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Report of an investigation of damage by wood ants in buildings in Sweden
1976 - IRG/WP 148
Wood ants in buildings occur everywhere in Sweden, particularly in maritime districts and in vicinity of larger lakes. The damage caused by Camponotus herculeanus does not differ from that caused by Camponotus ligniperda. The former occurs in all Sweden, the latter only in southern Sweden. The damage is to be found almost exclusively in dwelling houses (week-end cabins and "all-the-year round" houses) in or close to forests.·Buildings of all ages are liable to wood ants attacks. All wooden part of houses, particularly the walls, can be infested. Sound timber is much more desirable to the insects than wood that is infected with wood-rotting fungi. The construction of the building can sometimes affect the frequency of the damage. This is the case particularly with cabins which lack basements. The decisive part in wood ant migrations from forest to buildings is the distance from the edge of the wood: the shorter this distance the greater the danger of invasion.
V Butovitsch

Untersuchungen über das Vorkommen und den Schaden der Rossameisen (Camponotus herculeanus und Camponotus ligniperda) in Gebäuden in Schweden
1976 - IRG/WP 147
Die wichtigsten Ergebnisse der vorliegenden Untersuchung der von Rossameisen befallenen Häuser in Schweden können wie folgt zusammengefasst werden. Rossameisenschaden kommt in ganz Schweden vor, jedoch hauptsächlich in Küstengebieten und in der Nähe von grossen Seen. Beide Rossameisenarten schaden in gleicher Weise. Camponotus herculeanus ist im ganzen Lande zu finden, Camponotus ligniperda dagegen nur im südlichen Teil von Schweden (s. Karte). Der Schaden tritt fast ausschliesslich in Wohnhäusern (Ferienhäuser und ständige Wohnhäuser) auf, die innerhalb oder in der Nähe der Waldbestände gelegen sind (Tab.3-5). Häuser aller Altersklassen werden befallen. Der Schaden kommt in allen Holzteilen der Häuser vor, ist aber in den Wänden am grössten (Tab.6-7). Gesundes Holz wird in weit grösserem Umfang als pilzkranke Holzteile angegriffen (Tab.8). Die Bauart hat in gewissen Fällen Einfluss auf die Befallsfrequenz, speziell wenn es sich um Häuser ohne Fundament handelt (Tab. 9). Am wichtigsten fiir die Ausbreitung des Schadens ist der Abstand vom Waldrand: je näher dieser, umso grösser die Infektionsgefahr.
V Butovitsch

An investigation concerning Camponotus spp. distribution and damage in buildings in Sweden
1985 - IRG/WP 1248
This is a report of an investigation by a Swedish insurance company on the occurrences of damage by Carpenter ants during 1974 to 1981. The distribution of damage in walls, roofs and floors of both permanent homes and summer-houses has been assessed. It is concluded that the increased frequency of attack is becoming economically serious.
V Butovitsch, K-J Hedqvist, C Tornberg

Yeasts associated with the infrabuccal pocket and colonies of the carpenter ant Camponotus vicinus
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10335
Yeast associations in three colonies of Camponotus vicinus were examined in two different areas of western Oregon. We sampled the exo-cuticle, infrabuccal pocket contents of worker ants, interior galleries of each colony and detritus and soil in the area adjacent to the nest. Samples were plated on yeast-extract-malt-extract agar augmented with 1M hydrochloric acid and incubated at 25°C. Yeasts were identified on the basis of morphological characteristics and physiological attributes using the BIOLOG microbial identification system. Yeast populations from carpenter ant nest material and material surrounding the nest differed from those obtained from the infrabuccal pocket. Yeasts were isolated from infrabuccal pockets, colony galleries, and the surrounding soil. Debaryomyces polymorphus was isolated from both colony material and the infrabuccal pocket. This species has also been isolated from other ant species, but its role in colony nutrition is unknown. Scanning electron microscope examination indicated that the infrabuccal pocket contained numerous yeast-like cells. Further characterization of the isolates is underway.
M E Mankowski, J J Morrell

Effect of substrate type and moisture requirements in relation to colony initiation in two carpenter ant species
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10320
Conditions necessary for optimal colony initiation or the rate of initial colony expansion by early brood in the carpenter ant species Camponotus modoc and C. vicinus on various substrates conditioned to different moisture contents were studied. Camponotus modoc and Camponotus vicinus queens were placed in Douglas-fir, western red cedar and Styrofoam® blocks conditioned in sealed chambers at 70% or 100% relative humidity. Chambers were periodically monitored for changes in substrate weight, numbers of eggs, larvae, pupae, and worker ants produced. Brood counts produced after thirteen weeks were used to assess the effects of substrate and moisture content on colony initiation. Queens of C. vicinus in Douglas-fir and Styrofoam® produced worker numbers that did not differ significantly with moisture content. However, the number of colonies initiated for C. modoc did significantly differ with moisture content. The results indicate that colony initiation in C. vicinus is less sensitive to moisture content then C. modoc for Douglas-fir and Styrofoam®. No differences were found between moisture contents for ant queens in western red cedar, due to a lack of colony initiation. These results suggest that cedar was detrimental to the development of early brood in both ant species.
M E Mankowski, J J Morrell

Potential for controlling carpenter ants in utility poles with borates
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10623
Carpenter ants (genus Camponotus) are important scavengers and predators in the ecosystems in which they occur. Because they excavate and tunnel into wood, carpenter ants are considered structural pests in many parts of North America where they overlap with human activity. The excavation of extensive galleries in wood by carpenter ants can seriously compromise the physical properties of wood in service. Wood utility poles are extensively used in North America and are often employed in areas where carpenter ants occur. In western North America several species of carpenter ant my cause damage to utility poles including Camponotus modoc Wheeler and Camponotus vicinus Mayr. A recent survey of two western Canadian utilities showed that although ant incidence can be low, the cost of pole replacement caused by ant damage is expensive if the ants are not controlled. Although many utilities currently use highly toxic chemicals to control ants, others are switching to less toxic borates as either sprays or rods to control carpenter ants. This paper discusses carpenter ant biology and behavior, a survey of two Canadian utilities and the effects of ants on utility poles, and control methods used including borate spray and rod treatments.
M Mankowski