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Reticulitermes (Ins., Isopt.) in Central and Western Europe
1969 - IRG/WP I 5A
Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) has established itself in Hamburg and Hallein coming from the east of North America. In France, on the northern boundary of termit occurrence, Reticulitermes santonensis are distinguished from Reticulitermes lucifugus by special activity and resistance. According to comparative investigations with colonies of several Reticulitermes species of different origins regarding the influence of temperature and soil moisture on the feeding activity and the viability of termite groups, Reticulitermes flavipes from Hamburg and one originating from Wisconsin (USA) show racial differences from the Hallein species originating from South Carolina. The first shows a daily rhythm of activity and are strong gallery builders, while the two latter lack these properties. Certain morphological differences may be correlative to the two bio-ecological races of Reticulitermes flavipes. Reticulitermes santonensis shows biologically and ecologically far greater similarity with Reticulitermes flavipes from Hamburg and Wisconsin than with Reticulitermes lucifugus. The samples from La Rochelle have symbiotic flagellate species which were otherwise only found either with Reticulitermes lucifugus or with the American Reticulitermes species. Morphologically the species occupies an intermediate position. Reticulitermes santonensis is likely to be a hybrid of Reticulitermes flavipes and Reticulitermes lucifugus, with the properties of a vigorous hybrid. So far it has been impossible to explain why up to now only Reticulitermes flavipes was able to establish itself sporadically in Central and West Europe.
G Becker


Diffusion treatment plants (Latin America - Africa)
1974 - IRG/WP 333
B N Prasad


Review of Mold Issues in North America and Mold Research at Forintek
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10458
Over the last decade, air quality in homes and workplaces has become a high profile issue especially in relation to mold, receiving considerable media, public and legal attention. Forintek Canada Corp. and the wood industry in general have experienced large increases in inquiries regarding mold and the suitability of wood as substrate for its growth. Because wet wood supports growth of fungi the public perceive wood used in building envelope as a major source of mold and this can affect wood’s image in markets and could be exploited by competitor industries. Forintek reviewed the existing and relevant information about mold, substrates that support its growth and the health issues associated with mold and water damaged buildings. Several projects and collaborative efforts with other groups have been initiated to deal with recognized knowledge gaps. This paper covers the history of mold hysteria, recent statements by authorities on mold and health and summarizes some of Forintek’s recent work. This includes: survey of mold and staining fungi on KD lumber; database of literature on mold, building materials and health; limiting conditions for mold growth, hidden mold and its movement into living spaces and a lab test method for mold resistance of wood products.
A Uzunovic, A Byrne, Dian-Qing Yang, P I Morris


The geographical distribution of the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L) Serville (Col., Cerambycidae). An attempt at a cartographical compilation of existing data
1978 - IRG/WP 176
The larvae of the house longhorn beetle belong to the most economically important pests of softwood in service in most European countries and also in some areas overseas. I have reported earlier regarding the history, the question of where the pest originally came from, and concerning attacks in earlier and recent times (1968, 1970, 1974, 1976). In this report an attempt has been made to compile cartographically the currently existing data.
H Becker


Chapter 2 - Introduction to world bamboo
2007 - IRG 07-10635-02
In this chapter the bamboo species of the whole world along with local name, bamboo type, flowering type, locality and uses have been presented in 20 different Tables.
A K Lahiry


The field performance of CCA-C treated sawn refractory softwoods from North America
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40085
Approximately 15% of the total volume of wood treated in the United States consists of difficult to treat softwoods known as "refractory softwoods". The long term positive performance record of CCA treated sawn material is based upon the testing of yellow pine sapwood stakes with only limited field data available for sawn refractory softwoods. As a result, the existing North American wood preservation standards for sawn refractory softwoods appear not to be based upon field performance data, but are believed to be based upon the depth of incisions which were achievable by conventional incisors. In the mid 1980's, new incising technology emerged which produced uniform envelopes of CCA penetration and a greatly improved surface appearance. In 1986, this new technology was evaluated in a study to determine the treatability and field performance of CCA-C treated sawn refractory softwoods. The treatability results showed that in general, none of the species evaluated met the existing North American wood preservation standards. However, the field test results for these non-conforming refractory softwoods have shown excellent performance during eight years of above ground and ground contact exposure at two sites in North America. These test results, which are the subject of this paper, indicate that a modification of existing wood preservation standards for refractory softwoods is feasible.
M J Richards, W S McNamara


Oxine copper (NYTEK® GD) for the control of mould and sapstain on lumber in North America
1989 - IRG/WP 3517
NYTEK® GD is a new, water-based, micro-dispersible formulation of oxine copper registered in the United States and Canada for control of mold and sapstain-causing fungi. NYTEK GD is noncorrosive and of low hazard to applicators and people handling treated lumber, when used according to the label. The product is an effective wood protectant applied as a dip or spray treatment at concentrations of 0.32-0.63% ai (by wt.) on major species of lumber including hem-fir and southern pine. The duration of activity is 4-6 months on artificially inoculated wood incubated in environments that encourage fungal development. Shorter duration control may be observed on Douglas fir. Efficacy is improved by a tank mixture with 2% borate. The unique combination of safety, noncorrosiveness, and efficacy make NYTEK GD a sound alternative to penta-and tetrachlorophenates for wood protection.
D F Myers, J M Fyler, C H Palmer, G D Rosebery


