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A method to evaluate the effeetiveness of bait application using a transferred nest of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20161
Although a survey of monitoring stations can tell us the decline of termite activity after application of baits, it seems questionable to conclude an eradication of a Whole colony of subterranean termites if the termites move out their foraging territory. Only reliable method to ensure the success of bait application is to determine the absence of living termites in their nest in accordance with a survey of monitoring stations. A nest of Coptotermes formosanus was first collected from the field and buried back into the soil with some wooden blocks in a test site. Monitoring stations were installed around the nest to examine termite activity. After termites settled down well, mark-release-recapture was applied to estimate foraging population and then bait application was initiated. When foraging activity ceased, the nest was dug out to find any live termites present. This technique allowed us to draw out a conclusion that baiting eliminated a whole colony of C. formosanus.
K Tsunoda, T Yoshimura, H Matsuoka, Y Hikawa


Efficacy of hexaflumuron as a bait-toxicant in the field using a transferred nest of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10379
A natural nest of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was transferred into the field test site, and monitoring stations were installed around the nest buried back in the ground in January, 1995. Following estimation of foraging populations [271,200o}49,600 (July - October, 1996); 142,600o}19,600 (April - July, 1998)], bait applications were conducted twice. Termites came back to the stations in spring, 1998 , although termites were not present at any monitoring station at the end of the first application (November, 1996 - December, 1997). Second baitings started from October, 1998 and ended in July, 1999 when no termites were found at the stations. The nest was then recovered, and careful examination clearly demonstrated that the colony was completely eradicated after 419 mg of hexaflumuron was consumed by colony members.
K Tsunoda, Y Hikawa, T Yoshimura


Physical barriers and bait toxicants: The Romeo and Juliet of future termite control
1991 - IRG/WP 1503
Soil chemical barriers are considered by some to be the most important technique for protecting buildings against subterranean termites in Australia (and elsewhere), providing a barrier against termite penetration. However, there is no such thing as a barrier that is 100 per cent +protective. And given the worldwide problems of using organochlorine termiticides, public awareness of chemical pollution and contamination to the environment, emphasis on physical barriers has been refocussed. In the event of such barriers being penetrated, the use of suitable bait systems and toxicants is considered a fruitful "back-up" strategy in future termite control measures. Such a system is environmentally friendly, has wide public acceptance, and readily marketable.
J R J French


Application Package - IRG Travel Award for short-term scientific missions
2003 - IRG/WP 03-60175
IRG Secretariat


Application of radio frequency heating to accelerate fixation of CCA in treated round-wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40133
The potential of radio frequency heating to accelerate the fixation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in treated round-wood was assessed. Pre-dried Douglas-fir and western red cedar round-wood sections were pressure treated with CCA in a pilot plant retort, after which they were placed individually in a pilot radio frequency (RF) chamber. Based upon the color reaction of chromotropic acid with hexavalent chromium and the quantitative assessment using diphenyl carbazide, fixation was achieved in less than 6 hours. During heating, the temperature at various locations inside the pole sections was monitored by fiber-optic thermocouples. The moisture profiles before, and after fixation, were also recorded. Further studies will examine other benefit of RF heating, including a) sterilization, and b) rapid drying of round-wood with minimum check formation.
Fang Fang, J N R Ruddick


Evidence supporting the use of termite baiting systems for long-term structural protection
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10377
The efficacy of the Sentricon Colony Elimination System containing Recruit II termite bait (0.5% hexaflumuron) in controlling active subterranean termite infestations has been demonstrated in numerous studies. This baiting system and other termite baiting systems are now widely used, and generally accepted, tools for remedial termite control in North America, Hawaii, and other parts of the world. The role of baiting systems in prevention of termite damages and long-term structural protection, however, is more controversial than their use in remedial control. We discuss three lines of evidence in support of the use of baits for long-term structural protection: (1) successful control of termite populations with baits in remedial studies allows a conceptual leap to preventative efficacy, since baits target colonies and populations and cannot be evaluated directly for prevention in the manner of soil insecticide barriers; (2) field and laboratory studies demonstrate that termite colonies feed on multiple resources and continue to radiate outward from each of those resources in search of additional food, increasing the likelihood of rapid bait discovery; and (3) results of our long-term field studies over the past decade demonstrate that newly invading termites will reuse existing galleries in the soil left by earlier colonies that lead to monitoring stations, were detected in monitoring stations, and were subsequently eliminated without any noticeable evidence of structural infestation or damage.
J K Grace, N-Y Su


Trials on the field control of the Formosan subterranean termite with Amdro® bait
1982 - IRG/WP 1163
Amdro® - treated paper towels were introduced into two field colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite in Hawaii. At the concentration of 180 ppm, the toxicant bait was ineffective one month after the introduction. At higher concentrations (> 6,400 ppm), the baits were eaten initially; however, one week after introduction, termites avoided or covered the baits. The 15,000 ppm baits supressed the activity of one colony but did not affect the other.
N-Y Su, M Tamashiro, J R Yates III


