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A method for screening termite baits using Coptotermes lacteus mounds
1984 - IRG/WP 1237
A method with several variations designed to rapidly screen potential bait substrates using Coptotermes lacteus mounds is described. The equipment used in this method is relatively inexpensive, readily prepared in the laboratory, and easily installed into active mounds in the field. Bait substrates are in continuous contact with a 'high termite hazard', and may be monitored with minimum interference to the termites.
J R J French, P J Robinson


Biological screening assays of wood samples treated with creosote plus chemical additives exposed to Limnoria tripunctata
1980 - IRG/WP 408
Laboratory methods for exposure of treated wood coupons to Limnoria tripunctata are described. Chemical additions to creosote were screened using this method. Three pesticides, Endrin, Kepone, and Malathion proved particularly effective. The addition of varying percentages of naphthalene to creosote using several treatment methods are currently being assayed. Results to date show that the coupons treated by the empty cell method have better performance than those prepared by the toluene dilution method. The naphthalene coupons treated by the full cell method show no attack after six months' exposure.
B R Richards, D A Webb


Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test.
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage


The applicability of life cyle analysis and alternative methods in the wood preservation industry
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50023
In the Netherlands, several case studies have been performed using the life cycle analysis method (LCA). This type of research is aimed at an inventory and classification (sometimes including also evaluation) of the environmental impacts of a product, from the raw material to waste stage ("cradle to grave" approach). In a LCA each environmental impact is assessed in terms of, for example, mass of raw material use (kg), energy consumption (MJ), emissions (COx, NOX, SOx, etc.) and final waste (in kg). The critical point in an LCA is the definition of comparable "functional units" for similar products made of different materials with different service lifes. As the LCA method has often proved to be very complex, lime-consuming, expensive and difficult to interpret and translate into practically usefull results, alternative methods are developed. Three methods are described and compared on the basis of various examples. It is hoped that this may be of use as a starting point for further discussion on the suitability of applying the LCA on (preservative treated) timber products.
P Esser, J Cramer


Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of commercially important copper-based wood preservatives were used as model formulations, namely copper/copper-HDO, ammoniacal copper/quat and CCA. The most important factors determining the extent of copper leaching in the different lab trials were the sample size (volume/surface ratio) and the fixation conditions prior to leaching. On the other hand, the wood species and the leaching protocol itself were found to have only minor influence on the copper leaching rate in the test methods included in this study.
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner


Testing of wood preservatives against marine borers (Part 1). Method of testing wood preservatives against marine borers (Part 2)
1971 - IRG/WP 37
P C Trussell, C C Walden


Report on the activities of the European Standardization Committee CEN/TC 38 'Methods of Testing wood preservatives'
1980 - IRG/WP 279 E
G Castan


Comparison of the agar-block and soil-block methods used for evaluation of fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA wood preservatives
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20039
The modyfied agar-block and soil-block methods were used for comparing the fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA type preservatives against Coniophora puteana and Coniophora olivacea The mass loss and moisture contents of wood were analysed.
J Wazny, L J Cookson


Termite standards questionnaire survey. Second Report
1989 - IRG/WP 1395
Information contained in replies received from IRG members responding to the survey continue to be summarised. Again, highlighted in this second report are the major termite species in the various zoogeographical regions, their damage ranking to timber-in-service, the chemicals used in control methods, and the status of the termite standards in the respondent countries.
J R J French, J P La Fage


Trials on the field control of the Formosan subterranean termite with Amdro® bait
1982 - IRG/WP 1163
Amdro® - treated paper towels were introduced into two field colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite in Hawaii. At the concentration of 180 ppm, the toxicant bait was ineffective one month after the introduction. At higher concentrations (> 6,400 ppm), the baits were eaten initially; however, one week after introduction, termites avoided or covered the baits. The 15,000 ppm baits supressed the activity of one colony but did not affect the other.
N-Y Su, M Tamashiro, J R Yates III


Physical barriers and bait toxicants: The Romeo and Juliet of future termite control
1991 - IRG/WP 1503
Soil chemical barriers are considered by some to be the most important technique for protecting buildings against subterranean termites in Australia (and elsewhere), providing a barrier against termite penetration. However, there is no such thing as a barrier that is 100 per cent +protective. And given the worldwide problems of using organochlorine termiticides, public awareness of chemical pollution and contamination to the environment, emphasis on physical barriers has been refocussed. In the event of such barriers being penetrated, the use of suitable bait systems and toxicants is considered a fruitful "back-up" strategy in future termite control measures. Such a system is environmentally friendly, has wide public acceptance, and readily marketable.
J R J French


