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Isolation and identification of the fungal flora in treated wood
1976 - IRG/WP 144
J F Levy


Comparison of the agar-block and soil-block methods used for evaluation of fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA wood preservatives
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20039
The modyfied agar-block and soil-block methods were used for comparing the fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA type preservatives against Coniophora puteana and Coniophora olivacea The mass loss and moisture contents of wood were analysed.
J Wazny, L J Cookson


Biological control of Serpula lacrymans using Trichoderma spp
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10069
The effectiveness, or otherwise, in killing Serpula lacrymans, of a range of Trichoderma spp. in a variety of media and using two different incubation systems has been tested. In agar based systems with normal nutrients or minimal nutrients with high or low nitrogen contents and high or low iron content Trichoderma harzianum 25 proved to be the most efficient and killing Serpula lacrymans. Other species, such as Trichoderma hamatum 150, were effective in some media but not in others. Initial observation on partially decayed small wood blocks suggested that actively growing Serpula lacrymans could not be killed by Trichoderma spp.. Experiments undertaken on a specially designed system, however, indicated that certain Trichoderma spp. can act as effective antagonists even in wood based systems.
A J Score, J W Palfreyman


Essais mycologiques sur poteaux traités à la Wolmanit C B
1974 - IRG/WP 339
D Ollier, C Jacquiot


Spore germination of Gloeophyllum trabeum on wood is related to the mass of the wood sample
1978 - IRG/WP 2118
E L Schmidt, D W French


Contribution to the testing of wood based board material
1982 - IRG/WP 2176
R G Lea


Effect of sterilization method on germination of spores of wood decay fungi observed by contact agar block method
1978 - IRG/WP 2117
Previous studies of germination of spores of wood decay fungi on wood have generally concluded that method of wood sterilization has little significant effect on germination response. This study expands the numbers of test fungi as well as number of sterilization methods employed to determine the influence of sterilization method on spore germination response of decay fungi. Germination was assessed on agar discs fused by aqueous diffusion path to 1 cm³ samples of aspen and white spruce sapwood.
E L Schmidt, D W French


Surveillance médicale des personnels exposés aux produits de préservation du bois
1990 - IRG/WP 3588
J-C Aubrun


Sub-group on Basidiomycete tests: Proposals for Sub-group programme of work
1979 - IRG/WP 2127
During the IRG 10 Meetings in Peebles, Scotland in September 1978, it was resolved to establish within Working Group II a sub-group on testing wood preservatives against basidiomycete fungi. The terms of reference and scope of the sub-group's activities were to be determined by consensus among members who registered an interest. Dr A F Bravery (PRL, UK) was asked to act as co-ordinator. During the course of the Peebles Meeting the following members registered their intention to participate: Dr D Aston (UK), Dr C Coggins (UK), Mr G Fahlstrom (USA), Professor D French (USA), Professor C Jacquiot (France), Mr B Jensen (Denmark), Dr A Ofusu-Asiedu (Ghana), Miss J Taylor (UK). Since there was insufficient time to convene an inaugural meeting in Peebles the present paper has been prepared as a basis for discussions and to facilitate initiation of active collaboration. It is hoped that members will offer individual comment in order to define the desirable scope of the sub-group's work and to refine ideas for collaborative or co-ordinated experimental work.
A F Bravery


Study of the natural durability and impregnability of a metropolitan species of tree
1986 - IRG/WP 2261
The current and predictable evolution of construction timber supply conditions is motivating research for a more efficient utilization of native woods. It is now important to determine statistically reliable impregnability values on a national scale, and to evaluate the natural durability of woods recently introduced in France, or economically important native woods.
M E Mathieu


Determination of toxic limits of wood preservatives towards wood-destroying Basidiomycetes. Investigation on the effect of the use of two impregnated wood blocks and of one impregnated and an untreated block respectively in Kolle jars on the toxic limits of wood preservatives
1973 - IRG/WP 225
O Wälchli


A laboratory evaluation of the susceptibility to biological attack of glued laminated pine timber
1991 - IRG/WP 2387
In the scope of a research programme concerning the use of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) to produce glued laminated timber structures in Portugal, the natural durability of this material was checked by using laboratory test methods. An European standard, EN 113, was used to test durability against basidiomycetes and a test method developed at LNEC for termites was adapted for this purpose. From the results obtained, it seems that the existence of glue layers does not influence the natural durability of the material under basidiomycetes attack. As for termites the method used indicates that they are unable to cross the glue layers though this effect would hardly be of importance for practical uses.
L Nunes, H Cruz


