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Fire resistance of Alder wood treated with some chemicals. Part II. Effect of Other Chemicals on the Combustion Properties
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40235
Samples from alder wood (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. subsp. barbata (C.A.Mey) Yalt.) were impregnated according to ASTM D 1413-88 with boron compounds (boric acid, borax, sodium perborate), vinyl monomers (styrene, methyl methacrylate), Tanalith-CBC, Phosphoric acid, Vacsol, Immersol, Polyethylene glycole (PEG-400) and their mixed solutions of chemicals in order to determine their combustion properties. The results indicated that inorganic boron compounds with aqueous solutions were very effective as fire retardant and reduced burning of some vinyl monomers at some extent such as styrene and methylmetacrylate when used as a secondary treatment chemical polimerized later on wood structure and phosphoric acid was also showed fire-reterdancy. Further studies are suggested on boron-vinyl monomers, and boric acid+borax with different concentrations by physical and chemical interactions in terms of fire reterdancy.
A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz

Combustion properties of Alder wood treated with some new environment friendly natural extractives. Part 1. Effect of Natural Tannins on the Combustion Properties
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40234
Powders of the brutia pine bark, sumach leaves, acorn, gall-nut and boric acid and borax which are known as potential environment friendly wood preservatives were impregnated according to ASTM D 1413-88 in order to determine their combustion properties. A commercial treatment compound, Tanalith-CBC, was also used for comparison. The results indicated that the natural extractives did not have any effect on combustion properties of alder wood and showed the same fire properties with control sample. However, when wood samples were treated with first natural extractives then boron compounds solution sequentially, the combustion properties were reduced.
Ü C Yildiz, A Temiz, E D Gezer, S Yildiz

The Efficacy of Wood Preservative Treatments in Laboratory Soil-Bed Test
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20289
The efficacy of wood preservatives were determined in laboratory soil-bed test. Pine and alder wood samples (10 x 10 x 10 mm) were treated with CCA (1, 2%), ACQ-1900 (2, 3%), ACQ-2200 (1, 2%), Tanalith E 3491 (2, 2,8%), Wolmanit CX-8 (1, 2%). The leached and unleached samples were exposed 76 days at Simlångsdalen soil and determined mass loss. The results of this study showed that mass losses of samples treated with preservatives were very low and ranged from 0,5 to 5%. However, mass losses of control samples for alder and pine were 17% and 26%, respectively.
A Temiz, T Nilsson, Ü C Yildiz, E D Gezer, S Yildiz

The effects of chemical modification on the physical properties of alder and spruce particleboards
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40300
In this paper, it was aimed to improve some physical properties of chemically modified particleboard, made from spruce and alder species, spreading widely at Black sea region in Turkey. Spruce and alder chips were reacted with acetic, succinic, maleic and phthalic anhydrides at constantly heat for 3 hours then, hot pressed at 150 °C by using Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin. Target board density was 650 kg/m3. Density, moisture content, thickness swelling and water absorption rate were determined on the chemically modified boards, reacted with four different anhydrides. Results were compared with control boards. Chemical modification of boards reacted with anhydrides resulted in improved thickness swelling and water absorption values. The best results were determined boards reacted with acetic and succinic anhydride treatments than the others.
E Dizman, Ü C Yildiz, H Kalaycioglu, S Yildiz, A Temiz, E D Gezer

Physical and mechanical properties of wood-polymer composites prepared from alder wood (Alnus glutinosa (l.) gaertn. subsp. barbata (c.a.mey.) yalt)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40201
In this study, the physical mechanical properties of wood-polymer composites prepared from alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. subsp. barbata (C.A.Mey.) Yalt) wood were investigated. Three different monomers styrene, methyl methacrylate and styrene/methyl methacrylate (70/30) mixtures and two loading levels were used in preparation of wood-polymer composites. Of physical properties, the oven-dry specific gravity, the ratio of water uptake, the water repellent effectiveness and from mechanical properties; the compression strength parallel to the grain were determined. Full loading applications gave the best results for all monomer. The oven dry specific gravity, the water repellent effectiveness and, the compression strength parallel to the grain were found between 0.710-0.950 gr/cm3, 39.45-85.78% and 338.78-645.13 kp/cm2 respectively.
A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz, E D Gezer

Fire retardant treated wood and plywood: A comparative study Part III. Combustion properties of treated wood and plywood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40236
The fire retardant treated and untreated plywood and alder wood samples were prepared with the aim to investigate the effects of the way of treatment on the combustion properties. Alder wood was used for the preparation of plywood. Boric acid and borax were used as fire retardant. The plywood samples were impregnated by using three different methods; first group samples were impregnated by soaking of individual veneer before manufacturing plywood. The second group samples were impregnated by adding boron compounds into the glue mixture and third plywood group samples were vacuum impregnated according to ASTM D 1413-88. In addition, the solid alder wood samples were impregnated with same fire retardant solutions for control purpose according to ASTM D 1413-88. The results showed that the most effective way of the treatment was the impregnation of plywood panels treated with boric acid and significantly reduced burning of plywood and solid wood samples.
S Çolak, A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz, G Çolakoglu

