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The formation of organotin carboxylates in bis(tributyltin) oxide - treated Pinus sylvestris sapwood
1990 - IRG/WP 3618
Tributyltin compounds have been successfully used for many years as wood preservatives, although their chemical nature in timber have not been fully elucidated. This study by 119Sn and 13C NMR spectroscopy has shown that, on impregnation into Pinus sylvestris sapwood, bis(tributyltin) oxide, (Bu3Sn)2O, is rapidly converted to tributyltin carboxylates, Bu3SnOCO·R, via reaction with components of t...
S J Blunden, R Hill


Decay resistance of resin treated wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30206
Selected natural resin systems were evaluated for their potential as wood protecting agents according to standard test procedures. As indicated by the European standard EN 599 both a Basidiomycete test according to EN 113 and a ENV 807 soil bed test were carried out. Six resin treatments were tested using 3 concentration or treatment levels. Using the biocidal activity criteria as usually applied ...
J Van Acker, A J Nurmi, S M Gray, H Militz, C Hill, H Kokko, A O Rapp


A selective-choice laboratory bioassay technique with Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill) (Isoptera: Termitidae)
1983 - IRG/WP 1176
This paper presents a laboratory bioassay technique for simultaneous exposure of a variety of specimens to the same termite biomass. Details of the technique are given in a small scale selective-choice assessment with Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill) in which timber species susceptibility is compared together with the efficacy of sub-lethal concentrations of protective compounds....
C D Howick, J W Creffield, P R Burridge


Biological and chemical observation on the early fungal colonization of TBTO treated Swedish redwood stakes
1984 - IRG/WP 3311
Data on the early fungal colonization of Swedish redwood stakes, impregnated with 1% TBT0 / 0.5% dieldrin solution, both by double vacuum impregnation and immersion processes are presented. Results of chemical analyses of wood samples from the outer 1 mm of separate painted and unpainted stakes, exposed over the same twelve month period, are also discussed....
R Hill, A H Chapman, A Samuel, K Manners, G Morton


Efficacy of linear chain carboxylic acid anhydrides as wood protection chemicals
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30295
This paper presents an assessment of the effectiveness of linear chain carboxylic acid anhydrides namely, acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric and hexanoic anhydride, in improving the decay resistance of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra Schneid) sapwood. Wood-anhydride bond formation was verified by the increase in sample weight and volume. A brown rot fungus [Coniophora puteana (Schum.:Fr)] was selec...
A N Papadopoulos, M D C Hale, C A S Hill


Bending Properties of FRT OSB
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40600
Fire retardant treated (FRT) oriented strandboard (OSB) and plywood of different widths were tested in static bending to determine width effects. Results were consistent with previous width effect studies and showed that increasing specimen width results in a decrease in sample MOR properties among all the sample groups tested in this study. Increasing sample width for OSB samples leads to more ...
J M Hill, H M Barnes, S Q Shi


The chemical nature of bis(tributyltin) oxide in Pinus sylvestris sapwood
1989 - IRG/WP 3508
Tributyltin compounds have been used for many years as wood preservatives. This study has provided, for the first time, an explanation for the previously reported dealkylation and/or volatilisation of the tributyltin species in, and from, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood. Thus, 119 Sn nuclear magnetic resonance studies have shown that, on impregnation into this timber, bis(tributyltin) oxide ...
S J Blunden, R Hill


The compatability of tributyltin fungicides and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides as wood preservatives
1987 - IRG/WP 3414
The stability of three synthetic pyrethroids, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin, to selected tributyltin compounds, Bu3SnX {where X = OSnBu3, Cl, 02CC6H5, O2C (Naphthenyl), OSO2Et}, (Bu3SnO)3PO and {NBu4} {Bu3SnCl2}, in toluene solution was investigated by infra-red spectroscopy over a six month period. It was found that only (Bu3Sn)2O reacted with the pyrethroids and that their order of r...
S J Blunden, R Hill


Factors affecting resistance to sapstain infection in freshly felled softwood logs
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10467
Previous studies in the UK have shown a marked difference in the susceptibility of logs of five softwood species to infection by sapstain fungi over a 4 month field trial. Recently this result has been confirmed and the rank order of greatest to least susceptibility in these commercially important species is lodgepole pine > Scots pine > Norway spruce > Japanese larch > Sitka spruce. C...
E J Young, R A Eaton, J F Webber, M A W Hill


