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Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also ex...
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi


Effects of acetylation on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fiberboard
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40059
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the acetylation treated kenaf fiber, Phenol formaldehyde resin content level, and three fungi species on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of high density non wood composition boards. A standard ASTM method was used to evaluate weight loss and thickness change. The linear shrinkage and expansion of each species were also ...
P Chow, T Harp, R Meimban, J A Youngquist, R M Rowell


Durability of pine modified by 9 different methods
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40288
The decay resistance was studied for pine modified by nine methods of wood modification: 1) Acetylation, 2) Treatment with methylated melamine resin (MMF), 3) Acetylation followed by post-treatment with MMF-resin, 4) Thermal modification, 5) Furfurylation, 6) Maleoylation (using water solution of MG or ethanol solution of maleic anhydride), 7) Succinylation, 8) NMA-modification and 9) modification...
M Westin, A O Rapp, T Nilsson


Novel wood modification processes for window and cladding products
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40285
Because of the low natural durability and low dimensional stability of European wood species, the usage of wood for window frames has decreased dramatically during the last decade. In a joint project of several German research institutes and the window industry, following wood modification systems were compared. heat treatment (3 different materials from 2 companies) acetylation (pine sapwood an...
A Krause, C Hof, H Militz


Durable fibre for durable MDF – testing Tricoya®
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40704
The chemical modification of wood has been a commercial reality for a decade on release of technologies for the modification of solid wood including Accoya®. A challenge and an opportunity for the modification technologies which typically impart dimensional stability, water stability and enhanced biological durability was the adaptation of the technology to wood based panels. This paper presents ...
E Suttie, J Alexander, M Maes


The distribution of introduced acetyl groups and a linseed oil model substance in wood examined by microautoradiography and ESEM
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40169
Microautoradiography, a photographic method that shows the localization of substances labelled with radioactive isotope, and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) were combined to enhance sensitivity, resolution and reliability for examination of the distribution of introduced substances in wood. The preparation of microautoradiographs is less complicated when investigated with ESEM an...
M Rosenqvist


Acetylation of lignocellulosic materials
1989 - IRG/WP 3516
A simplified procedure for the acetylation of lignocellulosic materials has been developed. The acetylation is done with a limited amount of liquid acetic anhydride without the addition of a catalyst or an organic co-solvent. Dimensional stability and biological resistance are both much improved by the acetylation. Equilibrium moisture content in acetylated material is considerably lower than in u...
P Larsson, A-M Tillman


Worldwide in-ground stake test of acetylated composite boards
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40088
Acetylated wood composite stakes are being tested in ground contact (graveyard test) in seven fields around the world. Three types of acetylated wood composites were prepared: spruce fiberboard in Sweden, aspen fiberboard in Madison and rubber wood particle board in Indonesia. Two levels of acetylation were used, a high level of ~20% acetyl content and a low level of 10% acetyl content. Control bo...
R M Rowell, B S Dawson, Y S Hadi, D D Nicholas, T Nilsson, D V Plackett, R Simonson, M Westin


Improving the weather resistance of glue-laminated jarrah and karri
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40017
Surface modification and dimensional stabilisation significantly increased the dry and wet shear strength of karri and jarrah lap-shear specimens (laminates) bonded with resorcinol formaldehyde. The combination of surface modification (sanding/sodium hydroxide treatment), and furfurylation produced the highest dry and wet shear strengths. Acetylated laminates had the lowest dry bond strength, but ...
J Balfas, P D Evans


Acetylated solid wood. Laboratory durability test (part 2) and field trials
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40048
Degradation of acetylated beech, pine and poplar by soft rot fungi was related to strength loss in a laboratory test. No strength loss was noticed for poplar acetylated to a weight percent gain (WPG) of more than 11.2% and beech with a WPG of 12.8%. Several field trials were set up to determine the durability of acetylated products in practice. They included a field test to determine the durabilit...
E P J Beckers, H Militz, M Stevens


Improvements of stability and durability of beechwood (Fagus sylvatica) by means of treatment with acetic anhydride
1991 - IRG/WP 3645
In the present investigations, beechwood (Fagus sylvatica) was treated with non-catalysed acetic anhydrid at 120°C and some physical- and biological parameters of the treated wood were compared with those of non-treated wood. The radial and tangential shrinkage and swelling, respectively, and the absorption capacity of the acetylated wood against moisture is considerably lower. The durability aga...
H Militz


Soft rot decay in acetylated wood. Chemical and anatomical changes in decayed wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40231
Acetylated Beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood were studied in soil beds under laboratory conditions for longer periods. High mass losses and dynamic MOE losses were measured in non-acetylated wood and at lower weight percent gains (WPG). Rapid losses of lignin, holocellulose and ?-cellulose occurred in non-acetylated beech wood and no losses were detected at the highest...
B Mohebby, H Militz


Termite and fungal resistance of in situ polymerized tributyltin acrylate and acetylated Indonesian and USA wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30219
Wood [Indonesian pine (IP), Indonesian Jabon (IJ) and USA southern yellow pine (USP)] was either in situ polymerized with tributyltin acrylate (TBTA) or acetylated and then exposed to termite and fungal degradation both in laboratory tests and field exposure. The TBTA woods had an average weight percent gain (WPG) of 11% for IP, 12% for IJ, and 10% for USP. The acetylated woods had a WPG of 15-27%...
R E Ibach, Y S Hadi, D Nandika, S Yusuf, Y Indrayani


