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Performance of untreated wood and wood impregnated with copper-ethanolamine based preservative solutions in Northern Adriatic Sea
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30623
Sea water applications of wood are among the most challenging ones. Impregnated wood is exposed to leaching and to variety of marine borers, Limnoria sp. and Teredo sp. being the most important. In the present research, durability of pine wood impregnated with copper-amine based preservative solution (Silvanolin) of different concentrations, exposed to the sea water, was investigated according to the EN 275 standard. Performance of Silvanolin treated wood was compared to performance of naturally durable wood (Quercus sp., Castanea sativa, Larix decidua). After 10 months, 18 months and 32 months of exposure, the samples were isolated and assessed. From the presented results it can be clearly seen, that durable wood species were completely degraded after 10 months of exposure. On the other hand, it is evident that Silvanolin prolongs the service life of exposed wood in the sea. The specimens impregnated with the lowest concentration of the preservative solution (cCu = 0.31 %) were only slightly decayed. At specimens, impregnated with higher concentrations of copper (cCu > 0.31 %) almost no defects were observed as a results of exposure to marine borers.
M Humar, M Petrič, J Adamek, B Lesar


Protective effectiveness of antifouling coatings for wooden boats in the Northern Adriatic Sea
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40634
There are various conventional biocide containing antifouling coatings and some more environmentally friendly paints for boats on the market. However, the question of their performance in accordance with the manufacturers’ statements or guaranties arises. The aim of our preliminary investigation was to state which type of antifouling coating exhibits better effectiveness against fouling organisms in the Northern Adriatic Sea. In order to elucidate this question, the impregnated and coated specimens of Scots pine wood were exposed to the sea water in the Port of Koper, Slovenia. The specimens were treated with different types of antifouling coatings. The most effective ones were those of the soft and hard types. On the other hand, the tested nano-based antifouling finish did not exhibit any protective efficiency against fouling.
M Petrič, M Humar, J Adamek, B Kričej


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 2: Report of treatment and installation in Australia
1978 - IRG/WP 440
The purpose of this test and the procedures to be followed have been fully set out in documents distributed by the International Research Group on Wood Preservation and numbered IRG/WP/414 and IRG/WP/420. The prescriptions set out in these two documents have been closely followed.
J Beesley


Testing of wood preservatives against marine borers (Part 1). Method of testing wood preservatives against marine borers (Part 2)
1971 - IRG/WP 37
P C Trussell, C C Walden


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 13: Report of fourth inspection (36 months) in Australia
1981 - IRG/WP 481
This report presents the results of the fourth inspection of the IRG/COIPM International Marine Test specimens installed in Sydney Harbour in December, 1977. The inspection took place on 9th December, 1980, after 36 months exposure. Full details of the treatment and installation of the specimens, as well as results of the first three inspections (after 6, 12, and 24 months exposure), have been presented in earlier reports. All inspections of this test have been carried out in accordance with the Working Plan (see IRG/WP/414) except for an X-ray examination of the specimens. This facility is not available at the test station. In conformity with the provisions of the Working Plan, the fifth and sixth replicates of the whole test (i.e. those specimens with '5' or '6' as the final digit of their serial number) were recovered and returned to the United Kingdom after 6 months and 24 months of immersion. Thus, only four replicates remain to be examined at this and ensuing inspections.
J Beesley


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. 2nd Interim Report
1981 - IRG/WP 477
Three reference wood species - Alstonia scholaris, Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris, untreated and treated with 3%, 6% and 10% CCA and CCB solutions were supplied to all participants for submergence at local sites. Regular examination of samples is being carried out - 6 months, 12 months and then annually for 7 years.
R A Eaton


Cu, Cr and As distribution in soils adjacent to CCA treated utility poles in Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50214
In this study, the main objective was to asses the distribution of Cu, Cr, and As in soils adjacent to CCA treated utility poles in Eastern Blacksea Region of Turkey (Trabzon, Rize and Artvin ) and determine the influence of soil composition. Surface (0-5cm), subsurface soil samples (30-40cm) were collected near CCA-treated utility poles and control soil samples away from CCA-treated utility poles were also collected. Water holding capacity, pH, mechanical properties of soil samples were determined for both depth levels. Results showed that Cu, Cr and As concentration in soil samples taken from all three cities in 0-5cm depth was higher than soil samples taken from 30-40cm depth. Cu, Cr and As concentrations were much higher in soil samples taken from city of Rize.
E D Gezer, Ü C Yildiz, A Temiz, S Yildiz, E Dizman