Leaching Characteristics of Alder Wood Treated with Copper Based Wood Preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50225
In this study, it was designed for determining leaching characteristics of CCA and alternatives wood preservatives. Alder wood blocks were treated with CCA (1 % and 2 %), ACQ-1900 (2 % and 3 %), ACQ-2200 (1 % and 2 %), Tanalith E 3491 (2 % and 2.8 %), Wolmanit CX-8 (% 1 and 2 %). Leaching studies were conducted according to AWPA E11-97. Copper analyses of leachate were determined Atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results shows that alternative copper based wood preservatives were released higher copper amounts than CCA treated samples.
A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz, E D Gezer, S Yildiz, E Dizman

The Use of Modulus of Elasticity and Modulus of Rupture to Assess Wood Decay in Laboratory Soil-Bed Test
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20338
The efficacy of wood preservatives were determined in a soil-bed test. Samples of alder wood sapwood (Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata) (5x10x100 mm) were treated with Solutions of CCA (1 % and 2 %), ACQ-1900 (2 % and 3 %), ACQ-2200 (1 % and 2 %), Tanalith E 3491 (2 % and 2.8 %), Wolmanit CX-8 (% 1 and 2 %). Modulus of Elasticity, modulus of rupture, mass loss and decay rate according to AWPA E7 were determined for specimens exposed in soil bed. Results from this study showed that modulus of elasticity can be used to prediction of early stage of wood decay since it is non destructive method.
A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz

The effect of woody and non woody plants extractives on microbial resistance of non-durable species
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30392
The effect of Elm (Zelkova carpinifolia), Oak (Quercus castanifolia), Mulberry (Morus alba), Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) as woody plants, Rose (Rosa damascene) and Fumitory (Fumaria sp) as non woody plants extractives on durability of Beech (Fagus orientalis), Maple (Acer insgin), Alder (Alnus subcordata), and Lime (Tilia sp) were studied. First wood species having extractives were cut to small pieces and then were chipped and milled, by using Tappi (T20403-76) standard. Acetone and Methanol solvents were used to extract soluble materials from wood durable species, and their extractives percentage were measured. Also wood specimens of perishable species such as beech measuring 0.5 x 1 x 5 cm were prepared. The fungus (Trametes versicolor) was selected and taken from the forest (Darabkola in Mazandaran state). Solvated extractives were injected into non-durable wood species by negative atmospheric pressure and then treated wood specimens oven dried at 50 o C. Then all treated and untreated wood blocks again oven dried, cooled, sterilized, and exposed to the fungus. Milled wood (with and without extractives) as control specimens were poured into Pyrex tube glasses, oven dried, cooled, weighed, sterilized and also exposed to the fungal attacks. At the end of experiment (after 6 weeks) mycelium were removed from surfaces of exposed wood samples and wood blocks oven dried, cooled, and weighed. Results showed that weight losses of all treated wood species except Lime significantly decreased. Other results indicated that Alder and Lime absorbed solvent more than Beech and Maple. However, solvated extractive of Mulberry significantly was inserted less than other wood extractives.
S M Kazemi, A Hosinzadeh, M B Rezaii

The effects of chemical modification on the biological properties of alder and spruce particleboards
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40363
This study is evaluated by measuring the weight loss, and the ability of white and brown-rot fungi to attack unmodified and modified particleboards manufactured using spruce (Picea orientalis (L.) Link.) and alder (Alnus glutinosa) chips. The chips were reacted with acetic, succinic, maleic and phthalic anhydride at constant temperature for 3 hours then, hot pressed at 150 °C by using phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin. Particleboard specimens were subjected to fungal decay resistance tests performed according to EN 113 standard method using the brown-rot fungus, Coniophora puteana and white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Chemical modified boards demonstrated increased durability against decay fungi. Especially acetic and succinic anhydride treatment reduced the weight losses more significantly than others.
Ü C Yildiz, E Dizman, S Yildiz, A Temiz, M Aslan, E D Gezer