Comparison of Different Methods for Assessing the Performance of Preservatives in the BAM Fungus Cellar Test
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20149
The fungus cellar test is a common means to get reliable data on the long term performance of treated wood in soil contact. A constantly high humidity and a suitable of water holding capacity for a range of micro-organisms provide high decay rates in untreated wood and produce intensive microbial pressures on wood treated with biocides. Presently a range of biocides are under test in the BAM fungus cellar and the results will be presented for the following types of biocides: Tebuconazole in combination with copper and boron (5 years fungus cellar), quats with copper and boron (5 years fungus cellar) and Cu-organic compound combined with copper and boron (3 years fungus cellar). Figures will be shown on the development of the Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) over the years and on an assessment of the stakes according to EN 252.
I Stephan, M Grinda, D Rudolph


Evidence supporting the use of termite baiting systems for long-term structural protection
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10377
The efficacy of the Sentricon Colony Elimination System containing Recruit II termite bait (0.5% hexaflumuron) in controlling active subterranean termite infestations has been demonstrated in numerous studies. This baiting system and other termite baiting systems are now widely used, and generally accepted, tools for remedial termite control in North America, Hawaii, and other parts of the world. The role of baiting systems in prevention of termite damages and long-term structural protection, however, is more controversial than their use in remedial control. We discuss three lines of evidence in support of the use of baits for long-term structural protection: (1) successful control of termite populations with baits in remedial studies allows a conceptual leap to preventative efficacy, since baits target colonies and populations and cannot be evaluated directly for prevention in the manner of soil insecticide barriers; (2) field and laboratory studies demonstrate that termite colonies feed on multiple resources and continue to radiate outward from each of those resources in search of additional food, increasing the likelihood of rapid bait discovery; and (3) results of our long-term field studies over the past decade demonstrate that newly invading termites will reuse existing galleries in the soil left by earlier colonies that lead to monitoring stations, were detected in monitoring stations, and were subsequently eliminated without any noticeable evidence of structural infestation or damage.
J K Grace, N-Y Su


Respiration methods used to follow the decay of wood and the toximetric evaluation of wood preservatives
1975 - IRG/WP 249
When wood is attacked and decayed by fungi, wood substance and oxygen (02) are consumed, while carbon dioxide (CO2), water and heat are liberated. Early in the 1960's workers from England, Canada and Sweden began studying CO2 evolution, with respect to decay and its control using chemical preservatives, while in Germany and the USA O2 utilization was being similarly examined. Oxygen consumption measurements during the decay of wood were made mainly using pressure differential closed systems and were shown to be reasonably sensitive and a suitable reflection of the rate and extent of decay. Carbon dioxide measurements were made using titration, conductivity and gas-chromatographic methods. The last method appears to be the most useful, being applicable to open and closed systems, flexible in application, very sensitive over a thousand-fold concentration range change without switching, and easily automated. Its application to evaluating the toxicity of wood preservatives has been intensively studied and shown to give chemical toxic thresholds after only one third of the normal incubation time, which are similar to those based on the much longer conventional weight loss method.
R S Smith


European standardization for wood preservation
1988 - IRG/WP 2321
G Castan


Laboratory evaluation of chemicals as termiticides
1986 - IRG/WP 1293
Laboratory procedures are described for screening chemicals against subterranean termites. Fast-acting compounds with persistent termiticidal activity are identified in tests using a soil substrate, and slower-acting bait toxicants are evaluated in a series of tests using cellulose substrates.
S C Jones


Introduction to a field demonstration of various instruments and methods for the detection of defects in poles
1984 - IRG/WP 2228
H Friis-Hansen


Creosoted radiata pine by non-pressure methods
1988 - IRG/WP 3486
Posts of Pinus radiata have been impregnated with creosote by immersion for 1, 3, and 7 days, and by hot-and-cold open tank with hot bath temperatures at 40°C and 60°C. On the basis of the retention rates obtained, suitable procedures are described for wood elements that are going to be in ground contact, and an analysis is made of the way in which the variables tested affect the results.
M V Baonza Merino, C De Arana Moncada