Field and laboratory studies on anti-sapstain preservatives
1982 - IRG/WP 3205
The field tests included 11 different anti-sapstain preservatives and were carried out at different sawmills in southern Sweden. Drying conditions, climate and the local fungus flora were not identical for the different preservatives and comparisons between the preservatives should therefore be made with caution. Results obtained in the field tests are, however, in relatively good agreement with those found in the laboratory tests carried out with the pure preservatives. Especially Cuzol, a methylen-bis-thiocyanate/boric acid-product, showed a good effect against sapstain both in field and laboratory tests. However, Mykocid BS and Improsol 1 (two bifluoride products) as well as Mitrol 48 (benzalkonium chloride/guazatine) were also effective against sapstain. Hager Blue (boric acid/caprylic acid) was also fairly effective even if the untreated control material in this test was only moderately stained. Acceptable protection was obtained with the two Benomyl-containing preservatives and Thiobor (dimethyldithiocarbamate + borax). Mixtures of the various preservatives were tested in the laboratory as regards protective effect against sapstain, mould, thermotolerant mould and decay as well as chemical reactions that could be observed visually (precipitation, change in colour etc.). There was no absolute correlation between observed chemical reactions and changes in the biological effect. Mixtures resulting in reduced biological activity and which should be regarded less suitable are; Mykocid BS/ DuPont Benomyl, Cuzol/Thiobor, DuPont Benomyl/ Thiobor, Fennotox/Mitrol 48, Fennotox/Thiobor, Hager Blue/Sadolin Woodgard, Improsol 1/Mertect, Mitrol 48/Thiobor, Mitrol 48/Sadolin Woodgard and Mykocid BS/Thiobor. When mixing Hager Blue/Mykocid BS, Mitrol 48/Mykocid BS, Improsol 1/Cuzol and Mykocid BS/Cuzol precipitations occurred, which is a factor to be considered in practice since stirring may be necessary in the dipping tank. The preservatives based on bifluorides, Improsol 1 and Mykocid BS, penetrated about 1 cm into the wood after dipping and seasoning. A certain yellowish chemical staining was observed. Bifluorides are corrosive and attack steel and to a certain extent also concrete. Products containing boric acid and borates (Hager Blue, Thiobor, Benomyl + boric acid) also penetrated the timber to a certain extent. Thiobor reacted with certain parts of the heartwood which became slightly stained a reddish tone. The diffusion from the surface of the timber and inwards, which takes place when preservatives containing bifluorides, boric acid or borates are used, results in decreasing concentration of active components near the surface of the timber. This has to be considered when choosing the concentration of the treatment solution. Four of the preservatives included in the tests required stirring in the dipping tank. These are DuPont Benomyl 50, Sadolin Woodgard, Fennotox S2 and Mertect.
M-L Edlund, B Henningsson


The variability of preservative distribution in test blocks
1973 - IRG/WP 220
The techniques for the assessment of likely effectiveness of preservative systems have long been the subject of much discussion. The whole field has recently been reviewed by Hilditch and Hamblyn (1971) who described in detail many of the laboratory test procedures used, but who also indicated the deficiencies in many of these techniques. It has long been the view of many associated with the wood preservation industry that laboratory tests can only serve as a preliminary method of screening and that final approval by both the company marketing the development and independent authorities, on whom the burden of approval rests, can only be given after detailed testing in the field. The aim of the simple piece of work described in this paper, is to lok at the variability which one might expect in the distribution of preservative in test blocks destined for laboratory fungal evaluation.
F W Brooks, M R Gayles, R W Watson


Some experiments with hexabutylditin against fungi
1977 - IRG/WP 388
The investigation was carried out in 1972 and 1973 to collect experimental data about the poisonousness of hexabutylditin (HBDT) against the woodrotting fungi Coniophora puteana (Coniophora cerebella), strain 15, and Chaetomium globosum, strain hexabutylditin was being manufactured by the Organisch Chemisch Instituut (O.C.I.) TNO, at Utrecht.
J W P T Van der Drift


New conception for shortering the duration of fungitoxic test on wood preservatives. Part 1: State-of-art
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20044
The review of agar-block and soil-block methods published during 90 years focused of shortening the duration of fungitoxic test of wood preservatives is presented. Special attention was given to miniaturisation of wood specimens.
J Wazny, P Witomski


New conception for shortering the duration of fungitoxic test of wood preservatives. Part 3: Proposal for interlaboratory test on miniaturisation of wood specimens
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20053
In connection with documents IRG/WP 94-20044 and IRG/WP 94-20052 the proposal for interlaboratory test on miniaturization of wood specimens is given.
J Wazny, J J Krajewski