Laboratory evaluation of chemicals as termiticides
1986 - IRG/WP 1293
Laboratory procedures are described for screening chemicals against subterranean termites. Fast-acting compounds with persistent termiticidal activity are identified in tests using a soil substrate, and slower-acting bait toxicants are evaluated in a series of tests using cellulose substrates.
S C Jones


Application form for membership
1975 - IRG/WP 542
IRG Secretariat


Application package for Short- Term Scientific Missions
1999 - IRG/WP 99-60120
IRG Secretariat


On the possibilities of the use of juvenile hormone analogues (JHAs) in termite control. (A preliminary note for information)
1983 - IRG/WP 1214
A T De Lelis


Brochure Membership 1993
1993 -
IRG Secretariat


Application package. IRG Travel Award for Short-term scientific missions
2007 - IRG/WP 07-60242
IRG Secretariat


APPLICATION PACKAGE – IRGWP Travel Award
2014 - IRG/WP 14-60374
IRG Secretariat


A method for screening termite baits using Coptotermes lacteus mounds
1984 - IRG/WP 1237
A method with several variations designed to rapidly screen potential bait substrates using Coptotermes lacteus mounds is described. The equipment used in this method is relatively inexpensive, readily prepared in the laboratory, and easily installed into active mounds in the field. Bait substrates are in continuous contact with a 'high termite hazard', and may be monitored with minimum interference to the termites.
J R J French, P J Robinson


Controlling Coptotermes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infestations in buildings with bait boxes
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10372
This paper describes the results of a commercial pest control operators use of the CSIRO bait box procedure in controlling infestations within buildings of subterranean termites ('termites') of the genus Coptotermes. Polystyrene bait boxes (480 x 330 x 210 mm3) were filled with alternate layers of corrugated cardboard and kiln-dried hardwood strips of Eucalyptus regnans F. Meull. (mountain ash). A viewing port at one end of each box allowed for the operator, or the clients, to check the presence of termites in the bait box. On discovering termite activity in the box, a dust toxicant (arsenic trioxide) was applied to the aggregated individuals, and the dusted termites returned to the box, thus spreading the toxin to other members of the nest colony, leading to it's collapse. On average, the time from installation to aggregating termites was about 4-6 weeks. Of the seventy-four boxes installed since 1994, sixty-six boxes were placed inside buildings, while eight boxes were positioned around buildings. Most were placed within buildings in the sub-floor areas, and alongside termite-infested skirting boards and architraves within slab-on-ground constructions. Other boxes were placed in cupboards, on top of termite-infested flooring, roof areas and on floors in garages. Eighty-five percent of the boxes lured termites, while 13% failed to lure any termites. Of those boxes with termites, there was a 82% success rate using arsenic trioxide as the dust toxicant. Eradication of termite colonies was recorded when no further termite activity was found after 6-12 months. These results are discussed in relation to present and future termite control.
J R J French, T Boschma


Improved resistance of Scots pine and Spruce by application of an oil-heat treatment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40162
Spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were subject to a heat treatment which was carried out in an oil-bath. The aim was to improve the dimensional stability of the treated wood and its resistance against fungi. The bath of vegetable oil provides a uniform heat transfer at temperatures of 180°C, 200°C and 220°C and protects the submersed wood from oxygen. Heat treatment in air atmosphere was also carried out at the same temperatures for comparison. Wood treated in hot oil was more equal in its appearance than wood heated in hot air. The treatment of spruce and pine in the oil-bath resulted in a better resistance against Coniophora puteana in a lab test according to EN 113 compared to the treatment in air atmosphere. In order to achieve the wanted upgrading effect, certain changes of mechanical properties and colour must be accepted. However, the strength loss caused by the heat-treatment in oil was less severe than in air atmosphere. Since all materials and the energy used in the process originate from renewable resources, the oil-heat-treatment appears to be environmentally friendly. All in all, the heat treatment in oil might be a promising approach to upgrade wood for outdoor use.
M Sailer, A O Rapp, H Leithoff


Evaluating the Exterra Termite Interception and Baiting System in Australia
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20267
The Exterraä Termite Interception and Baiting System (Ensystex Inc., Fayetteville, NC) was evaluated in a field experiment near Townsville, Australia. Cellulose-acetate powder containing either 0.05% weight/weight (w/w) or 0.25% w/w chlorfluazuron (Requiemä) was tested for its efficacy in eradicating colonies of the mound-building subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Thirteen mounds were used. There was no evidence of repellence, but there was little feeding on replenished bait. Five colonies were eradicated by 0.05% w/w chlorfluazuron and five colonies by 0.25% w/w chlorfluazuron: another colony was moribund and eradication appeared imminent. Colony decline was first suspected some 12 weeks after bait application. Colony eradication was confirmed, by destructive sampling, about five weeks later. Indicators used to monitor colony health were reliable. A suite of urban trials, demonstrating the effectiveness of Exterra Requiem Termite Bait in controlling a wide range of subterranean termite species throughout mainland Australia, is presented and discussed.
B C Peters, S Broadbent


