Your search resulted in 28 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
The influence of cement and calcium compounds on the performance of CCA preservatives
1983 - IRG/WP 3221
The influence of cement and calcium compounds on the durability of untreated and CCA treated wood is considered. Calcium compounds were found to reduce the toxicity of a CCA preservative to a soft rot fungus at copper to calcium ratios of 1:1 and 1:10 using a cellulose filter paper technique. Further studies are outlined and some possible mechanisms by which cement and calcium compounds may affect...
R J Murphy
Wood in concrete. Summary of discussion at IRG 14, Surfers Paradise, Australia
1984 - IRG/WP 3264
The performance of untreated and preservative treated wood when placed in direct contact with concrete was considered in a discussion session at IRG 14. While published reports in this area are scarce, research is in progress internationally and a variety of practices are currently available to minimize any additional hazard posed by contact with concrete. This report summarizes the points raised ...
R J Murphy
The use of zirconium as an inert fixative for borates in preservation
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30256
Stand-alone borates have been used in internal protected situations as wood preservatives for about 60 years. They have not been deemed acceptable for external situations because of their leaching characteristics. Work carried out to reduce the leachability of borates has been reviewed briefly here, and a specific fixation agent based on zirconium has been tested in standard leaching and decay tes...
J D Lloyd, J L Fogel, A Vizel
Collaborative soft rot tests: Results of analyses of soil samples
1976 - IRG/WP 263
C R Levy
Leachability of borate-modified oriented strandboard: A comparison of zinc and calcium borate
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40232
The leachability of boron in zinc and calcium borate-modified oriented strandboard (OSB) was investigated in this study. The leaching experiments were conducted by exposing edge-sealed OSB samples under running water for 8, 24, 72, and 216 hours. The results were compared with those from the unleached controls. Boron leaching of the modified OSB occurred upon the initial water exposure, and the le...
S Lee, Q Wu
Inhibition of wood decay and termite damage by calcium precipitation
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30111
Fungal decay of wood in service, especially brown rot, results in billions of dollars (US) of losses annually. Recent environmental restrictions, both U.S. and international, are limiting or eliminating the use of broad spectrum biocides for wood preservation, primarily due to problems with disposal. In order to design new, environmentally benign methods for control of wood decay fungi, it is esse...
F Green III, T A Kuster, L Ferge, T L Highley
Oxalate production and calcium oxalate accumulation by Gloeophyllum trabeum in buffered cultures
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10075
Most basidiomycetous fungi produce oxalic acid as a result of their metabolic activities and nutrient procurement. There is currently a renewed interest in the role that oxalic acid may play in the decomposition of wood by basidiomycete fungi. It has been observed that although most wood degrading fungi have the capacity to produce oxalic acid, not all of these organisms express this capacity equa...
J H Connolly, J Jellison
Inhibition of termite damage by N'N-napthaloylhydroxyamine (NHA): Reticulotermes flavipes (Kollar) vs. Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10354
The calcium precipitating agent NHA has been shown to protect southern yellow pine (SYP) from wood decay and termite damage comparable to CCA in field tests (Gulfport, MS) for two years (Crawford and Green, 1999). In a collaborative study, SYP wood blocks were vacuum treated with three concentrations of aqueous NHA and exposed in a no-choice test to Eastern subterranean termites (FPL, USA) and For...
F Green III, S T Lebow, T Yoshimura
A comparison of inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy and neutron activity analysis for the determination of concentrations in wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10048
As wood decays the ionic composition changes, with increases often being seen in the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and sometimes K. The concentration of eight cations in red spruce sapwood and heartwood samples was determined independently by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) and by neutron activation analysis (NAA) as part of an effort to standardize our analytical procedures and c...
J Jellison, J Connolly, K C Smith, W T Shortle
Decay and mold resistance of borate modified oriented strandboard
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40260
Decay and mold resistance of zinc borate (ZB) and calcium borate (CB) modified oriented strandboard (OSB) from southern mixed hardwoods and yellow pine was investigated in this study. Tests were done with brown rot, Gloeophyllum trabeum, and white-rot, Trametes versicolar, fungi for 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Wood species and fungus type had significant influence on the decay resistance. Decay...
Q Wu, S Lee, J P Jones
A comparison of the leaching resistance of diammine-copper complexes and copper carbonate precipitated in wood
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30158
Previous studies have shown that during treatment of wood with ammoniacal copper solutions, both simple copper precipitates and diammine-copper complexes are formed. The objective of the present study is to determine the relative importance of both forms of copper, on such aspects as preservative leachability and biological performance. In the current experiment, the leachability of copper carbona...
Xiao Jiang, J N R Ruddick
Alkaline building materials and controlled moisture conditions as causes for dry rot Serpula lacrymans growing only in houses
1985 - IRG/WP 1272
Dry rot Serpula lacrymans ( Fr.) S.F. Gray is commonly found in houses, though never with certainly in nature, like other wood destroying fungi which grow both indoors and outdoors. In investigating series of dry rot instances it was shown that this fungus is always found in covered places, close to a moisture source, the distance being from 0 a maximum of 600 cm. Owing to the dry rot has been abl...
Old and new facts on the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans
1991 - IRG/WP 1470
The article collates some of the recent literature on the biology of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. The fungus can grow at 28°C, and maximum wood moisture is above 55%. Serpula Iacrymans degrades crystalline cellulose. The intensive production of extracellular oxalic acid is neutralized by calcium and iron. There is considerable variation among the strains with regard to factors such as gr...