Studies on the destruction by marine borers of fishing boats along the north-eastern Black Sea coasts of Turkey
1980 - IRG/WP 451
Marine wood-boring organisms are attacking fishing boats along the northeastern coasts of the Black Sea, Turkey. The damage and the intensity of attack of Teredo navalis L in fishing boats were studied.
O A Sekendiz, R Ilhan


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 10 from Naos Island, Panama
1980 - IRG/WP 462
Blocks of 3 wood species, Beech (Fagus sylvatica), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Alstonia (Alstonia scholaris) were exposed at site number 12 at Naos Island, Panama on March 8, 1978 by John R. DePalma. The arrangement of the panels in the exposure site is as shown in Figure 1.
D W French


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 8: Panama test results
1980 - IRG/WP 458
Summary of damage to ITRG test stakes by pholadidae and teredinidae at the Panama test site - 8 Mar. '78 to 11 Oct. '79
J R De Palma


Annotated check-list of the Limnoriidae
1990 - IRG/WP 4160
The crustacean isopod family Limnoriidae comprises 51 species of marine borers. A list of species is provided, together with notes on the species known distributions, depth ranges, and habitats. There is also a brief account of the phylogeny of the group.
L J Cookson


Test procedure to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of different preservatives in sea-wate
1975 - IRG/WP 414
R A Eaton


Leaching of copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA-treated Scots pine exposed in sea water
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50149
A laboratory leaching trial combining a static and a flowing seawater system was carried out to measure the leaching rates of copper, chromium and arsenic from the surface of Scots pine panels vacuum-pressure treated to 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 kgm-3 CCA. Untreated and treated panels were exposed in flowing seawater for up to 8 weeks followed by 2 weeks submersion in static seawater which was taken for analysis. The study revealed a leaching hierarchy of Cu>Cr>As which supports the findings of other investigators. Over the 8 week leaching trial there was a time-related decrease in the rate of copper and chromium loss. Over the first week of leaching in flowing seawater, the rates of loss of copper and chromium decreased to between one-half and one-seventh, followed by lower rates of leaching over the remaining period of the investigation. In contrast, the rate of loss of arsenic from the wood appeared to increase slightly over the same period. The data are compared with minimal leaching rates of toxins from the surface of anti-fouling paints and are discussed in terms of the fouling communities which are established on Scots pine panels treated to similar target retentions.
C J Brown, R A Eaton


Wood-destroying insects found in the Eastern Black Sea sub-region of Turkey
1982 - IRG/WP 1153
The Eastern Black Sea subregion has important forest resources. The settlement areas are scattered at the countryside. That's why a good deal of wood and timber is used in the construction of buildings without sufficient protective measures in the rural areas. In the forests and rural buildings 52 wood-destroying insect species have been specified 35 of which are new in this subregion and 14 are new in Turkey.
O A Sekendiz


Procedure for a collaborative study of leaching from CCA-treated timber in the sea
1988 - IRG/WP 4143
As a follow-up to the collaborative IRG/COIPM marine trial of CCA and CCB preservatives, a further trial is proposed with the objective of measuring the degree of leaching of CCA components from three timber species at marine sites in Malaysia and the U.K.. Details of the planned procedure are given.
S M Cragg, J E Barnacle, J D Bultman, R A Eaton, B R Johnson, L E Leightley, K D Singh


Report on marine borer attack on some timbers treated with CCA wood preservative and exposed for three months in sea-water
1985 - IRG/WP 4112
Destruction of timbers by marine borers has long been a problem for the coastal population of Thailand. The use of heavy durable timbers with frequent maintenance, or total replacement, is the only solution for fishermen with their fishing craft or marine installations, meanwhile wharves or other large scale constructions are usually made by using concrete pilings or concrete casings. In recognition of the economic importance of the problem, the Faculty of Forestry with co-operation of the Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, has set up a preliminary investigation on the marine borer hazards to some timber species, treated and untreated, in order to gather basic information on the performance of test samples and also on the types of attacking organism involved.
A Rananand, W Yoosukh, U Sittiphuprasert


