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Physical and biological properties of albizzia waferboards modified with cross-linking agents
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40043
Chemically-modified low-density waferboards with cross-linking agents were produced using a fast-growing species of hardwood albizzia (Paraserienthes falcata Becker) as a raw materials and isocyanate resin as a glue adhesive. For the chemical modification, the vapor-phase formalization of the boards and the pad-dry-cure treatment of wafers with cross-linking agents were employed. The vapor-phase f...
S Yusuf, Y Imamura, M Takahashi, K Minato


How best to specify retentions of preservative treatments: kg/m3 or % (m/m)
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20151
When specifying treatments according to the European Standard EN 351-1, retentions in the analytical zone are based on the amount of product found to be effective in biological tests; this is expressed in terms of the retention of the product per unit volume (kg/m3) for penetrating treatments and per unit area (g/m2) for superficial treatments. However, to check whether the retentions have been ac...
J K Carey


Potentialities of protein borates as low-toxic, long-term wood preservatives - Preliminary trials
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30212
Boron compounds are efficient wood preservatives, as well as safe for the mammals and environmentally acceptable. Their natural solubility allows them to treat almost any wood species, but is also the cause of their high depletion from treated timber in outside exposure. In order to reduce this leachability, potentialities of proteinic polymer networks retaining boron within the wood have been inv...
M-F Thévenon, A Pizzi, J P Haluk


Biological agents of timber degradation in Portugal. Marine borers
1991 - IRG/WP 4171
A brief report of the studies carried out in Portugal on marine borers is presented. The marine borers found in the portuguese coast are refered as well as the wood species where those organisms were identified. Emphasis is given to a study carried out from 1960 to 1975 at the Tagus estuary in Lisbon with the purpose, among others, of establishing the natural durability of different timbers....
J S Machado, L Nunes


Biological effectiveness of ground-contact wood preservatives as determined by field exposure stake tests
1984 - IRG/WP 3297
Field exposure tests conducted on stakes treated with different creosotes, mixtures of creosote and waxy oil as well as different CCA wood preservatives over a period of 25 years, gave the following results: The CCA preservatives provided excellent biological protection to treated stakes, especially against fungal attack. The CCA Type I, currently approved for use under South African conditions is...
W E Conradie, A Pizzi


A laboratory evaluation of the susceptibility to biological attack of glued laminated pine timber
1991 - IRG/WP 2387
In the scope of a research programme concerning the use of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) to produce glued laminated timber structures in Portugal, the natural durability of this material was checked by using laboratory test methods. An European standard, EN 113, was used to test durability against basidiomycetes and a test method developed at LNEC for termites was adapted for this purpose. From t...
L Nunes, H Cruz


Some biological observations on the management of preservativion experiments with submerged timber in the marine environment
1976 - IRG/WP 421 E
P Deschamps


Antagonistic effect of Trichoderma spp. against Serpula lacrymans in the soil treatment test
1991 - IRG/WP 1473
Soil treatment tests for preventing growth of Serpula lacrymans were conducted using Trichoderma spp. as antagonists. Soil specimens tested were Kanuma-soil without organic matter and the horticultural soil which was collected from the test site of the stake test. Perfect efficacy of treatment with Trichoderma spp. was shown when the horticultural soil without sterilization was used as a soil spec...
S Doi, A Yamada


Biological control of blue stain on wood with Pseudomonas cepacia 6253. Laboratory and field test
1989 - IRG/WP 1380
Pseudomonas cepacia strain 6253 was tested as a biological control agent on wood samples under laboratory conditions, as well as in the field. In the laboratory this bacterium controlled blue stain on Pinus radiata, but field test were not totally satisfactory. However, after 2 months of field test, the test samples were 1/3 to 1/2 less stained then the control samples....
R Benko


Biological control of sapstain fungi in wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10158
Sapstain fungi can cause serious damage to wood and wood products, resulting in a significant economic loss for the wood products industry. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether the sapstain in wood caused by sapstain fungi could be biologically controlled. Biological control of sapstain fungi in wood was demonstrated in field trials with nonpigmented isolates of Cerato...
S C Croan


Assessing the performance of wood preservatives from biological tests - the European approach
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20040
The impetus for the European Standardisation Committee to undertake the development of a performance standard for characterising the effectiveness of wood preservatives from biological tests, lies in the Construction Products Directive. This is effectively the European Community law which provides the basis for Construction Products to be traded across all member states without technical or regula...
A F Bravery


Albumin borate: A new non-toxic, wide-spectrum, long-term wood preservative
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30167
Boron, widely recognized for its broad range of activity towards both fungi and insects and for its low mammalian toxicity, can not provide long term protection to treated timber due to its high leachability. Boron, in the form of boric acid, can be partially fixed to timber by the formation of an association with egg albumin, which is insolubilized by heat-induced coagulation. Chemical investiga...
M-F Thévenon, A Pizzi, J-P Haluk


Chemical and biological studies of organotin treated and painted wood stakes after outdoor exposure
1987 - IRG/WP 3419
Organotin based wood preservatives containing tributyltin oxide (TBTO) or tributyltin naphthenate (TBTN) are used in Sweden mainly for double-vacuum treatments of window joinery of Pinus sylvestris. After impregnation the joinery is painted or stained in different colours. To evaluate this effect (different colours on the degree of degradation of TBTO and TBTN, effected by different temperatures i...
M-L Edlund, B Henningsson


