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The ecotoxicology assessment of wood preservatives and their active ingredients by means of germination tests using cress - A critical consideration
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50125
With putting the Biocidal Products Directive 98/08/EC (BPD) in place an environmental risk assessment for wood preservatives and impregnated timber is requested. To assess possible risks, suitable test methods are required, which reveal the ecotoxicological profile including environmental fate and behaviour of treated commodities. Germination and growth tests could contribute to the determination of ecotoxicological effects on plant seeds and their embryos. Investigations were carried out in order to determine the germination and the growth behaviour of cress with the aim, to investigate the possibilities and limitations of these tests. The results show that the cress germination test is very sensitive as a rule. A prevention of the germination as such does not indicate a possible toxicity of the formulation investigated. The assessment of the germination processes as the only criterion is not a sufficient measure for the ecotoxicological profile of wood preservatives and impregnated timber. Germination tests, however, can supply a first indication concerning a possible effect on the environment. In connection with the other methods, it is possible to receive supplementary information in a very short time.
P Jüngel, A O Rapp, E Melcher

A review of the current status of the estimation of emissions from preserved wood and their use in the environmental risk assessment of wood preservatives under the Biocidal Products Directive
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-7
A review and update of the status of the issues concerning the estimation of emissions from preserved wood (e.g. amendments to the proposed ‘OECD Guidelines’), and the environmental risk assessment of wood preservatives under the Biocidal Products Directive (e.g. compartmental sizes, emissate ecotoxicity testing).
E F Baines

The role of chromium in wood preservatives - The situation and new results concerning biological efficacy
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30397
A heavy discussion about the status of chromium-containing compounds in wood preservatives has ensued in the European Union since the Biocidal Product Directive 98/8/EG has come into force.The origin of this discussion is the fact that according to the Biocidal Product Directive chromium trioxide and sodium dichromate have been identified as active ingredients and therefore the placement of wood preservatives containing chromium oxide or sodium dichromate on the market is not allowed after September 1, 2006. In a scientific sense, this is only then valid if the chromium compounds are explicitly to be classified as active ingredients. Chromium compounds were previously considered to be fixatives for the biocides used in conventional chromium-containing salts, particularly for copper. Due to this discussion “active ingredient or not an active ingredient (fixative)”, the European Commission recommended that this question should be answered in a case by case decision based on the data of the products. (European Commission 2005). The verification of which function (active ingredient or not an active ingredient) an individual compound has in a wood preservative formulation is much more complex than the verification of the efficacy of the wood preservative itself. Based on the recommendations of the Commission, research projects were initiated which examined the role of chromium compounds in defined wood preservative salts using a frame-formulation
P Jüngel, H Härtner, E Melcher

Refinement of emission values for preserved wood in the ‘Storage Scenario’, for use in the environmental risk assessment of Wood Preservatives under the Biocidal Products Directive
2007 - IRG/WP 07-50244
The evaluation of an active substance or a biocidal product under the Biocidal Products Directive (BPD) requires that an environmental risk assessment is carried out. The risk assessment for wood preservatives includes a scenario for the treated wood in storage after treatment, in which the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) in soil, surface water and groundwater is calculated, using emission values for the active substance from the treated wood. This document describes experiments to measure the emission of active substances from treated timber in storage, using a commercially sized pack of treated timber exposed outdoors, to natural rainfall. The scenario is critically examined and the experimental data presented which demonstrates that the parameters and the assumptions of the scenario are incorrect. Realistic values, based on the measured data, are proposed: the ‘realistic worst case’ for emission from a pack of timber in storage is 0.0028 % of the initial quantity in the wood. Refinements of the scenario are proposed, for use in the Product Authorisation stage of the BPD.
E F Baines