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water: Final report
1987 - IRG/WP 4133
Three timbers chosen as reference species were treated with 3, 6 and 10% solutions of CCA and CCB preservatives and exposed for up to 93 months at 8 tropical and temperate marine sites. Eleven local species treated in the same way were exposed at 4 of the 8 sites. There was no apparent difference in performance between CCA and CCB treated specimens. The severest test site was Panama Canal but marine borer damage of specimens was recorded at all the test sites. Treated specimens of the reference species Alstonia scholaris and Pinus sylvestris were markedly superior in performance at all sites and Homalium foetidum was considered the best local species. Along with the reference species Fagus sylvatica, treated specimens of the remaining local species performed relatively poorly. All treated species were attacked by soft rot fungi, except treated Alstonia scholaris and Homalium foetidum which were superficially decayed by bacteria. The relative success of treated Alstonia scholaris in this trial is attributed to its permeability characteristics and acceptance of high preservative loadings, even preservative distribution and its high lignin content.
R A Eaton


Natural Resistance of timbers to marine borer attack. COIPM/IRG CO-OPERATION. Final report concerning panels exposed in the sea at Sekondi, Ghana
1979 - IRG/WP 449
The test was carried out according to Document COIPM/72.044, Revised procedure for the testing of naturally durable timbers against marine borers. The panels of the three species remaining in the test at the end of 1978 were removed and assessed visually. An average rating was given to the panels of each species.
F F K Ampong


Microbial biofouling of 10-40% naphthalene in creosote treated and untreated wooden pilings in the marine environment
1978 - IRG/WP 442
R R Colwell, P L Fish, D A Webb, A J Emery


Evaluation of polystyrene as a protective of wood in sea-water
1986 - IRG/WP 4129
A test is described on the biological protection of wood by treatment with polystyrene. The results, obtained in marine trials, after 18 months, show that the treatment with polystyrene is not all that effective in preventing the attack of marine borers.
A Gambetta


Examination of timbers from the Mary Rose in storage
1988 - IRG/WP 4149
Timbers from the Tudor ship, Mary Rose, have been examined for the presence of fungal fruiting structures. Wood specimens were also examined for the presence of microbial decay patterns using light and scanning electron microscopy. Structural timbers were surveyed using the Pilodyn for an overall picture of the extent of decay. Mary Rose timbers were predominantly inhabited by marine fungi. Fourteen species were found fruiting on the surface but fungal decay was localized. Bacterial erosion and tunnelling of the wood cell wall were observed, but were rare. The Pilodyn has shown that decay in timbers exists in isolated pockets. The storage site has proved to be efficient in minimizing further microbial decay, while maintaining the waterlogged state of timbers.
R Mouzouras


Marine borers and marine wood protection - Some answers and some outstanding questions - A comment
1990 - IRG/WP 4163
A brief description of the nature of hazards encountered in different parts of the marine environment is given. An attempt is then made to assess what were the essential findings of selected areas of research in the marine wood protection field and what still needs to be done. That is, if we are to more adequately understand what we are attempting to do in this field of study!
J E Barnacle


A preliminary report on lignicolous marine fungi in the Java Sea, Indonesia
1982 - IRG/WP 488
This report is part of a study on the natural durability of Indonesian timbers against marine borers conducted in Pari Island waters, Java Sea (Suhirman and Eaton, 1981), and contains preliminary information which has not yet been published.
Suhirman, R A Eaton


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. 3rd Interim Report
1983 - IRG/WP 4101
This paper updates the results of microbiological examination and marine borer assessment of untreated wood samples (15 x 2 x 2 cm³) and samples treated with 3, 6 and 10% CCA and CCB preservatives. Three reference species - Alstonia scholaris, Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris were used at all the test sites in addition to local species chosen by participants in the test.
R A Eaton


Natural durability of some common Indian timbers and marine plywood against biodeterioration in Kochi waters (India)
1992 - IRG/WP 92-4177
Panels of thirty-eight timber species and marine plywood were tested in Kochi harbour (South-west India) for periods ranging from 3 to 21 months, so as to evaluate their natural resistance against marine borers. Results indicate that all the timber species studied are non-durable, 6 of them having undergone more than 50% internal destruction within 3 months; 14 species in 6 months, 13 species and 9 months; 2 species in 15 months; and 1 species each within 12, 18 and 21 months. The marine plywood reached 50% damage within 12 months. Timber species which demonstrated comparatively high degree of durability were Hopea parviflora, Terminalia paniculata, Terminalia crenulata, Aglaia roxburghiana and Xylia xylocarpa. Destruction was caused minly by Martesia striata (Linnaeus) and Nausitora hedleyi Schepman, though few specimens of Sphaeroma terebrans Bate, Sphaeroma annandalei Stebbing and Martesia nairi Turner and Santhakumaran were also encountered. A discussion on the results in the light of reports of previous workers is also included.
L N Santhakumaran, M V Rao


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