Your search resulted in 70 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Rapid detection of the Alaska yellow cedar, Callitropsis nootkatensis (Cupressaceae) extractives using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20612
Global changes in wood harvesting towards plantation species grown on much shorter rotations has the potential to markedly alter wood quality perceptions. Nowhere is this more risky than with naturally durable species where there is compelling evidence that faster grown woods tend to be less durable. The ability to non-destructively assess durability may allow growers to identify materials that re...
S Lipeh, J J Morrell
Bioefficacy of Cunapsol® treated western cedar and southern yellow pine
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30120
Western red cedar and southern yellow pine sapwood were dip treated with a new formulation of waterborne copper naphthenate (Cunapsol®) which complies with VOC regulations. Cunapsol dip treated samples were oven dried at 50°C for 48 hours and then water leached for two weeks. Decay resistance and leachability of preservatives from dip treated specimens were evaluated according to AWPA (American ...
D P Kamdem, M H Freeman, T L Woods
Application of radio frequency heating to accelerate fixation of CCA in treated round-wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40133
The potential of radio frequency heating to accelerate the fixation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in treated round-wood was assessed. Pre-dried Douglas-fir and western red cedar round-wood sections were pressure treated with CCA in a pilot plant retort, after which they were placed individually in a pilot radio frequency (RF) chamber. Based upon the color reaction of chromotropic acid with he...
Fang Fang, J N R Ruddick
Chemical investigation of 23-year-old CDDC treated southern yellow pine
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30141
The effect of 23 years exterior exposure on CDDC treated southern yellow pine was evaluated by the application of solid state analytical instrumentation. Analytical methods including environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM),energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and atomic absorption spectr...
D P Kamdem, C R McIntyre
Use of Transverse Compression Properties as a Measurement of Wood Biodeterioration, Part 1 of 2 - Effect of White-Rot on Yellow-Poplar
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40239
The soil block and agar block test methods are used extensively as a screening process for potential and modified wood preservatives. The extent of decay in standard screening tests, indicative of preservative efficacy, is currently based on mass loss. Mass loss techniques, due to their limit of sensitivity in detecting significant mass loss vis-à-vis decay, require an extended fungus exposure ...
S Janzen, D D Nicholas
Oxalic acid production of fifteen brown-rot fungi in copper citrate- treated southern yellow pine
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10388
Non-arsenical copper-based wood preservatives have grown in number since the 1980's as a response to environmental concerns posed by arsenicals. Interest in copper tolerant decay fungi has increased accordingly. Oxalic acid (OA) production by brown-rot fungi has been proposed as one mechanism of copper tolerance. Fifteen brown-rot fungi representing the genera Postia, Wolfiporia, Serpula,...
F Green III, C A Clausen
CCA fixation experiments. Part 2
1989 - IRG/WP 3505
CCA fixation in wood was measured by both squeezing solution from treated wood that had not been dried and analyzing the solution for copper, chromium and arsenic, as well as using a chromotropic acid test to detect the presence of chromium VI. Both methods provide useful information on the CCA fixation process and illustrate that chromium VI disappears as CCA becomes fixed within wood....
W S McNamara
A method for determining boron diffusion coefficients in wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30200
The radial unsteady-state diffusion coefficient for boron in southern yellow pine (Pinus spp.) was determined from measured concentration profiles using Egner's solution, a modified form of Fick's second law. The method uses a slicing technique to accurately determine concentration gradients with time in a single direction. The methodology should be applicable to any diffusible s...
J-B Ra, H M Barnes
Wood extractive concentration and sem examination of pretreated southern yellow pine wood chips with blue-stain fungi for mushroom production
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10407
Mushroom-producing white-rotting basidiomycetes either do not colonize or else colonize very poorly on freshly prepared southern yellow pine wood chips. This study evaluates the resinous extractive content of southern yellow pine before and after treatment with colorless mutant blue-stain fungi. The blue-stain fungi penetrate into the sapwood of southern yellow pine and utilize nonstructural resin...
S C Croan, J Haight
The effect of steam conditioning on Southern yellow pine treated with copper naphthenate
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40086
The current study was undertaken to investigate the influence of steam conditioning on Southern yellow pine treated with copper naphthenate (Cu-N). Pre-steamed and /or kiln-dried Southern yellow pine were pressure treated with Cu-N. After treatment, one group of samples were post-steamed. It was found that samples changed color from green to dark-brown after post-steaming. To elucidate the effect ...
Jun Zhang, D P Kamdem, M H Freeman, R D Arsenault
Susceptibility of softwood bait stakes to attack by subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20037
Sapwood stakes of Australian-grown Araucaria cunninghamii (hoop pine), Pinus elliotii (slash pine), Pinus radiata (radiata pine) and North American-grown Pinus sp. (southern yellow pine) were exposed to subterranean termite attack in an in-ground bioassay. Stakes in bait containers and bare stakes were attacked by Coptotermes acinaciformis and Schedorhinotermes intermedius. Basic susceptibility of...
B C Peters, R T Murray, C J Fitzgerald
Estimation of effective diffusion path lengths in wood by swelling studies
1989 - IRG/WP 3524
The effective average distance that a solute must diffuse to penetrate the cell wall matrix following pressure treatment is estimated from the rate of swelling of wood, vacuum treated with water. It is assumed that the diffusion paths are similar for water and a solute such as a wood preservative component. Since bound water diffusion coefficients for water in wood have been estimated by others, t...
P A Cooper, R Churma
Flow charts for termite and decay tests to determine the natural durability of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don)
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20385
This paper deals with the experimental flow charts that were used for determination the effects of fungal decay and termite attack on Sugi heartwood during the course of the study of “Comparative studies of natural durability of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) among the geographic cultivate”, which was carried out by Usta et al (2006)....