The Effects of Natural Weathering on the Properties of Heat Treated Alder Wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40484
Heat treatment is an effective method to improve the dimensional stability and biological durability of wood. The heat treatment technology and the heat treated wood products were recently introduced to Turkey. However, only a few studies have been reported on the effect of natural weathering on the properties of heat treated wood in both Turkey and the world. In this study, heat treated alder (Alnus glutinosa L.) wood stakes were subjected to a field trial in a test site of northern region of Turkey, which exhibits favorable conditions for degradation of wood. The alder wood specimens were heat treated at temperatures of 150, 180 and 200°C for periods of 2, 6 and 10 hours. The heated samples were exposed to the field soil for 3 years. At the end of the three years the mass loss was calculated. The color stability of the samples of untreated, only heat-treated and heat-treated and weathered samples, was determined according to the CIE L*a*b* system. The bending strength (modulus of rupture: MOR) of the test and control samples were also determined according to the ASTM D 143 standard method. Each sample was visually inspected for decay index according to EN 252 during weathering. Results indicated that the mass loss values were extended with increasing treatment temperature and duration. After heat treatment it was observed that MOR values were reduced by up to 50% compared with normal untreated wood. At the end of the 3 years, MOR values of the field test samples were clearly lower than the only heated ones. Color changes (∆E) values of the samples have varied between 4 and 35 after heat treatment. Heat treatment increased the wood color stability. However, ∆E values of the field test samples were clearly much lesser for the only heated samples having varied between 6 and 19. Index of decay (ID) of heat treated wood samples was fairly lower than that of the controls, especially at temperatures of 180 and 200°C. The lowest ID value (30%) was obtained in the samples treated at 200°C for 10 hours.
S Yildiz, Ü C Yildiz, E D Tomak

Formation of hydrophobic wood surface by means of thermal treatment and surface modification with alkyl ketene dimer (AKD)
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40738
One of the major shortcomings of wood-based materials compared to technical materials is attributed to their poor dimensional stability in changing climates and in contact with liquid water. Heat treatment induces chemical change with a consequent decreasing of reactivity of the material showing unwanted surface inactivation. Alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) is a widely used sizing agent in papermaking, which serves to reduce the uptake of water into paper and thus ensures e.g. printability. AKD molecules can directly react with hydroxyl group of cellulose forming β-ketoester linkages by esterification. In the present study, AKD has been studied as a potential hydrophobic reagent for thermo-treated and untreated wood. To understand how thermo treatment and AKD influences the wood surface of two native species, (Alnus cordata Loisel and Cedrus deodara Roxb.), the samples were treated in Termovuoto® plant technology at 200 °C for 3 hours and then surface were sprayed with AKD, at 5% of solution. 0.5g/m2 and 1 g/m2 quantity of AKD for each treatment were used. The contact angle measurements and ATR-FTIR analysis on Alder and Cedar of treated and untreated wood were investigated. The main results indicated that the contact angle of aqueous solution against wood was changed during time. Treated alder showed an increase of wettability compared to untreated wood. No effect on cedar wood was depicted. When AKD was used the effect of heat treatment on wettability was negligible. A different chemical behaviour was observed on Cedar wood compared to Alder on both heating and AKD treatment effect.
T Lovaglio, T Meints, L Todaro, W Gindl-Altmutter

The effect of acetylation on physical properties of beech (Fagus orientalis) and Alder (Alnus subcordata) wood
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40759
In this study the effect of acetylation on physical properties such as water absorption, volumetric swelling and anti-shrink efficiency (ASE) of beech and alder were investigated. After 24 hours soaking in acetic anhydride, in order to achieving two surface of weight gains, acetylated samples were heated in oven at 120 0C for 90 and 360 minutes. Then water absorption and dimensional stability in terms of volumetric swelling percent and anti-shrinkage efficiency was determined. Physical properties of samples improved by increasing degree of acetylation with considerable decreasing in Water absorption during 24 h soaking in water, that for beech and alder were about 39.2% and 36.6% less than control at highest modification level, respectively. Volumetric swelling of beech and alder treated specimens at 90 and 360 minutes modification was about 55.8, 62.5, 64.2 and 72% less than control, respectively of time. ASE of samples treated in 360 minute has greatly increased.
M Akhtari, M Arefkhani

Monitoring Diversity and Colonization Patterns of Wood-Inhabiting Fungi Using Field Stake Tests
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20614
Advances in molecular identification of microbial communities enabling rapid microorganism determination have allowed ecological data to be increasingly incorporated into standardized wood performance tests. Combining standard field tests with molecular methods to study wood-associated microflora can help to better understand fungal colonization and decay processes of wood in service. The potential for using DNA-based identification techniques to examine changes in diversity and community composition of wood-inhabiting fungi was assessed in ground-contact field stake tests at the Starker Post Farm research site located near Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Field stakes of red alder (Alnus rubra), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) sapwood and western red cedar heartwood (Thuja plicata) were installed and a subsample collected every 3-months (long-term exposure; LTE) or installed and replaced every 6-months (short-term exposure; STE) over a two-year period. Isolated, pure-culture fungi were sequenced and identified by comparison to the GenBank database using BLAST. A total of 384 fungal isolates were recovered and identified from 54 stakes. Eleven basidiomycete isolates were identified, with Peniophora limitata and Phanerochaete livescens occurring most frequently. The most common ascomycetes were Phialophora mustea and Cadophora sp. Species richness differed between the LTE and STE tests, while fungal diversity in both exposure tests remained constant. In contrast, diversity decreased with longer exposures. Short term variations in temperature and precipitation were the most significant environmental gradients influencing fungal community composition of stakes in ground contact. The results will be used to better understand fungal ecology and microbial colonization processes.
P Torres-Andrade, J Cappellazzi, J J Morrell