Your search resulted in 534 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Studies on Effect of pH on Copper Availability in Copper-Based Preservatives
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30549
Laboratory methods have been employed to investigate the pH effect on the copper solubility of basic copper carbonate. The pH was controlled using two different approaches. One was with the adjustment of pH of the solutions by acid or base using sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide until the solution equilibriums were obtained for each defined pH. A second approach was to control pH with buffer sol...
L Jin, P Walcheski, A F Preston
Copper Migration from Micronized Copper Preservatives Treated Wood in soil contact:
2011 - IRG/WP 11-50280
Emerging formulations of preservatives made with micronized basic copper carbonates with azoles and/or quat to control copper tolerant fungi have been used to replace formulations containing soluble copper to reduce the leaching of copper and the corrosion of metal in contact with wood. This study proposes to use laboratory soil leaching test AWPA standard (E20-08) to estimate the amount of copper...
Lei Wang, D P Kamdem
A comparison of the leaching resistance of diammine-copper complexes and copper carbonate precipitated in wood
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30158
Previous studies have shown that during treatment of wood with ammoniacal copper solutions, both simple copper precipitates and diammine-copper complexes are formed. The objective of the present study is to determine the relative importance of both forms of copper, on such aspects as preservative leachability and biological performance. In the current experiment, the leachability of copper carbona...
Xiao Jiang, J N R Ruddick
The influence of cement and calcium compounds on the performance of CCA preservatives
1983 - IRG/WP 3221
The influence of cement and calcium compounds on the durability of untreated and CCA treated wood is considered. Calcium compounds were found to reduce the toxicity of a CCA preservative to a soft rot fungus at copper to calcium ratios of 1:1 and 1:10 using a cellulose filter paper technique. Further studies are outlined and some possible mechanisms by which cement and calcium compounds may affect...
R J Murphy
A Green and Novel Technology for Recovering Copper and Wood from Treated Waste - Part I
2015 - IRG/WP 15-50309
Preservative treatment of wood extends its service life. The US consumes about 70 million pounds of copper and produces about 7 billion board feet of treated wood annually. Burning and reusing CCA and copper treated wood wastes are disallowed by US EPA due to health and environmental concerns. Millions of pounds of copper and wood are disposed by landfill annually. The objective of this study was...
Preliminary study of the fungicidal and structural variability in copper naphthenates and naphthenic acids
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30114
Copper naphthenates, an oil-borne wood preservative listed by the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA), is manufactured by complexing copper(II) with naphthenic acids. Prior to AWPA listing as a wood preservative, field experiments showed that copper naphthenates generally had good stability and were active against wood-destroying organisms. Recently, however, there have been reports ...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, L L Ingram Jr, T H Fisher
Sequestration of copper ions by the extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) of two wood rotting basidiomycetes
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10533
The radial growth rate of colonies originating from either whole or ECMM-free inocula of Coriolus versicolor was investigated. The presence of ECMM allowed colonies to maintain higher growth rates than those form ECMM-free inocula up to 2 mM CuSO4 in the medium. The ECMM of C. versicolor and G. trabeum was able to reduce the diffusion of copper ions in solution. The ‘raw’ ECMM of both fungi ha...
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy
Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of com...
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner
International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Third update and first report
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10174
At the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists was initiated. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives, copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and copper naphthenate (Cu-Na) against the subterran...
J R J French
Types of decay observed in CCA-treated pine posts in horticultural situations in New Zealand
1984 - IRG/WP 1226
The few reported failures of 11-12-year-old horticultural posts in New Zealand in 1982 were caused by brown-rot. A subsequent survey of CCA-treated posts in all the major horticultural areas has revealed decay of many posts. A microscopic examination of these posts has shown decay by brown-rot, white-rot, soft-rot and bacteria. Several types of bacterial decay have been observed....
J A Drysdale, M E Hedley
An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper-chrome-arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3150
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. We have evaluated the influence of steaming on treatability with a waterborne CCA preservative....
C R Coggins
Electrodialytic remediation of creosote and CCA treated timber wastes
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50190
There is a growing concern about the environmental issue of impregnated timber waste management, since an increase in the amount of waste of treated wood is expected over the next decades. Presently, no well-documented treatment technique is yet available for this type of waste. Alternative options concerning the disposal of treated wood are becoming more attractive to study, especially the ones ...
E P Mateus, A B Ribeiro, L Ottosen
Fungicidal activity of some organic solvents, copper carboxylates and their complexes with 2-aminoethanol
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30136
We evaluated the activity of eight organic solvents against wood - rotting fungus Trametes versicolor in order to choose the most appropriate one for rapid screening tests of some copper(II) carboxylates and their adducts with 2-aminoethanol. Their activity against the selected fungus was classified in the following order: chloroform > N,N-dimethylformamide > acetonitrile > methanol > ...
M Petric, F Pohleven
Termite resistance of pine wood treated with chromated copper arsenates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30128
Two four-week, no-choice laboratory tests were performed with CCA-treated southern yellow pine and radiata pine against Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus. CCA retentions as low as 0.05 kg/m3 (0.03 pcf) provided protection from all but light termite attack (rating of 9 on a 10-point visual scale). Similar and consistent light attack on wafers containing retentions as high as 6....
