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Preventing fungal attack of freshly sawn lumber using cinnamon extracts
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30432
The potential for using cinnamon oil as an anti-mold and stain compound was investigated on ponderosa pine sapwood. Cinnamon oil was highly effective when used in ethanol, but its activity declined when it was mixed with only water. Attempts to enhance water solubility with surfactants improved solution stability, but had no apparent effect on biological activity. Further studies with other co-so...
Shujun Li, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Accelerated laboratory testing of preservatives on 13 North American wood species
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30201
The ability of selected water and solvent based biocides to protect wood against fungal attack was evaluated on 13 North American wood species using 7 decay fungi in a modified soil block test. Most preservatives were capable of providing protection at their recommended above ground and soil contact use levels. Many decay fungi caused substantial weight losses on blocks treated with chlorothalonil...
J J Morrell, C M Freitag


The effect of glycol additives on diffusion of boron through Douglas-fir
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30235
Boron is highly effective against a variety of fungi and insects and is able to diffuse with moisture through wood. Diffusion decreases sharply at lower moisture contents, a characteristic that limits the potential use of this material as a remedial treatment for arresting internal decay. One approach to improvi ng boron diffusion is the simultaneous addition of glycol, which is presumed to enhanc...
C M Freitag, R Rhatigan, J J Morrell


Preliminary evaluations of a small wafer assay for screening potential biological control agents
1989 - IRG/WP 2332
Screening potential biological agents for controlling wood decay fungi poses a dilemma. The ideal test would eliminate as many variables as possible. Most tests utilize pure cultures of the test organism on an artificial media which in no way resembles wood. The use of sawdust improves this approach, but the sawdust increases fungal access to the lignocellulose matrix, potentially inflating the im...
C M Freitag, J J Morrell


Colonization of treated and untreated ponderosa pine exposed in Hilo, Hawaii
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20068
The rate of decay in above ground exposures is largely controlled by rainfall and temperature, factors which can be used to construct a climate index of decay hazard in above ground exposures. Developers of new biocide formulations have utilized this knowledge by establishing test sites in sub-tropical regions such as the Gulf Coast of the United States. More recently, field sites have been locate...
C M Freitag, J J Morrell, K J Archer


Development of threshold values for boron compounds in above ground exposures: Preliminary trials
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30179
Boron is increasingly used both as an initial and remedial treatment for protecting wood against fungal and insect attack. While establishing lethal dosages for boron against insects through feeding tests is relatively simple, establishing thresholds for fungal attack poses more of a challenge. Tests using boron dispersed in agar artificially surround the fungus with both boron and excess nutrient...
J J Morrell, C M Freitag, S Unger


Effect of post-treatment processing on leachability of ACZA-treated douglas-fir lumber
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50109
The effect of post-treatment procedures that more rapidly precipitate copper, zinc, and arsenic in douglas-fir treated with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) on subsequent leaching resistance were investigated at two retentions (6.4 and 40 kg/m3). Total leaching was greater from boards treated to the higher retention. At both levels, copper was lost at the highest rate. Post-treatment process...
J J Morrell, C S Love, S Kumar, C M Freitag


Detecting fungal DNA in treated and non-treated wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10621
Isolating fungi from wood has long involved culturing on selective media followed by identification using various keys. This process can be cumbersome, costly, and, most importantly, not always capable of detecting all of the fungi present. The recent development of molecular methods for isolation and identification of fungi has created tremendous opportunities for expanding our knowledge of the...
C Freitag, M Freitag, J Morrell


Effects of heat treatments on decay resistance and material properties of ponderosa pine and yellow poplar
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40374
The potential for using heat treatment to improve the properties of North American fenestration species was evaluated on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa L) and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L) treated using the ThermoWood process at various treatment temperatures and times. Soil block tests using Gloeophyllum trabeum, Postia placenta, or Trametes versicolor showed that durability was enh...
C Vidrine, C Freitag, J Nicholson, J J Morrell