Options for termite management using the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10142
The insect pathogenic hyphomycete fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin is promising as a biological insecticide for many species of subterranean termites. In Australia, a survey of termite mounds and feeding sites using a selective medium showed that this fungus is widespread but rarely causes mortality of termites under natural conditions. One isolate, codenamed FI610, has been se...
R J Milner, J A Staples, M Lenz


Protection of wood blocks treated with Trichoderma isolates selected on the basis of preliminary agar screening studies
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10154
Previously reported results of agar interaction screening studies for biocontrol agents of wood decay basidiomycetes showed two Trichoderma viride isolates, killed 16 of 19 target fungi (Tucker and Bruce, 1995). Testing of these isolates in wood was required to assess their performance at preventing decay of wood blocks. Standard testing of chemical wood preservatives is used to determine the toxi...
E J B Tucker, A Bruce, H J Staines


Evaluation of bacteria for biological control of wood decay
1990 - IRG/WP 1426
Laboratory soil-block and agar-block tests were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of bacteria as biological control agents against 5 brown-rot and 3 white-rot fungi. Pretreatment of Southern pine and sweetgum with a bacterial solution prevented decay in agar-block tests. However, the bacteria were generally ineffective in preventing decay in Southern pine, Douglas-fir, sweetgum and yellow popla...
R Benko, T L Highley


Preliminary evaluations of a small wafer assay for screening potential biological control agents
1989 - IRG/WP 2332
Screening potential biological agents for controlling wood decay fungi poses a dilemma. The ideal test would eliminate as many variables as possible. Most tests utilize pure cultures of the test organism on an artificial media which in no way resembles wood. The use of sawdust improves this approach, but the sawdust increases fungal access to the lignocellulose matrix, potentially inflating the im...
C M Freitag, J J Morrell


Antagonistic properties of Gliocladium virens against wood attacking fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10162
Gliocladium virens has shown good antagonism against decay fungi in agar medium and in wood blocks. Gliotoxin produced by Gliocladium virens is associated with biocontrol of some plant diseases, but its importance to biocontrol of wood-attacking fungi is unknown. We investigated the ability of gliotoxin-producing (GLT+) isolates of Gliocladium virens and gliotoxin-deficient (GLT-) mutants of Glioc...
T L Highley, H S Ananthapadmanabha, C R Howell


Laboratory trials of biological control agents against subterranean termites
1991 - IRG/WP 1475
To screen for potential termite control by microorganisms, 17 mold fungi included 3 pathogenic fungi and 7 basidiomycetes, were used to challenge the test termite species, Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes speratus. Test fungi were allowed grow and completely in Petri dishes. To screen for potential termite control by microorganisms, 17 mold fungi included 3 pathogenic fungi and 7 basidiom...
K Suzuki


Accelerated testing for out of ground contact using natural biological preconditioning
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20088
Small blocks made of Scots pine sapwood were treated, buried in vermiculite and exposed to natural microbial colonisation during outdoor exposure prior to laboratory decay testing. Periodic microbial isolations, moisture content, permeability and weight loss tests were also conducted. Bacteria and moulds colonised the vermiculite and miniblocks well. Aureobasidium pullulans was common on TnBTO tre...
S Molnar, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


Biological control of internal decay in Scots pine poles: A seven year experiment
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1529
The interactions between key fungi were monitored, by non-destructive and destructive sampling methods, during the course of an experiment on the effectiveness of Scytalidium sp. and Trichoderma spp. for eliminating established infections of Lentinus lepideus (Fr. ex Fr.) Fr. in creosoted Pinus sylvestris poles. Although extensively isolated at the beginning and end of the experiment, Trichoderma ...
P I Morris, D J Dickinson, B Calver


Preservation of coppice wood for the fabrication of glued beams or panels
1987 - IRG/WP 3427
In this survey we will examine the specific problems concerning the conservation and the preservation of timber (issued from trunks of small diameter corresponding to products of clearings or coppices) destined for the fabrication of solid reconstituted elements. Thus for six metropolitan species of wood, we first characterized the biological deteriorations which occur after felling and their kine...
G R Y Déon, R Schwartz


Copper based wood preservative - A new approach using fixation with resin acids of rosin
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30249
Copper soaps with carboxylic acid groups of resin acids of rosin were shown to be potential long-term wood preservatives. The principle involved is the attachment of copper to the network formed by the inorganic part of the preservative (rosin) through the -COOH groups. The mechanisms of fixation have been studied, and it has been shown that this association could be obtained : (1) by forming the ...
C Roussel, J P Haluk, A Pizzi, M-F Thévenon


Biological control of sapwood-inhabiting fungi by living bacterial cells of Streptomyces rimosus as a bioprotectant
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1564
The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of antifungal activity of living bacterial cells for the protection of wood against sapwood-inhabiting fungi. The following sapwood-inhabiting fungi were selected: sapstain --Ceratocystis coerulescens, Ceratocystis minor, Ceratocystis pilifera, and Aureobasidum pullulans; mold fungi --Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp, and Trichoderma spp. L...
S C Croan, T L Highley


New research data confirming the suitability of bifenthrin as a wood preservative
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30116
Bifenthrin has been further tested against wood destroying insects, and its behaviour in wood has been extensively studied. Bifenthrin proved to be highly effective as a curative and preventative treatment against Anobium punctatum and Hylotrupes bajulus, after both leaching and evaporative ageing. Results of penetration tests with water and solvent based formulations, applied by brushing, dipping...
S Shires, P Héloir, B Chen, G Rustenburg


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