I Usta, S Doi
Evaluation of Barrier Wrap Systems after 71 Months of Exposure
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40631
A 71 month study of the performance of booted samples in ground contact was conducted in AWPA hazard zone 4. Data indicated that excellent performance of wrapped systems, even over untreated wood, could be obtained. Instances of decay colonization or termite attack could all be attributed to some breaking of the integrity of the barrier system. Good performance for treatment below ground contact...
H M Barnes, M G Sanders, G B Lindsey, C McIntyre
Biological control of sapstain fungi in wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10158
Sapstain fungi can cause serious damage to wood and wood products, resulting in a significant economic loss for the wood products industry. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether the sapstain in wood caused by sapstain fungi could be biologically controlled. Biological control of sapstain fungi in wood was demonstrated in field trials with nonpigmented isolates of Cerato...
S C Croan
Corrosion of zinc-coated nails used with preservative-treated western red cedar shakes in service
1982 - IRG/WP 3197
The corrosion of metal fasteners used with certain wood species and with preservative-treated woods can be a serious problem. The chemical reactivity of western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn) extractives to iron and copper is well documented and wood preservative treatments containing copper, chromium, and/or ammonium hydroxide can be expected to similarly attack some metals. This problem is compo...
R S Smith, E L Johnson, A J Cserjesi
Fungal Stain Development in Canadian Hardwood Logs
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10505
In most sawmills around the world, trees are harvested into logs and stored in the forest or in a log yard for a period of time before being sawn into lumber. These logs may be attacked by various pigmented fungi, which results in staining of the wood. Since hardwood species are used to a great extent in furniture manufacturing and in the making of other valuable wood products, the reduction of wo...
Dian-Qing Yang, M-C Bisson
The influence of copper (II) chemicals on the weathering of treated wood. Part 1: ACQ treatment of wood on its weathering
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30040
Wood weathering can be accelerated by alkylammonium compound (AAC) treatment, and slowed by ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ) treatment. This study aims at investigating the influence of ACQ treatment of wood, especially the present of copper (II), on its weathering. ACQ, CCA and DDAC treated microtomed sections of southern yellow pine earlywood were prepared and naturally weathered for five periods, t...
Ruiying Liu, J N R Ruddick, L Jin
The effect of water-repellent additives on the leaching of CCA from simulated southern Yellow pine decks
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50158
End-matched SYP boards were pressure-treated with CCA or CCA in combination with commercial water repellent additives. After fixation and drying, the boards were placed in plastic boxes and exposed outside in Harrisburg, NC. Plastic supports were used to keep the boards above the water collected. Over a period of five months, rain run-off water from 14 natural rainfalls were collected and analyzed...
F Cui, P J Walcheski
Termite-tunnels formation on the surface of termite-resistant wood species in field sites
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10400
In this report, termite-tunnels formation by the subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki on the surface of termite-resistant wood species, namely, Hinoki (Chamaecyparis abtsu), Yoshino Hinoki (Chamaecyparis abtsu), Miyazaki Hinoki (Chamaecyparis abtsu), Hiba (Chamaecyparis abtsu) and Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) was conducted in field sites. Westernhemlock (Tsuga heterophylla...
Y Kadekaru, K Kinjo, S Yaga
Observations on the performance of copper-based wood preservatives in fungal cellar (soil-bed) tests
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20047
Fungal cellar (soil-bed) tests are considered to be an important tool for the evaluation of the performance of ground contact wood preservatives. Facilities of this type have been established world wide although caution has been exercised in their introduction into standard testing methods for the approval of wood preservatives. This is the result of concerns over the variability in the biological...
G R Williams, D Rudolph, M E Hedley, J A Drysdale, R F Fox
Early detection of brown-rot decay in southern yellow pine using immunodiagnostic procedures
1990 - IRG/WP 2356
Immunodiagnostic procedures have been used to detect incipient decay of southern yellow pine by six common brown-rot fungi. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised to liquid culture fractions of the six fungi. The antibodies, after preadsorption to sawdust, were tested in particle agglutination assays, immuno-dot blot, and ELISA for their·ability to detect the decay organisms when they were grow...
C A Clausen, F Green III, T L Highley
Kinetics and mechanism of fixation of Cu-Cr-As wood preservatives. Part 5: Effect of wood species and preservative composition on the leaching during storage
1975 - IRG/WP 354
Conversion reactions during storage of CCA treated wood take place even at and below the fiber saturation point as long as ion transport is possible. Increase in drying temperature increases the final pH of the treated wood and the leachability of Cu and decreases slightly the leachability of Cr, while the leachability of As is not affected. This temperature effect is considered to be of no techni...
Cellular and fractural failure after supercritical fluid impregnation of four wood species
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10503
Supercritical fluids (SCFs) have been investigated for delivering biocides into sawn wood. Pressure differentials during treatment may exceed the compressive or tensile strength perpendicular to grain, creating a potential for transverse deformations that exceed elastic strain limits. Wood treated by SCF processing with CO2, a potential biocide carrier, was inspected macroscopically and microscopi...
M E Anderson, R J Leichti, J J Morrell
Black Stain of Western red-cedar by Aureobasidium pullulans and its Relationship with Tropolone Depletion
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10564
Western red-cedar is valued for its natural durability conferred by fungicidal tropolone chemicals. However, weathered surfaces of WRC products are still susceptible to ‘black stain’ caused by fungi such as Aureobasidium pullulans. The effect of weathering on the tropolone content of heartwood was characterized and correlated with the ability of this fungal species to colonize the same weather...
R Chedgy, R Daniels, P I Morris, C Breuil