Antifungal activity of plant derived extracts against G. trabeum
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30433
While synthetic chemicals have provided excellent protection to woods used in adverse environments, the general public remains interested in naturally derived wood protectants. There are diverse arrays of possible candidates, but many of these compounds are not readily water soluble and efforts to render them soluble often reduce biological activity. In this report, we describe efforts to enhance ...
M Maoz, I Weitz, M Blumenfeld, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Effect of a biological treatment on below ground decay of Douglas-fir pole sections
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40433
The use of exogenous sugars to accelerate microbial growth and eventually limit available oxygen in soil surrounding wood in soil contact was investigated on untreated Douglas-fir poles exposed over a 3 year period in Western Oregon. Isolation frequencies differed markedly between treated and untreated poles and the treatment did appear to shift the frequency of some basidiomycetes. The treatment ...
C Freitag and J J Morrell


Effect of Preservative Treatment on Fungal Colonization of Teak, Redwood, and Western Red Cedar
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20404
Fungal flora present in preservative treated samples or non-treated samples from sapwood and heartwood of teak, western red cedar, redwood, and southern yellow pine was assessed after 6 to 18 months of exposure near Hilo, Hawaii. The objectives were to compare fungal composition and diversity between treated and non-treated samples, and to examine the use of molecular techniques for assessing fung...
Y Cabrera, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Potential synergy between natural product extracts for limiting fungal decay
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30495
Natural products often exhibit tremendous potential for inhibiting various microorganisms when they are tested in petri dish tests, but perform poorly when tested in vivo. The failures can often be attributed to a lack of broad spectrum activity against the range of organisms present in a natural environment. One method for overcoming this challenge is to use extracts from a number of sources with...
M Maoz, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Use of Internal Remedial Treatment to Extend Wood Life at the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30525
The condition of wood in a reconstructed fur trading fort was assessed over a 30 year period. Poor initial treatment had resulted in the development of extensive early decay. While supplemental treatment with chloropicrin and methylisothiocyanate had arrested the attack, the results suggested that remedial treatments were unable to completely overcome the initial problems associated with treatmen...
C S Love, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Metal Migration from Douglas-fir Poles Treated with Ammoniacal Copper Zinc Arsenate According to Best Management Practices
2010 - IRG/WP 10-50272
The potential for migration of metal components from ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate treated (ACZA) poles was examined using pole sections treated using Best Management Practices. Copper and zinc levels were highest in runoff collected following the first rainfall events, then declined. Copper and zinc levels in runoff averaged 20 ppm and 5 pm respectively. The metal levels were then used to pr...
J J Morrell, C S Love, C Freitag


The potential for using CuO nanoparticles as a wood preservative
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30569
The potential for using nano-copper particles for wood protection was investigated using mini-agar slant and wood block tests with Gloeophyllum trabeum or Trametes versicolor. Nano-copper was more effective against G. trabeum than T. versicolor, although neither of these fungi would be considered copper tolerant. Nano-copper solutions were stable over a 17 week storage period, but precipitated w...
I S Weitz, K Knani, M Maoz, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Effect of biodiesel on Performance of Isothiazolone
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30625
Biodiesel has a number of attractive properties, including the ability to readily solubilize a number of biocides and a tendency to reduce odors associated with other solvents such as petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesels, however, have also been implicated in reduced performance of some, but not all preservatives. It is important to assess the effects of biodiesel on each biocide. Soil block tests ...
Cheng Hua-Kang, L Jin, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Potential for migration of boron from fused boron rods used as internal remedial treatments of utility poles
2014 - IRG/WP 14-50301
The distribution of boron in Douglas-fir utility poles and in the surrounding soil was assessed over a 54 month period following application of fused boron rods. Boron levels in the wood never reached the levels that might be predicted if diffusion were to produce a uniform chemical distribution, nor did levels in the soil suggest that boron was becoming more concentrated. The results suggest th...
M Konkler, C Freitag, C S Love, J J Morrell, J Renfroe


Migration of copper from copper naphthenate treated Douglas-fir poles during storage
2014 - IRG/WP 14-50302
Preservative migration from treated wood products has raised concerns among regulators, especially when the biocides move into surface waters. In most cases, chemical levels are well below the acceptable minimum level, but can become a concern if large quantities of treated wood are stored in one location. One such case would be a location where utility poles are stored for use in emergency repai...
C S Love, C M Freitag, J J Morrell