O Schmidt, U Moreth-Kebernik
Investigations into the biology of Meruliporia incrassata
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10508
The dry rot fungus Meruliporia incrassata (Berk. and Curt.) Murr. is a highly destructive brown rot wood decay fungus and is a significant pest of wooden structures. The fungus, know commonly as ‘Poria’, is characterized in culture by strand mycelium and skin-like surface mycelium. In structural environments it is found to produce prominent water conducting rhizomorphs, is a copious spore prod...
J Jellison, C Howell, B Goodell, S L Quarles
Production, function and neutralization of oxalic acid produced by the dry rot fungus and other brown rot fungi
1987 - IRG/WP 1330
The formation of oxalic acid by the wood-destroying fungi causing brown rot, is found to be the key which by hydrolysing the hemicellulose brings the cellulose in the tracheid wall in contact with the cellulase enzymes and yeld watersoluble sugars leaving only a lignin skeleton. To control the pH in the substrate the excess oxalic acid is precipitated to water insoluble calcium oxalate by the dry ...
Serpula lacrymans the dry rot fungus. Revue on previous papers
1989 - IRG/WP 1393
It is found that the Dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans grows in houses only because of its need for basic materials to neutralize the oxalic acid production or heavy metals which celate the oxalic acid. The average distance from the mycelium to the basic materials is found in average to be 14.2 cm with a variation from 0-100 cm. In contrast to Serpula lacrymans the Coniophora puteana and the Rigido...
Effects of bleaching process on the roughness values of wood surfaces of Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) and Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) using NaOH (sodium hydroxide), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) and Ca(OH)2 (calcium hydroxide)
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40403
Technical progress in the wood industry has been rapid in recent times. In this case, the quality assurance of the consumer products aligned with aesthetics value appears as one of the most important parameters. Because of the outer appearance of goods exert an effect on customers, interest in production of high quality surfaces of wooden commodities has increased essentially based on the surface ...
I Usta, E Aydinlar
Serpula lacrymans – calcium, iron, and foundering wooden boats
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10691
Serpula lacrymans is one of the most destructive wood-degrading brown rot fungi in temperate environments. Its virulence has often been linked to its ability to grow over non-woody materials and extract calcium (Ca) or iron (Fe) to promote wood degradation in buildings. This fungus has also been a severe problem in historic wooden warships and in modern wooden vessels, sometimes leading to founder...
J S Schilling, S M Duncan
Studies on Effect of pH on Copper Availability in Copper-Based Preservatives
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30549
Laboratory methods have been employed to investigate the pH effect on the copper solubility of basic copper carbonate. The pH was controlled using two different approaches. One was with the adjustment of pH of the solutions by acid or base using sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide until the solution equilibriums were obtained for each defined pH. A second approach was to control pH with buffer sol...
L Jin, P Walcheski, A F Preston
Copper Migration from Micronized Copper Preservatives Treated Wood in soil contact:
2011 - IRG/WP 11-50280
Emerging formulations of preservatives made with micronized basic copper carbonates with azoles and/or quat to control copper tolerant fungi have been used to replace formulations containing soluble copper to reduce the leaching of copper and the corrosion of metal in contact with wood. This study proposes to use laboratory soil leaching test AWPA standard (E20-08) to estimate the amount of copper...
Lei Wang, D P Kamdem
Fire resistance of wood treated with potassium carbonate and silanes
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30657
This paper reports on the effect that organosilicon compounds and potassium carbonate and urea (PCU) have on wood flammability. The study focus on reducing wood flammability by promoting char formation through manipulation of the condensed phase decomposition chemistry. Potassium carbonate is known as an effective fire retardant, however it is easily leached out from wood and increases its hygrosc...
B Mazela, M Broda, W Perdoch
Bio-friendly preservative systems for enhanced wood durability - the first periodic report on DURAWOOD
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30677
The objective of the paper is the DURAWOOD scientific project carried out within Polish-Norwegian Research Programme, which lasts from September 2013 till August 2016. The aim of the project concentrates on the developing of a new, eco-friendly and biocide-free wood protective systems as an alternative to traditional, commonly used preservatives or coatings, containing biocides. Several wood prese...
B Mazela, M Broda, W Perdoch, L Ross Gobakken, I Ratajczak, G Cofta, W Grześkowiak, A Komasa, A Przybył
Study on the Effects of Flame Retardant in Dancheong for Korea Wooden Cultural Heritage
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40692
This study identifies the effect of the agent depending on environment change and conducted basic study to prepare criteria for stable application. Dancheong sample, which is similar to wooden cultural heritage, was manufactured to study the effect of the agent on dancheong. Regular observation on the samples located in inland and shoreline area in the country detected visible phenomena. Whitening...
Hwa Soo Lee, So Jung Lee, Gyu Seong Han, Yong Jae Chung
A Green and Novel Technology for Recovering Copper and Wood from Treated Waste - Part I
2015 - IRG/WP 15-50309
Preservative treatment of wood extends its service life. The US consumes about 70 million pounds of copper and produces about 7 billion board feet of treated wood annually. Burning and reusing CCA and copper treated wood wastes are disallowed by US EPA due to health and environmental concerns. Millions of pounds of copper and wood are disposed by landfill annually. The objective of this study was...
Selection of heat flux value for wood fire retardants testing using MLC
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40846
One of more crucial elements of investigating treated wood combustion properties with the use of a cone calorimeter is a proper selection of heat flux (HF). The HF level is directly reflected in time to ignition and a thermal degradation degree. The ignition of raw wood or of wood ineffectively protected against fire occurs at a low HF level, i.e. 10-20 kW/m2. By contrast, the ignition of wood whi...
B Mazela, W Perdoch, W Grześkowiak, A Batista