Resistance of acetylated wood to basidiomycetes, soft rot and blue stain
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40021
Poplar (Populus spp.), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris) samples were acetylated in a semi-industrial acetylation plant and tested for durability according to European standards. Resistance to Gloeophyllum trabeum, Coniophora puteana and Coriolus versicolor could be reached at a weight percent gain (WPG) of 12%. Susceptibility of acetylated pine to Poria placenta was high...
E P J Beckers, H Militz, M Stevens


Resistance of acetylated wood to biological degradation. Evaluation of field test
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30139
Acetylated wood samples were tested in ground contact (stake test) at two test fields, one in Simlångsdalen, Sweden, and one in Viikki, Finland, according to European standard EN 252. The test samples were inspected annually and their condition was compared with that of untreated controls and of samples treated with two reference CCA preservatives. The use of untreated controls and preservative t...
P Larsson Brelid, R Simonson, Ö Bergman


Chitosan for wood protection - state of the art
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30378
The aim of this paper was to give a state of the art description of chitosan as a wood protecting agent. Chitosan is a metal free natural compound derived from crustacean shells and is under evaluation as an environmentally benign wood protecting agent. Information from journals states that chitosan may act both fungistatically and at higher concentrations, as fungitoxic, but the mode of action is...
M Eikenes, G Alfredsen, E Larnøy, H Militz, B Kreber, C Chittenden


The susceptibility of acetylated Pinus radiata to mould and stain fungi
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1548
The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent acetylation weight gains on the susceptibility of Pinus radiata sapwood to mould and stain fungi, and to establish if an acrylic paint, an oil-based stain and a water repellant gave superior protection from fungal growth on wood treated to 20% acetylation weight gain, compared to untreated wood. One treatment set...
R N Wakeling, D V Plackett, D R Cronshaw


The kinetics of anhydride modification reactions of wood. Experimental results and theoretical modelling
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40125
Although the chemical modification of wood remains a fertile area for research, there has been little work performed on the kinetics of the modification process. The reaction kinetics of a series of linear chain and cyclic anhydrides has been studied and activation energies of the reaction determined. The reaction kinetic profiles are determined by the relative rates of reaction of the reagent wit...
C A S Hill, J G Hillier


Biological degradation resistance of wood acetylated with thioacetic acid
1983 - IRG/WP 3223
Chemically, modification of wood is being considered as an alternative to conventional preservation by toxic chemicals. Acetylated wood has been reported to be quite resistant to most biodegrading organisms at weight percent gains (WPG) around 15-19. The conventional acetylation techniques with acethic anhyrdride result in generation of acetic acid. However, acetylation with thioacetic acid overco...
S Kumar, S C Agarwal


Durability of some alternatives to preservative treated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30353
The environmental discussion in Sweden has lead to an increasing use of naturally durable domestic wood species and wood treated according to alternative methods for use above ground. A number of these alternatives have been tested according to field- and laboratory tests and compared to wood treated with preservatives for above ground use. Seven untreated wood species, four alternative wood treat...
M-L Edlund


Effect of fungal degradation on the chemical composition of acetylated beech wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40267
This study investigated the impact of fungal attack on the chemical composition of acetylated wood. Beech wood acetylated to different degrees was exposed to decay by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor under solid-state fermentation conditions. Laboratory soil-bed assays were also conducted to study the degradation of acetylated wood by soft rot fungi and other soil-inhabiting microorganisms...
H Militz, Dong-won Son, L Gómez-Hernández, R Sierra-Alvarez


Wood plastic composites from modified wood; Part 1 - Conceptual idea, mechanical and physical properties
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40338
Wood plastic composites, WPCs, are rapidly taking shares from preservative treated wood on the decking market. However, the long term performance of the WPC products in this application is uncertain. Therefore, in an attempt to increase the long term performance and durability, the substitution of the unmodified wood component with modified wood has been studied in the work presented in this paper...
P Larsson Brelid, B K Segerholm, M Westin, M E P Wålinder


Further discussion of biological durability assessments of acetylated wood from several European institutes
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40340
In the last decade, interest in the development of wood modification systems has increased in Europe. Alongside several industrial initiatives for heat treatments, there have also been scaling up and pilot plant projects for chemical wood modification. Between 2000-03, the European Commission funded the "Thematic Network on Wood Modification". This paper features a re-evaluation of work undertaken...
D Jones, W Homan, F Bongers


Influence of Acetylation on Fire Resistance of Beech Plywood
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40326
Influence of acetylation on fire resistance was studied in beech plywood. Beech layers were acetylated in a reactor with acetic anhydride at 120ºC for varying durations. Plywoods were made from the acetylated layers and directly exposed to burning flame from their edges for 60s according to ISO 11925-3. Ignition and glowing time were measured in samples. Results were analyzed statistically based ...
B Mohebby, A Talaii, A Karimi , S Kazemi Najafi


Wood plastic composites from modified wood. Part 2 - Durability in laboratory decay tests
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40353
The decay resistance of wood plastic composites, WPCs, was tested according to modified versions of AWPA E10 (soil-block test) and ENV 807 (tests in three un-sterile soils, terrestrial microcosms, TMCs). The WPC materials were conically extruded profiles with 30% polypropylene content. The 70% wood content was untreated Scots pine sapwood, acetylated pine and heat treated Norway spruce, respective...
M Westin, P Larsson Brelid, M L Edlund, G Alfredsen


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