J K Grace
Problems of fixation of CCA-preservatives in palm-wood
1985 - IRG/WP 3338
Palm-wood may be used for posts and poles where it needs proper treatment for long time use. Based on observations by W. Killmann on low CCA-fixation in palm-wood, samples of Jubaea-palm grown in a Greenhouse at Hamburg, have been treated in two different series with a 4% solution of CCA-type B. After 1-16 weeks of storage the blocks were split into sticks of 1-2 mm² and leached. In all series 50...
H Willeitner, K Brandt
Field Testing of Copper Carboxylate Preservatives
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30322
This paper details our ongoing experience with field testing of copper naphthenate and other copper carboxylate preservative systems. Results from field stake tests at an AWPA Hazard Zone 4 test site are presented. In general, copper carboxylates made with ‘synthetics’ yielded results equivalent to or only slightly lower than systems with straight nap acids or nap acids amended with syntheti...
H M Barnes, M G Sanders, T L Amburgey
The leaching of copper, chrome and arsenate from CCA-impregnated poles stored for ten years in running water
1978 - IRG/WP 3122
There is no evidence to indicate that the chromium and copper components are leached from the outermost 5 mm of sapwood in poles impregnated with Boliden K33 and Tanalith C and stored in running water for ten years. The arsenic component, however, seems to be leached out during the first few months to an extent of about 20% of the initial amount. The leaching time is dependent on the preservative ...
F G Evans
Recent soft-rot research in softwoods and hardwoods
1980 - IRG/WP 1108
The purpose of this paper is to describe briefly the current status of our research on soft-rot fungi. The work to be discussed is still in progress and any results described must be regarded as provisional....
J A Butcher
A new concept of oxalic acid biosynthesis in physiology of copper-tolerant brown-rot fungi
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10394
Recently, a wide variety of roles of oxalic acid (oxalate) in wood decay systems have been receiving much attention. Copper tolerance of wood-rotting basidiomycetes has been believed to be due to the detoxification of copper wood preservatives by oxalate produced by these fungi. However, biochemical mechanism of oxalate biosynthesis in relation to physiology of wood-rotting fungi has not been eluc...
E Munir, T Hattori, M Shimada
Copper naphthenate performance: A new way to look at old data
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30215
Although copper naphthenate has over a 50-year test history, it is still considered as a "new" preservative in the United States when it is used for utility poles. It has also been extensively used in remedial treatments for poles and has considerable retail or over-the-counter sales. The test history includes a number of different tests and a rationale for evaluating this data and comparing the p...
C R McIntyre
The biostatic effect of copper on decay of fire retardant-treated mining timber
1991 - IRG/WP 1507
Blocks of Eucalyptus grandis were treated with 20kg/m³ ammonium sulphate as fire retardant and challenged with Coriolus versicolor. Replicates were soil buried. A second set of blocks was treated with retardant and copper at 6.6 kg/m³ (ie 1% w/w), and challenged similarly. After 8 weeks weight losses produced by Coriolus versicolor in untreated, retardant treated and copper supplemented blocks w...
G D Shelver, E A Shelver, A A W Baecker
Depletion of boron and copper from CCB treated test specimens using different leaching protocols
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50208
The objective of this study was to measure the depletion of inorganic wood preservative components regarding the proposed OECD guideline "Estimation of emissions from preservative-treated wood to the environment: laboratory method for wooden commodities exposed in the use class 4 and 5" as part of the project "Investigations concerning the influence of test parameters on the release of biocidal ac...
E Melcher, R-D Peek, U Schoknecht, R Wegner
Light organic solvent preservative treatment of glue-laminated radiata pine
1986 - IRG/WP 3380
The high permeability of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) is associated with ray-tissue and in particular the cross-field pits linking ray-tissue to tracheids. This pathway is absent in the tangential grain direction, leading to poor preservative penetration when treatment is restricted to the radial face - for example, timber fabricated into glue-laminated beams....
Effectiveness and synergistic effects between copper and polymer betaine
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30097
Different formulations of "Copper Amine" and Polymer Betaine were studied. During laboratory tests a synergism between both active ingredients against soft rot and dry rot has been found. The efficacy against soft rot according to the "BAM method" and the European Standard ENV 807 depends only on the amount of copper. Long term tests in a fungus cellar for determining the relative protective effec...
H Härtner, V Barth
Performance of Tebbacop in laboratory, fungus cellar and field tests
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30222
A novel organo-copper wood preservative ("Tebbacop") has been exposed to 12 years fungus cellar testing and 6 years above ground field testing. In the fungus cellar, Tebbacop at a retention of 0.053% Cu m/m oven dry wood out-performed CCA at a retention of 0.55% m/m oven dry wood. In above ground tests, L-joints treated to a Tebbacop retention of 0.012% Cu are performing as well as joints treated ...
M E Hedley, D R Page, B E Patterson