Cuprinol, EMPA, GORI and PRL during April-Septe...
A F Bravery, D J Dickinson


Study on leaching of a magnesium fluorosilicate product (SF salt) from wood-boards by rain in the open and by artificial shower
1976 - IRG/WP 264
The test was performed in 1961 to obtain information about (1) the comparative leaching effect of natural rain and of artificial shower in the laboratory; (2) the comparative leaching effect on the active ingredient in proportion to the dye-stuff of the product. The results show that a continuos light rainfall with low precipitation has a much stronger leaching effect than short heavy showers with...
S Cymorek


Comparative study of blue stain resistance of various types of wood stains after artificial and natural weathering
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2411
For the determination of the protective effectiveness of a preservative treatment against blue stain in service, artificial weathering has been proposed as an alternative for the natural weathering period of 6 months in the European standard EN 152. Research on a range of products and on complete finishing systems for external joinery was conducted during 1986-1990. It revealed that the decisions ...
J Van Acker, M Stevens, M Nys


Blue stain in timber in service. Progress review of Sub-group collaborative tests - 1981/82
1982 - IRG/WP 2178
Following from the discussions after reporting Document IRG/WP/2146 at the Meeting in Sarajevo, 1981, it was decided that 1.) more precise definition was needed of the artificial weathering schedules used in the work - participants to re-check Table 8 and send further details or amendments to Dr Bravery; 2.) a further test employing a wider range of chemicals was necessary using a smaller range of...
A F Bravery, D J Dickinson


Depletion and Redistribution of Boron in Bundles of Commercially Treated Lumber Exposed to Artificial and Natural Rainfall
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30474
The depletion and redistribution of boron from stacks of Southern Yellow Pine lumber pressure treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) and exposed to artificial and natural rainfall was examined. When the lumber was exposed to periodic simulated rainfall, 5.7-8.1% of the measured boron present leached from the lumber after exposure to over 300 mm of rainfall. In tests which exposed bo...
M E Mankowski, M J Manning


Effectos de la intemperización artificial sobre la madera de mezquite (Prosopis laevigata)
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40430
The effects of artificial weathering on Prosopis laevigata wood were studied on eight replicates (150 x 72 x 15mm (l x t x r)) free of knots, cracks and resin. The samples were exposed tangentially to UV light and to water spray during three cycles (1 cycle corresponded 1 week of artificial weathering). The conditioning time between each cycle was thirty days. The effects were measured according t...
A Carrillo-Parra, F Hapla, C Mai


Use of Confocal Profilometry to Quantify the Weathering of Wood
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20421
The methods that have been used to screen chemicals for their ability to prevent the weathering of wood involve assessing the loss in weight and tensile strength of treated wood veneers or measuring the rate of erosion of exposed and unexposed (masked) wood subjected to weathering. The erosion of wood during natural weathering occurs slowly and long exposure times are required to produce differenc...
Chunling Liu, P Evans


Investigation of chemical changes in acetylated beech wood during weathering
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40460
In this study Beech wood (Fagus orientalis) acetylated and has been subjected to a variety of artificial weathering conditions (water only, light only, water and light together)in difference times (0,50,150 and 300 h), then wood surface analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).Results shown that weathering process affected the functional groups on the wood surface. Light and w...
M Akhtari, M Arefkhani


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