The role of chromium in wood preservatives under BPD - a review and the current situation in Europe
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30468
Already during the IRG-meeting in Trømso a paper was presented to give an overview regarding the situation on chromium (JÜNGEL et al. 2006). Already in that year there was an increased attempt to achieve a science-based correct and harmonised solution in Europe regarding the chromium-question by the European Commission. Nevertheless the competent authorities (CAs) and the industry were similarly occupied with the principle question: “Is chromium an active?” and this led to a heterogeneous situation in the meantime. However a harmonisation should be of equal importance for authorities, wood preservative manufacturer, users of the salts and users of impregnated wood. It is time to give a new review regarding the background of this discussion, whereas scientific explanations clarify the complexity of the instinctively simple problem. The current situation in Europe shall be described as well.
P Jüngel, S Hellkamp

Environmental Emission of Wood Preservatives: Interpretation of Data Relevant to BPD Risk Assessments
2009 - IRG/WP 09-50259
The risk assessments for the use of wood preservatives proposed by the OECD and used under the Biocidal Products Directive (BPD) (98/8/EC) require the derivation of leaching rates for active substances. These rates are to be used as input data in to agreed exposure scenarios. The leaching rates can be derived from laboratory testing and from field testing. The relationship between laboratory and field tests has been studied in order to determine the correlation between the two modes of testing. EN84 tests have been used as a method. However, the determination of environmental leaching rates is beyond the scope of this test and it has been found to over-estimate leaching. The OECD guideline 1 (dipping) test has been designed specifically to determine environmental leaching rates from UC3 wood. This paper compares the leaching fluxes derived from OECD guideline 1 dipping tests to those derived from field tests. This allows a comparison of both the magnitude of flux rates and leaching flux profiles derived from the two tests. The magnitudes of the flux rates require the application of correlation factors in order to get agreement; these factors are presented and found to be of the order 5 – 10. The leaching flux profiles are found to be very different when the flux rates are plotted against time. The laboratory test gives an “exponential” profile, i.e. a profile that decreases quite sharply with time and then levels off. The field test produces profiles that are “sawtooth” patterns with time. This “sawtooth” pattern correlates with rainfall. This is in agreement with, and confirms, data previously presented (Baines, 2008). In the present study, however, an alternative method of data analysis is explored. If the field data is normalised according to the amount of rain falling then it is found that the laboratory and field tests produce very similar leaching profiles. Thus, the contrast previously discussed is shown to be an artefact of the method of analysing the data obtained from field tests. This is due to the inherent variability of weather patterns with time that cannot be replicated in the laboratory. If annual average rainfall figures are used, the risk assessments at differing time points can be carried out as assessments at average rainfall amounts. This alternative method of data analysis according to rainfall rather than time suggests a method of analysing the models for OECD risk assessment that can increase their utility.
D G Cantrell

Search for an anti-sapstain treatment for fresh radiata pine wood in compliance with European BPD norms: Field Tests
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30673
In response to the impending restrictions on the use of pesticide active ingredients developed to control the staining of fresh wood, as a result of regulation issued in 2009 by the European Union, a project was proposed to test an alternative anti-sapstain treatment that meets both the European restrictions and the performance required for an export-quality radiata pine fresh wood treatment. A set of 16 treatments that included a positive control (commercial treatment), and an untreated control was set and evaluated at three and six months after the application. The treatments tested included formulations of active ingredients and coformulants, and focused on two anchor treatments: one made with a azole based formulation and another that tested cupric hydroxide as base active ingredient. The results of the initial evaluation is that the active ingredients, at the concentration tested, failed to provide protection over time as required; therefore, at a second follow up trial, other active ingredients were tested, in order to resolve the problem. The second stage of the study incorporated the active ingredient DCOIT, who had shown in studies carried in New Zealand, a potentiating effect of the azole based treatments in the control of the stainer complex in time. The third stage of the study tested different sources of the active ingredient DCOIT, and different concentrations of active ingredients and coformulants, in order to determine a cost competitive and performance effective alternative.
P Montes C, T Hanke W