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Copper naphthenate performance: A new way to look at old data
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30215
Although copper naphthenate has over a 50-year test history, it is still considered as a "new" preservative in the United States when it is used for utility poles. It has also been extensively used in remedial treatments for poles and has considerable retail or over-the-counter sales. The test history includes a number of different tests and a rationale for evaluating this data and comparing the p...
C R McIntyre


Chemical investigation of 23-year-old CDDC treated southern yellow pine
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30141
The effect of 23 years exterior exposure on CDDC treated southern yellow pine was evaluated by the application of solid state analytical instrumentation. Analytical methods including environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM),energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and atomic absorption spectr...
D P Kamdem, C R McIntyre


Evaluation of Barrier Wrap Systems after 71 Months of Exposure
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40631
A 71 month study of the performance of booted samples in ground contact was conducted in AWPA hazard zone 4. Data indicated that excellent performance of wrapped systems, even over untreated wood, could be obtained. Instances of decay colonization or termite attack could all be attributed to some breaking of the integrity of the barrier system. Good performance for treatment below ground contact...
H M Barnes, M G Sanders, G B Lindsey, C McIntyre


Laboratory aquaria evaluation of CDDC (copper dimethyldithiocarbamate) against marine borers
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10262
The performance of CDDC (copper dimethyldithiocarbamate) and CCA (copper chrome arsenic) treated timber blocks was examined in a 1.5 year aquaria bioassay against the marine borers Limnoria tripunctata Menzies and Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages). Three timbers, southern yellow pine (SYP), Pinus radiata D. Don and Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell were treated with CDDC to retentions of 16, 32, 48 and...
L J Cookson, C R McIntyre, D Scown


A comparison of analytical techniques
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20061
This paper compares carefully-controlled weight retentions and analysis by XRF, ICP, combustion methods and a new extraction procedure for the new preservative, Copper(II) Dimethyldithiocarbamate (CDDC). Various experimental parameters such as particle size and drying conditions were investigated. In general, the correlations between and among the procedures are very high. The extraction-colorimet...
A C Gallacher, C R McIntyre, M H Freeman, D K Stokes, W B Smith


Treatment and recycle of CCA hazardous waste
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50007
Chromated copper arsenate containing hazardous materials is generated from the manufacture, treatment of the wood, and from the wood itself, after its life cycle. Laboratory treating of these wastes has resulted in materials suitable for recycle or disposal as non-hazardous residues. The extraction, by both acidic and ammoniacal routes, of CCA production and treating plant waste materials has been...
E A Pasek, C R McIntyre


Assaying Pentachlorophenol-treated Wood Using XRF
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20362
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oil type on the performance of test posts treated with oil-penta and exposed in DeQueen, AR for forty years in ground contact. The original assays for the poles were done by lime ignition, a practice used sparingly today in treating plants or by independent inspectors, in part due to the complicated analysis procedure and chances for error. XRF ins...
H M Barnes, C R McIntyre, D W Bullock , M H Freeman, G B Lindsey


Biological efficacy of micronized copper systems
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30485
Soil block, fungal cellar and field stake test data will be presented for micronized copper systems. The copper portion of the formulations is present as a fine dispersion of "micro" particulates while the co-biocide is present as either a soluble quat or an azole containing emulsion. This testing generally used the amine based counterpart as the control preservative system and the micronized fo...
C R McIntyre, M H Freeman


A Comprehensive Review of Copper as a Biocide, with a Focus on Micronized Copper
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30486
This paper reviews the wood preservative biocide active ingredient copper and delvers into new and previously unpublished data regarding the new micronized formulations which are now in vogue and widespread use in N. America in all residential treated lumber markets. Included in this review is the overall discussion of copper containing formulations used for pressure treated wood used over the las...
M H Freeman, C R McIntyre


Laboratory and field exposures of FRT plywood: Part 1. Physical test data
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40426
Our understanding of the laboratory induced degradation with fire retardant systems is currently limited since we are unable to correlate laboratory steady-state experiments with actual in-service field degradation. Current model studies have generally been limited to isothermal rate studies with selected model FR chemicals. Other factors also play a major role in the degradation of FR-treated woo...
H M Barnes, J E Winandy, C R McIntyre


The Form of Copper: Does It Really Matter?
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30513
In recent years, several micronized copper formulations for lumber treatment have supplanted the solubilized copper formulations that in turn replaced CCA after its voluntary relabeling in 2004. The micronized or dispersed copper systems use finely ground but solid copper particles and deposit those particles within the wood framework. In contrast, copper in the soluble formulations is relativel...
C R McIntyre, M H Freeman, T F Shupe, Q Wu, D P Kamdem


Comparison of Micronized Copper Particle Sizes
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30538
The particle sizes of micronized copper formulations derived from treating liquids were compared with those deposited in wood treated with those liquids. The intent was to determine if agglomeration occurs in the liquids during the treatment process, if screening of the agglomerates occurs in the wood and if there are any apparent differences in the particle sizes in the wood. Three formulations...
C R McIntyre


Copper preservative systems: A rapid investigation into effects of co-biocides and used treating solutions
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30541
The efficacy of various micronized and amine copper preservative systems was evaluated using soil block testing with the copper tolerant brown rot fungi, Postia placenta. The American Wood Protection Association E22 protocol was used to compare the relative efficacy of preservatives by monitoring compressive strength losses of the systems in southern pine wood. As information, the weight losses ...
T F Shupe, K Ragon, Q Wu, M H Freeman, C R McIntyre


Fixed Borates Anyone?
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30563
The quest for a borate based preservative system that resists leaching or is “fixed” has long been a research goal. Boron fixation has been attempted with numerous strategies but there have been problems associated with past methods. This paper discusses new fixation systems based on bio-materials and presents up to five year outdoor exposure testing on full-size decks. Generally, the new f...
C R McIntyre, M A Lake


Standardized Field Trials with Micronized Copper
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30564
In 2008, an extensive review of all available data from standardized tests of micronized copper systems was published and there has been considerable work since then. This paper discusses over 20 field stake trials underway in well-known sites such as Gainesville, FL, Hilo, HI and the Dorman and Saucier sites in MS as well as tests from Australia and New Zealand. In addition, 4 ground proximity ...
C R McIntyre, M H Freeman


Life Cycle Assessment Comparison of Treated Wood to Alternate Materials – Overview, Results and Lessons
2011 - IRG/WP 11-50282
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has proven useful in documenting the “green” benefits of various treated products compared to the commonly used alternates. To date, six LCA comparisons have been done or are nearing completion using ISO14040 and 14044 principles and data from US EPA databases. In almost all cases, the impact indicators for treated wood products show considerably smaller adverse e...
T Stephen, P E Smith, C R McIntyre


Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Strong Indications of the Reservoir Effect
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30609
Micronized copper wood preservative systems were launched commercially in May 2006. Now, over 75% of the residential lumber produced in the USA is treated with micronized wood preservative formulations. Although considered controversial at first, the mode of action of micronized copper has been clearly defined by multiple authors over the years, as well as a need for a co-biocide in water-borne sy...
M H Freeman, C R McIntyre