The effectiveness of three tributyltin compounds in beech against soft rot fungi using a soil-bed technique: A preliminary report
1986 - IRG/WP 3390
The effectiveness, towards soft rot fungi, of bis (tributyltin) oxide, tributyltin ethanesulphonate (TBTES) and benzyltributylammonium tributyldichlorostannate in both leached and unleached beech stakes is compared to that of a CCA preservative (Tanalith CT 106), using a soilbed technique. In addition, the effect of test solvent (water or toluene) on the performance of TBTES is evaluated. Total ti...
R Hill, A H Chapman, B Patel, A Samuel, J K Carey


Assessing the bioresistance conferred to solid wood by chemical modification
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40099
The chemical modification of wood using straight chain alkyl anhydrides can considerably enhance its durability. This paper presents an assessment of the effectiveness of these modifiers in improving the biological resistance of a susceptible softwood when exposed to four different basidiomycete fungi, soft rots and the larvae of the house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus). It was clear that so...
E D Suttie, C A S Hill, D Jones, R J Orsler


Implications for comparability of laboratory experiments revealed in studies on the effects of population density on the vigour in groups of Coptotermes lacteus (Frogatt) and Nasutitermes exitiosus(Hill) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae)
1983 - IRG/WP 1194
The vigour - survival. and wood consumption - of groups of Coptotermes lacteus and Nasutitermes exitiosus was measured when termites were kept at different population densities (g termites/mL) by changing group size and/or volume of the holding container. A characteristic pattern emerges for subterranean-like termite species. At low population densities (<0.01 g/mL) performance of termites impr...
M Lenz, R A Barrett, E R Williams


A laboratory evaluation of tributyltin ethanesulphonate as an aqueous fungicide in wood preservation
1983 - IRG/WP 3229
Toxic limit data, using both leached and unleached wood test blocks, are reported for aqueous solutions of tributyltin ethanesulphonate against four Basidiomycete fungi, Poria placenta, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Coriolus versicolor and Coniophora puteana. An in situ study of the tributyltin compound in Scots pine and ponderosa pine sapwood has been carried out, using the technique of 119mSn Mössbauer...
R Hill, P J Smith, J N R Ruddick, K W Sweatman


Kerfing and center-boring reduce checking in CCA-treated slash pine posts
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40082
Single and double kerfing, center-boring and incising were applied to green, peeled, slash pine posts. Posts were air dried for ten weeks and assessed for the number of surface drying checks greater than 1.0 mm in width. Posts were then pressure treated with a chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA-C) preservative and exposed outdoors in a horizontal position. The number of surface weathering checks in th...
P D Evans, R Wingate-Hill, R B Cunningham


The kinetics of anhydride modification reactions of wood. Experimental results and theoretical modelling
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40125
Although the chemical modification of wood remains a fertile area for research, there has been little work performed on the kinetics of the modification process. The reaction kinetics of a series of linear chain and cyclic anhydrides has been studied and activation energies of the reaction determined. The reaction kinetic profiles are determined by the relative rates of reaction of the reagent wit...
C A S Hill, J G Hillier


Preliminary observations on tributyltin treated Scots pine sapwood using 119Sn (Mössbauer and NMR) spectroscopic techniques
1984 - IRG/WP 3312
119mSn Mössbauer data are presented for bis(tributyltin) oxide, tributyltin ethanesulphonate, bis(tributyltin) carbonate and tris(tributyltin) phosphate, both in the pure form and in Scots pine sapwood. The structures proposed for these compounds, in the solid state, are supported by 119Sn nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
R Hill


Quantification of creosote and fluoride in remedially-treated poles
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40097
Three creosoted transmission poles were put into service in 1961 and they were subsequently remedially-treated with a proprietary fluoride remedial paste formulation in 1981. The poles were removed from service in 1996 and their ground-contact regions were analysed for creosote and fluoride contents. It was found that the poles were undecayed. Creosote retentions decreased down the profiles of the...
B P Hill