Preliminary screening of diffusion formulations for the control of soft rot
1978 - IRG/WP 2104
We have an urgent need in Australia to develop in situ remedial treatments for the present population of in-service transmission poles. For various reasons we have opted for formulations which can be applied as bandage treatments and thus we are primarily concerned with assaying diffusable toxicants. Two basic approaches have been made: an assay of the formulation's toxicity; and a combination assay of the formulation's diffusibility and toxicity. Of the direct assay methods the filter-paper technique is the more rapid although with highly soluble formulations some leaching of toxicants will occur during the preparatory stages and probably during incubation also. Furthermore, filter papers are not strictly comparable to wood, and a modification we have considered is to use 'papers' prepared from mechanically beaten pulps rather than chemically degraded pulps. An additional modification would be to substitute veneers for filter papers, although this may give rise to surface concentration effects since the veneers could prove difficult to impregnate homogeneously. By far the most valuable technique for our own screening programme of potential toxicants to control soft rot in standing poles is the Petri dish/wood slab technique. While agar diffusion systems are rapid and provide valuable 'short list' data, the information obtained on diffusion rates cannot easily be applied to solid wood. Da Costa's slab technique is obviously advantageous in this respect. Furthermore, it can be so tailored that successive inocula can be sequentially assessed, thereby providing added information on component diffusion as well as total formulation movement. However, care must be taken in interpreting the data since it is not possible to distinguish directly which chemicals in a mult-component formulation have diffused first and hence which are the toxic ones. Similarly, it could be necessary to impose a time restriction on the test with certain types of formulations.
H Greaves


The use of plastic meshes in soft rot monoculture testing
1990 - IRG/WP 2353
Plastic meshes were introduced between the wood blocks and agar medium in a miniaturised soft rot monoculture test in order to minimise transfer of the preservative from the wood and mineral salts from the agar. Although several different sizes and types of mesh were used and the blocks were wetted up to an appropriate moisture content for soft rot attack the amount of decay was substantially reduced compared with the controls. Addition of mineral salts to the wood blocks in similar quantities to those in the agar aided decay but did not provide suitable conditions for maximum loss in weight.
S M Gray


The effect of malt and agar trademarks on growth, decay and stilbene resistance of fungi
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20202
Effects of malt and agar trademarks used in growth media on growth of fungi in cultures, amount of decay they cause in birch samples and their resistance to stilbenes were tested. It was tested also had the conditions where fungus cultures were stored before inoculation of test plates some effect on the results. Fungi used in these tests were white rot fungus Trametes versicolor and brown rot fungus Piptoporus betulinus. Stilbenes used were pinosylvin and resveratrol. The tested trademarks of agar had no effect but trademarks of malt had statistically significant effect on growth, decay and resistance to stilbenes. Storage conditions of cultures before tests had less effect on results, they effected mainly when the growth conditions during test were unfavourable to the fungi.
L Syrjälä, L Paajanen, A Pappinen


Comparison between agar-block and soil-block methods for wood-destroying Basidiomycetes
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2401
The object of this work is to compare these methods in order to provide some information to help in the choice between them. The comparison was made by a statistical analysis (factorial completely randomized design) and by a discussion about other aspects of each method. An evaluation of some fungi on attacking wood and a comparison between Picnoporus sanguineus isolated from carpophore and decayed wood were made. The results indicated that the loss of mass was greater in soil-block. Besides, the activity of the fungi in this method was more homogeneous than in agar-block. However the soil-block method presents some difficulties not found in the agar-block method. As related to the performance of Picnoporus sanguineus strains, the greater loss of mass occured when it was isolated from carpophore, no matter what method was used. These results give important indications about the biological characteristics and the source of the strains.
M B B Monteiro, S Brazolin, G Catanozi


Developments in wood preservation
1978 - IRG/WP 3121
The purpose of this paper is to comment very briefly upon recent developments and trends in wood preservation so that members of this Working Group have a basic knowledge of activities in other countries. The last paper was prepared in September 1977 and the present paper refers to developments since that time.
B A Richardson


The proposal for optimalization of the agar-block method for wood preservatives fungitoxic evaluation
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20065
On the base of own research and other scientists results the proposal for optimalization of agar-block method was presented by: - selection of test fungal species and strains and central distribution of their pure cultures, - change of the treatment and control samples exposure procedure, - application of mathematical estimation of toxic value results, - shortening the duration of fungitoxic test by miniaturization of wood samples.
J Wazny


Assessment of the toxicity of some copper-, zinc- and boron-based wood preservatives to the cellar fungus Coniophora cerebella Schröet
1974 - IRG/WP 242
This article reports the use of a method based on the determination of the probability of the protection of timber against destruction by fungi. By converting the probability values to probit values and plotting them as a function of the amount of preservative retained in the timber, curves of the toxic effect are obtained, enabling any timber protection probability to be assessed.
V N Sozonova, D A Belenkov


Fungi used in standard tests on the toxicity value of wood preservatives in various European countries
1975 - IRG/WP 255
The aim of the present paper is to make the comparative analysis of test fungi used in various European countries in order to define the toxicity value of wood preservatives against fungi of the Basidiomycetes class. Only the methods with national standard rank, present on the currently binding standards list are taken for consideration. The analysis of similarities and differences in the choice of test fungi used in these methods should be a further step in the investigation on the unification of the test methods
J Wazny


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