Durability of pine modified by 9 different methods
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40288
The decay resistance was studied for pine modified by nine methods of wood modification: 1) Acetylation, 2) Treatment with methylated melamine resin (MMF), 3) Acetylation followed by post-treatment with MMF-resin, 4) Thermal modification, 5) Furfurylation, 6) Maleoylation (using water solution of MG or ethanol solution of maleic anhydride), 7) Succinylation, 8) NMA-modification and 9) modification with reactive linseed oil derivative (UZA), Wood blocks of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood were modified in pilot plants. Methods 1-5 were performed by the authors at Chalmers University of Technology or at BFH in Hamburg. Methods 5-9 were part of a European research project (the Chemowood project, FAIR-CT97-3187) and therefore each of these modifications was performed by the project participant responsible for the method. For laboratory testing in TMCs (modified European standard ENV 807) and pure basidiomycete culture bioassays, smaller test specimens were cut from the modified wood blocks. Most of the modification methods were applied on test specimens for marine field testing (EN 275) and some methods to produce mini-stakes for field tests in five Swedish fields. Some modification methods result in modified wood with poor durability, whereas other methods (acetylation, furfurylation and MMF-treatment) seem to provide excellent resistance to microbial decay.
M Westin, A O Rapp, T Nilsson


Controlling Coptotermes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infestations in buildings with bait boxes
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10372
This paper describes the results of a commercial pest control operators use of the CSIRO bait box procedure in controlling infestations within buildings of subterranean termites ('termites') of the genus Coptotermes. Polystyrene bait boxes (480 x 330 x 210 mm3) were filled with alternate layers of corrugated cardboard and kiln-dried hardwood strips of Eucalyptus regnans F. Meull. (mountain ash). A viewing port at one end of each box allowed for the operator, or the clients, to check the presence of termites in the bait box. On discovering termite activity in the box, a dust toxicant (arsenic trioxide) was applied to the aggregated individuals, and the dusted termites returned to the box, thus spreading the toxin to other members of the nest colony, leading to it's collapse. On average, the time from installation to aggregating termites was about 4-6 weeks. Of the seventy-four boxes installed since 1994, sixty-six boxes were placed inside buildings, while eight boxes were positioned around buildings. Most were placed within buildings in the sub-floor areas, and alongside termite-infested skirting boards and architraves within slab-on-ground constructions. Other boxes were placed in cupboards, on top of termite-infested flooring, roof areas and on floors in garages. Eighty-five percent of the boxes lured termites, while 13% failed to lure any termites. Of those boxes with termites, there was a 82% success rate using arsenic trioxide as the dust toxicant. Eradication of termite colonies was recorded when no further termite activity was found after 6-12 months. These results are discussed in relation to present and future termite control.
J R J French, T Boschma


Utility, deterioration and preservation of marine timbers in India
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40314
Timber is extensively used in India in the marine environment for various purposes due to its several advantages over modern materials. Infact, its use is increasing in recent years, finding wider and wider applications and this scenario is not going to change in the near future. Though, the bio-deterioration problem is found very severe in tropical waters, still indigenous methods are widely employed for the protection of fishing craft and the present level of chemical treatment is well below 5% of total timber used. This is due to socio economic problems of the potential timber user groups, unavailability of treatment plants in the coastal areas, lack of awareness in user groups, etc. In this paper, types of fishing craft used in the country, timber uses in the marine environment, bio-deterioration losses, research conducted on bio-deterioration aspects at various places and methods applied for the protection of wooden structures are presented.
B Tarakanadha, M V Rao, M Balaji, P K Aggarwal, K S Rao


European standardization for wood preservation
1989 - IRG/WP 2335
G Castan


Some aspects of laboratory and field testing methods of antitermite wood preservatives
1973 - IRG/WP 235
Various methods for laboratory testing of antitermite activity of wood preservatives are described. The results of simultaneous tests of three water-borne preservatives, according to the various methods are discussed, and comparison is made with results of field tests on the same three preservatives, showing a fairly good accordance between laboratory results and field results.
M Fougerousse


Working Group II: Sub-group: Methods of testing anti-stain chemicals for protecting sawn lumber during storage, transit
1978 - IRG/WP 2121
R Smith


What can DNA fingerprinting, aggression tests and morphometry contribute to the identification of colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10371
Multilocus DNA fingerprinting, aggression tests and morphometry were compared to evaluate their potential for the identification of colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Hawaii. DNA fingerprinting separates the termites from all studied collection sites. Since the genetic similarity between termites from different collection sites lies in the range of the genetic background similarity in the population, collection sites in this study represent independent colonies. No significant differences could be found in the intra- and intercolonial aggression levels. While aggression tests do not support colony identification, morphometric measurements do show differentiations between colonies. However, classification of individuals to their original colony does not reach the 100% success provided by genetic analyses. No correlation between genetic similarities and aggression levels or morphometric distances could be found. This suggests that neither aggression levels nor morphometric parameters are significantly influenced by genetic factors in this species. Genetic studies appear to be the most useful approach to the identification of colonies and the analysis of small scale population structures in C. formosanus.
C Husseneder, J K Grace


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