Efficacy of triflumuron dust against Schedorhinotermes intermedius (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30226
Insecticidal dusts have been used against termites for decades, with arsenic dust being the standard in Australia. While fair success over the years has been achieved against genera such as Coptotermes and Nasutitermes, Schedorhinotermes has been much more difficult to control. This genus has nests which are very difficult to locate and thus it is problematic to determine whether a treatment has b...
W Madden, P Hadlington, M Hill


Implications for comparability of laboratory experiments revealed in studies on the effects of population density on the vigour in groups of Coptotermes lacteus (Froggatt) and Nasutitermes exitiosus(Hill) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae)
1983 - IRG/WP 1197
(Summary of paper 1194) The vigour - survival and wood consumption - of groups of Coptotermes lacteus and Nasutitermes exitiosus was measured when termites were kept at different population densities (g termites/ mL) by changing group size and/or volume of the holding container. A characteristic pattern emerged. At low population densities (< 0,01 g/mL) performance of termites improved with an increase in group size; at higher population densities it tended to decline. The impact of altering group size and container volume on termite vigour was most pronounced at low densities; at higher population densities, performance tended to be more stable but declined markedly when termites became overcrowded. In most jar-type experiments on termites, especially those conducted in Europe and the U.S.A., small groups of termites are housed in disproportionately large jars, resulting in very low, sub-optimal population densities. Suggestions are made for improvements in experimental design that would lead to an enhancement of the comparability of results from different laboratories.
M Lenz, R A Barrett, E R Williams


Assessment of the Envelope Effect of Three Hot Oil Treatments: Resistance to Decay by Coniophora puteana and Postia placenta
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40344
Timber of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. maritima) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) was treated in hot linseed oil, rapeseed oil and a proprietary resin derived from linseed oil. The samples were immersed in oil or resin under reduced pressure at temperatures of 180°C and 200°C. Very high uptakes of the oils or resin were recorded for pine, while spruce showed lower weight percent gains, below...
M J Spear, C A S Hill, S F Curling, D Jones, M D C Hale


Natural durability of fast growth plantation Eucalyptus grandis Hill, ex Maiden
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10660
One of the fast growing species cultivated in Uruguay of mayor economical importance is Eucalyptus grandis. Physical and mechanical properties of juvenile and mature wood from different regions have been deeply studied. However, since no scientific data of natural durability of this specie has been reported, natural durability of E. grandis from two sites (Rivera and Rio Negro) was evaluated. Two ...
S Böthig, A Sánchez, J Doldán


Bending Properties of Southern Pine Treated with Micronized Preservative Systems
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40414
This study indicates that treatment of southern pine with micronized copper systems have no deleterious effect on the residual strength property values. No statistical differences between wood treated with micronized systems and water-treated controls were noted when means were compared using either Tukey’s test or S-N-K mean comparison tests. Using the more discriminating Least Squares anal...
H M Barnes, G B Lindsey, J Hill, M Pompeo, R Hodge


Moisture adsorption isotherms of wood studies using a dynamic vapour sorption apparatus
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20398
Five types of wood including two Malaysian hardwoods acacia mangium (Acacia mangium) and sesenduk (Endospermum malaccense), two temperate softwoods, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), radiata pine (Pinus radiata) and Accoya (commercially modified wood) were studied to determine their moisture sorption behaviour using a Dynamic Vapour Sorption (DVS) apparatus. The isotherm plot for each species teste...
J Zaihan, C A S Hill, S Curling


Colour change monitoring of photodegradation in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) – a short term focus
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40442
Colour change monitoring of photodegradation is a quick and easy method for monitoring rates of photodegradation in timber. A study was undertaken to compare this technique to other monitoring methods, including microtensile strength changes and weight loss. Colour changes due to accelerated sunlight exposure were monitored using a Datacolor check spectrophotometer and compared with a set of contr...
V Sharratt, C A S Hill, D P R Kint


Kinetic Water Vapour Sorption of Sitka Spruce at Variable Temperature Using the Parallel Exponential Kinetics Model
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40512
In this study the water vapour sorption of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bongard) Carr.) was measured using a Dynamic Vapour Sorption (DVS) apparatus and then analysed using the parallel exponential kinetics (PEK) model. The water vapour sorption rate of wood quickly increased when the relative humidity was changed. With the elapse of time, the sorption rate gradually decreased within any specif...
Yanjun Xie, C Hill


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