Timber Preservation and Sustainable Construction in Australia
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-14
Sustainable development has been described as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meeting their own needs. (Bruntland 1987) To achieve the sustainable development goal therefore, the maximum performance has to be obtained from existing resources (timber) so that the remaining resource is protected from over-exploitation. Clearly, wood preservation has an important role to play in achieving the longest life from timber and timber products currently going in to service. Australia has a large number of naturally durable timbers and wood preservation systems have evolved to mimic and complement the natural durability of the heartwood of the material being treated. Whilst Australian wood preservative specifications have targeted the biological hazard and not the commodity, recent innovations with organic solvent preservatives have seen new products entering the market for very specific commodities. Consumer and specifier education remain a major issue for the wood preservation industry, even though specification and identification systems have been simplified as much as possible.
J Norton


Justification for use of mirex in termite control
1988 - IRG/WP 1346
In August 1987, organochlorines were withdrawn in North America from use in termite control. This has left the industry and the community with reduced options in long term protection of wood and wood products. A case is presented to justify the use of the slow-acting stomach termiticide, mirex, under special permit, for use only in the bait-block method of termite control. This method, while not acting like the organochlorines as a chemical barrier around newly constructed and existing buildings will, however, offer an alternative control measure in eradicating subterranean termites when buildings become infested by these insects. Health and safety aspects are discussed.
J R J French


Effects of methoprene on Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1987 - IRG/WP 1322
Methoprene affected differentiation and survival of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki in laboratory studies. At 5, 9, 13, and 17 weeks, superfluous intercastes and presoldiers were produced when termites were allowed to feed on concentrations of 1,000 and 2,000 ppm methoprene in wood blocks. Colony numbers were significantly reduced after 13 and 17 weeks of exposure to the insect growth regulator. Termites are significantly less of the treated blocks than of the controls and sometimes physically sealed off the treated blocks, which suggests that some concentrations of methoprene may have slight antifeedant properties. Colonies varied in their responses to this chemical.
S C Jones


Susceptibility of softwood bait stakes to attack by subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20037
Sapwood stakes of Australian-grown Araucaria cunninghamii (hoop pine), Pinus elliotii (slash pine), Pinus radiata (radiata pine) and North American-grown Pinus sp. (southern yellow pine) were exposed to subterranean termite attack in an in-ground bioassay. Stakes in bait containers and bare stakes were attacked by Coptotermes acinaciformis and Schedorhinotermes intermedius. Basic susceptibility of these timbers was evaluated with regard to potential as termite monitoring devices. Variation between timbers and variation between termite species are described. The relevence of these data to suppressing foraging populations of subterranean termites, in Australia, using insect growth regulators, is discussed.
B C Peters, R T Murray, C J Fitzgerald


Preference of the Formosan subterranean termite for wood previously damaged by conspecifics
1988 - IRG/WP 1338
In a laboratory choice test, groups of termites from five colonies of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were presented with wood blocks which had sustained previous termite damage: 1) by nestmates, 2) by conspecifics from another colony, 3) by another termite species, Reticulitermes virginicus Banks, and 4) no damage. Coptotermes formosanus preferred wood previously damaged by conspecifics over that damaged by Reticulitermes virginicus. Woodfeeding rate was slightly, though not significantly, higher for conspecific treatments than for controls.
J P La Fage, K S Delaplane


Colony elimination of Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe) (Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae) by bait system
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10189
Following a two-year estimation of the foraging populations and territory of Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe) by triple mark recapture program at Uji campus of Kyoto University, bait stations (commercialized products containing hexaflumuron) were set up in the foraging territory in October 1995 to eliminate the colony. Inspections demonstrated that the number of test stakes with foraging termites decreased after May 1996. No attack was finally observed in July 1996. As a later inspection in October 1996 reconfirmed no termite hits on any wooden stake in the foraging territory, the colony was considered to be eliminated by baits.
K Tsunoda, H Matsuoka, T Yoshimura, K Yamauchi


Safe application of copper-chrome-arsenate preservatives
1975 - IRG/WP 377
All wood preservatives contain biologically active substances and must, by design, be in some measure toxic to man. There is nothing fundamentally difficult, however, about using a wood preservative with complete safety. It depends on knowing the risks to health and/or the environment, which the preservative may present, and planning application accordingly. In this paper we examine these and other factors for copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) preservatives applied in vacuum/pressure plants. We review briefly the toxicological properties of the components and their joint action; the contribution which design and the operation of plant make to safe treatment; also the training of plant operators, to ensure that the potential risks in applying CCAs are fully understood. We shall consider the functions of product labelling; to advisc others - concerned with transport - of the nature of preservatives, especially concentrates. The importance is emphasised of being able, by prior planning, to act swiftly and effectively to deal with any unforeseen emergencies, however infrequent these may be. This paper is not concerned with any risks to man and other animals arising from use of CCA-treated wood. After treatment, fixation leaves the preservative components less readily available as contaminants of the environment.
I N Stalker, P B Cornwell


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