Recent development in North American industrial wood preservation plants
1988 - IRG/WP 3467
After remaining static for many years there have been a number of changes in plant design and treating cycles in recent years. This has been particularly true in the USA where few restrictions are placed on plant treating cycles by specifications; since only results type specifications are used. It is also important to realize that the AWPA Specifications for Southern Yellow Pine only call for treatment of the sapwood since the heartwood has a high natural resistance to termites and decay. This is evidenced by old plantation houses on Southern and West Indian sugar Plantation houses that have stood for several hundred years. This paper attempts to set out these changes and the reasons for them. Industry often appears to have jumped ahead of research or the results of research have not filtered down to the industry and these knowledge gaps are mentioned in the appropriate sections. These sections try to separate the many inter-related factors into simple headings covering plant components and other factors influencing treatment. Some of the criteria presented in this paper have only been recently recognized as of importance so that results from past research is often found to be inconclusive when studied under the light of present day knowledge (e.g. rate of pressure rise was not noted).
J F Bridges


Exposure of CCA and ACZA treated parallel strand lumber to marine borer attack in northeastern and southeastern waters of the United States of America
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30400
Southern pine and Douglas fir Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL) panels were treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) or ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA), respectively and exposed in a marine environment in Massachusetts (northeastern USA coast) for 7 years. Similarly treated panels were also exposed to a site on the Atlantic coast Florida (southeastern USA) for the same period. In the northern site, untreated PSL was also tested and performed well in comparison to untreated solid pine wood and displayed no delamination. Treatment with 16 kg/m3 (1 lb./ft3) or greater of either wood preservative provided adequate protection of the panels. ACZA treated samples displayed significant mass losses over the 7-year exposure period even though no marine borer attack of the higher retention samples occurred. Internal and external evaluation of the samples after 7 years indicated that external evaluation accurately estimated the conditions inside the samples when limited degradation was present. However, as degradation progressed, the data suggest that internal degradation may be more extensive than indicated by the external ratings, at least when shipworm damage was most prevalent. In the Florida site, extensive degradation of control panels and panels treated to lower preservative retention was observed, but PSL panels treated to higher retentions performed well. Overall, the PSL panels when treated with appropriate levels of preservative performed very well in the marine environment.
B Goodell, P Merrick, J Jellison, Y Qian


A New Decay Hazard Map for North America Using the Scheffer Index
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10672
Wood decay experts in the USA and Canada use the Scheffer Index for above-ground wood decay potential to decide among design and treatment options to ensure the durability of wood construction. This paper provides an updated North American decay hazard map and includes data on Central America. Index values calculated from recent climate data are higher than published values due to directional or cyclical climate change. Compared to previously published maps there is considerable expansion of the moderate decay hazard zone in the interior wet belt of British Columbia, across the northern edge of the Prairies and around the Gulf of St. Lawrence. This suggests a greater need for preservative treatment in these parts of Canada.
P I Morris, J Wang


The importance of proper taxonomic identification, a case study with Reticulitermes spp. from USA
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10774
Taxonomy has been evolving with recent advancement in molecular and internet technologies. The importance of a stable taxonomic foundation is unquestionable as this science provides crucial information about evolutionary relationships and allows questions about the life history and ecology of organisms to be asked. We hope to highlight the issues and lessons we have learned from revising the taxonomy of the native subterranean termite from the southeastern region of the United States in this paper.
Su Yee Lim, B T Forschler


Termite species associated with processed wood in South America
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10934
Termites as an eusocial insect group play an important role in the decomposition of organic matter of cellulose origin and in the modification and quality of soils. Some species are xylophagous, and therefore are considered an important urban pest due to their ability to attack not only wooden building structures but also synthetic materials such as PVC, polyethylene or polyurethane, causing great economic losses. According to the available information the termite species with the greatest economic importance for South American countries are the exotic Cryptotermes brevis, Cryptotermes dudleyi, Cryptotermes havilandi, Coptotermes gestroi, Reticulitermes flavipes and the native Nasutitermes corniger. It is worth mentioning that termites are more diverse in tropical regions than in temperate ones. However, the economic losses caused by termite attacks are poorly documented in South America, with only Argentina, Brazil and Chile presenting competent knowledge on their biodiversity and importance in urban environments. Consequently, the diversity of both drywood and subterranean termites is probably underestimated. The termite pest management in South America faces various difficulties that stem from the scarse information published on the issue, and the occasional misidentification of the species. The management strategies used for termites pest control in South American countries are based on studies of the northern hemisphere countries, with products and programs developed for different species of termites and environmental conditions. For that reason, an extensive study on termite species and their management is needed.
C Jorge, M Ibáñez


Above-Ground Termite Resistance of Naturally Durable Species in Ontario and Mississippi
2022 - IRG/WP 22-30767
A collaborative above-ground protected termite field test was initiated by FPInnovations and the USDA Forest Service at sites in Ontario and Mississippi. The aims of the experiment were to compare the rate of attack in protected, above-ground exposures by the subterranean termite species, Reticulitermes flavipes, between northern (Ontario) and southern (Mississippi) test sites and to generate performance data to understand the resistance to termites of selected naturally durable North American species. After 5-years of exposure, termite attack was greater in untreated pine sapwood controls in Mississippi than Ontario, though similar in the naturally durable species and the MCA-treated reference. All naturally durable heartwoods evaluated were more resistant to termites than untreated controls, and less resistant than the MCA-treated reference. More time is needed to define the service life expectations of naturally durable heartwood species and to determine whether there are differences in their termite resistance.
R Stirling, M Mankowski